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Farm raised salmon

Kannimuthu Dhamotharan, Niccolò Vendramin, Turhan Markussen, Øystein Wessel, Argelia Cuenca, Ingvild B Nyman, Anne Berit Olsen, Torstein Tengs, Maria Krudtaa Dahle, Espen Rimstad
Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV-1) causes heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in farmed Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ). Recently, a novel PRV (formerly PRV-Om, here called PRV-3), was found in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) with HSMI-like disease. PRV is considered to be an emerging pathogen in farmed salmonids. In this study, molecular and antigenic characterization of PRV-3 was performed. Erythrocytes are the main target cells for PRV, and blood samples that were collected from experimentally challenged fish were used as source of virus...
April 2, 2018: Viruses
Omid Nekouei, Raphael Vanderstichel, Krishna Thakur, Gabriel Arriagada, Thitiwan Patanasatienkul, Patrick Whittaker, Barry Milligan, Lance Stewardson, Crawford W Revie
Growth in salmon aquaculture over the past two decades has raised concerns regarding the potential impacts of the industry on neighboring ecosystems and wild fish productivity. Despite limited evidence, sea lice have been identified as a major cause for the decline in some wild Pacific salmon populations on the west coast of Canada. We used sea lice count and management data from farmed and wild salmon, collected over 10 years (2007-2016) in the Muchalat Inlet region of Canada, to evaluate the association between sea lice recorded on salmon farms with the infestation levels on wild out-migrating Chum salmon...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Skeletal deformities in farmed fish are a recurrent problem. External malformations are easily recognized, but there is little information on how external malformations relate to malformations of the axial skeleton: the external phenotype-skeleton link. Here, this link is studied in post-hatch to first-feed life stages of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) raised at 4, 8 and 12°C. Specimens were whole-mount-stained for cartilage and bone, and analysed by histology. In all temperature groups, externally normal specimens can have internal malformations, predominantly fused vertebral centra...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
Pål A Olsvik, Bjørn T Lunestad, Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt, Ole B Samuelsen
Concerns have been raised over the environmental impacts of antiparasitic drugs used to delouse farmed salmon. Released into the marine environment, some of these drugs can have negative impact on non-targeted crustaceans in the vicinity of farming facilities. In this study, we examined the molecular effect of the insecticide teflubenzuron on a shrimp species inhabiting the littoral zone, the rockpool shrimp (Palaemon elegans). Rockpool shrimp was exposed for 98days to a dose representing 2% of a regular teflubenzuron medication applied to Atlantic salmon...
October 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
A De Clercq, M R Perrott, P S Davie, M A Preece, B Wybourne, N Ruff, A Huysseune, P E Witten
Teleost vertebral centra are often similar in size and shape, but vertebral-associated elements, i.e. neural arches, haemal arches and ribs, show regional differences. Here we examine how the presence, absence and specific anatomical and histological characters of vertebral centra-associated elements can be used to define vertebral column regions in juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). To investigate if the presence of regions within the vertebral column is independent of temperature, animals raised at 8 and 12 °C were studied at 1400 and 1530 degreedays, in the freshwater phase of the life cycle...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
Morteza Haghiri
Since the food incidence of polychlorinated biphenyls in farm-raised Atlantic salmon, its market demand has drastically changed as a result of consumers mistrust in both the quality and safety of the product. Policymakers have been trying to find ways to ensure consumers that farm-raised Atlantic salmon is safe. One of the suggested policies is the implementation of integrated traceability methods and quality control systems. This article examines consumer choice between food safety and food quality to purchase certified farm-raised Atlantic salmon, defined as a product that has passed through various stages of traceability systems in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada...
March 25, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Victor Schmidt, Linda Amaral-Zettler, John Davidson, Steven Summerfelt, Christopher Good
UNLABELLED: Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
T Reimer, T Dempster, F Warren-Myers, A J Jensen, S E Swearer
The rapid growth of aquaculture raises questions about the welfare status of mass-produced species. Sagittal otoliths are primary hearing structures in the inner ear of all teleost (bony) fishes and are normally composed of aragonite, though abnormal vaterite replacement is sometimes seen in the wild. We provide the first widespread evaluation of the prevalence of vaterite in otoliths, showing that farmed fish have levels of vaterite replacement over 10 times higher than wild fish, regardless of species. We confirm this observation with extensive sampling of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway, the world's largest producer, and verify that vateritic otoliths are common in farmed salmon worldwide...
