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Farm raised salmon

Victor Schmidt, Linda Amaral-Zettler, John Davidson, Steven Summerfelt, Christopher Good
UNLABELLED: Reliance on fishmeal as a primary protein source is among the chief economic and environmental concerns in aquaculture today. Fishmeal-based feeds often require harvest from wild fish stocks, placing pressure on natural ecosystems and causing price instability. Alternative diet formulations without the use of fishmeal provide a potential solution to this challenge. Although the impact of alternative diets on fish performance, intestinal inflammation, palatability, and gut microbiota has been a topic of recent interest, less is known about how alternative feeds impact the aquaculture environment as a whole...
August 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
T Reimer, T Dempster, F Warren-Myers, A J Jensen, S E Swearer
The rapid growth of aquaculture raises questions about the welfare status of mass-produced species. Sagittal otoliths are primary hearing structures in the inner ear of all teleost (bony) fishes and are normally composed of aragonite, though abnormal vaterite replacement is sometimes seen in the wild. We provide the first widespread evaluation of the prevalence of vaterite in otoliths, showing that farmed fish have levels of vaterite replacement over 10 times higher than wild fish, regardless of species. We confirm this observation with extensive sampling of wild and farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway, the world's largest producer, and verify that vateritic otoliths are common in farmed salmon worldwide...
2016: Scientific Reports
Beatrix Bicskei, John B Taggart, Kevin A Glover, James E Bron
BACKGROUND: Due to selective breeding, domesticated and wild Atlantic salmon are genetically diverged, which raises concerns about farmed escapees having the potential to alter the genetic composition of wild populations and thereby disrupting local adaptation. Documenting transcriptional differences between wild and domesticated stocks under controlled conditions is one way to explore the consequences of domestication and selection. We compared the transcriptomes of wild and domesticated Atlantic salmon embryos, by using a custom 44k oligonucleotide microarray to identify perturbed gene pathways between the two stocks, and to document the inheritance patterns of differentially-expressed genes by examining gene expression in their reciprocal hybrids...
2016: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Fernando Norambuena, Sofia Morais, James A Emery, Giovanni M Turchini
Salmons raised in aquaculture farms around the world are increasingly subjected to sub-optimal environmental conditions, such as high water temperatures during summer seasons. Aerobic scope increases and lipid metabolism changes are known plasticity responses of fish for a better acclimation to high water temperature. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of high water temperature on the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in juvenile Atlantic salmon fed different dietary ARA/EPA ratios (arachidonic acid, 20:4n-6/ eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5n-3), with particular focus on apparent in vivo enzyme activities and gene expression of lipid metabolism pathways...
2015: PloS One
Håvard Bjørgen, Øystein Wessel, Per Gunnar Fjelldal, Tom Hansen, Harald Sveier, Håkon Rydland Sæbø, Katrine Bones Enger, Eirik Monsen, Agnar Kvellestad, Espen Rimstad, Erling Olaf Koppang
Melanised focal changes (black spots) are common findings in the white skeletal muscle of seawater-farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fillets with melanised focal changes are considered as lower quality and cause large economic losses. It has been suggested that red focal changes (red spots) precede the melanised focal changes. In the present work, we examined different populations of captive and wild salmon for the occurrence of both types of changes, which were investigated for the presence of different viruses by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR...
2015: Veterinary Research
Pål A Olsvik, Ole B Samuelsen, Ann-Lisbeth Agnalt, Bjørn T Lunestad
Increasing use of pharmaceutical drugs to delouse farmed salmon raises environmental concerns. This study describes an experiment carried out to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the antiparasitic drug teflubenzuron on a non-target species, the European lobster. Juvenile lobsters (10.3±0.9 mm carapace length) were fed two environmentally relevant doses of teflubenzuron, corresponding to 5 and 20% of a standard salmon medication (10 mg/kg day), termed low and high dose in this study. After 114 days of dietary exposure, whole-animal accumulation of teflubenzuron was determined...
October 2015: Aquatic Toxicology
Beatrix Bicskei, James E Bron, Kevin A Glover, John B Taggart
BACKGROUND: Atlantic salmon have been subject to domestication for approximately ten generations, beginning in the early 1970s. This process of artificial selection will have created various genetic differences between wild and farmed stocks. Each year, hundreds of thousands of farmed