April 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Beatrix Bicskei, John B Taggart, Kevin A Glover, James E Bron
BACKGROUND: Due to selective breeding, domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon are genetically diverged, which raises concerns about farmed escapees having the potential to alter the genetic composition of wild populations and thereby disrupting local adaptation. Documenting transcriptional differences between wild and domesticated stocks under controlled conditions is one way to explore the consequences of domestication and selection. We compared the transcriptomes of wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon embryos, by using a custom 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify perturbed gene pathways between the two stocks, and to document the inheritance patterns of differentially-expressed genes by examining gene expression in their reciprocal hybrids...
2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Fernando Norambuena, Sofia Morais, James A Emery, Giovanni M Turchini
Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways...
2015: PloS One
Håvard Bjørgen, Øystein Wessel, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Tom Hansen, Harald Sveier, Håkon Rydland Sæbø, Katrine Bones Enger, Eirik Monsen, Agnar Kvellestad, Espen Rimstad, Erling Olaf Koppang
Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR...
2015: Veterinary Research
Pål A Olsvik, Ole B Samuelsen, Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt, Bjørn T Lunestad
Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Beatrix Bicskei, James E Bron, Kevin A Glover, John B Taggart
BACKGROUND: Atlantic salmon have been subject to domestication for approximately ten generations, beginning in the early 1970s. This process of artificial selection will have created various genetic differences between wild and farmed stocks. Each year, hundreds of thousands of farmed fish escape into the wild. These escapees may interbreed with wild conspecifics raising concerns for both the fish-farming industry and fisheries managers. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between domesticated and wild salmon is essential to the continued sustainability of the aquaculture industry and to the maintenance of healthy wild stocks...
2014: BMC Genomics
Sarah E Yeates, Sigurd Einum, Ian A Fleming, William V Holt, Matthew Jg Gage
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males...
April 2014: Evolutionary Applications
Peter D Nichols, Brett Glencross, James R Petrie, Surinder P Singh
Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils...
2014: Nutrients
Pål A Olsvik, Ole B Samuelsen, Ane Erdal, Bjarte Holmelid, Bjørn T Lunestad
Increasing use of the chitin synthesis inhibitor diflubenzuron against the ectoparasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in marine aquaculture has raised concerns over its environmental impacts. This study evaluated how diflubenzuron affects Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, a fish species often found near Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms, focusing on uptake kinetics and hepatic transcriptional responses. Two experiments were conducted, one time-series trial in which the fish were given a daily dose (3 mg kg-1 fish) of diflubenzuron for 14 d followed by a 3 wk depuration period, and one dose-response trial with increasing concentrations (3, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 fish)...
July 9, 2013: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mohamed Faisal, Carolyn Schulz, Alaa Eissa, Travis Brenden, Andrew Winters, Gary Whelan, Martha Wolgamood, Edward Eisch, Jan VanAmberg
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has caused mortalities and chronic infections in wild and farm-raised salmonids throughout the world. In the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, BKD was associated with several large-scale mortality events of Oncorhynchus spp. throughout the 1980s and 1990s. In response to these mortality events, the state of Michigan implemented several enhanced biosecurity measures to limit the occurrence of BKD in state-operated hatcheries and gamete-collection weirs. The objectives of this study were to assess if infection levels (prevalence and intensity) of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, have changed in broodstock and pre-stocking fingerlings of three feral Oncorhynchus spp...
December 1, 2012: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Oystein Wessel Finstad, Knut Falk, Marie Løvoll, Oystein Evensen, Espen Rimstad
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the world. However, the increased production has been accompanied by the emergence of infectious diseases. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is one example of an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Since the first recognition as a disease entity in 1999 it has become a widespread and economically important disease in Norway. The disease was recently found to be associated with infection with a novel reovirus, piscine reovirus (PRV)...
2012: Veterinary Research
Lars Holten-Andersen, Inger Dalsgaard, Kurt Buchmann
BACKGROUND: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. STUDY DESIGN: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A...
2012: PloS One
Jian Zhang, Chunrong Wang, Lixiang Li, Qingqing Man, Liping Meng, Pengkun Song, Livar Frøyland, Zhen-Yu Du
Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35-70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week...
October 28, 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
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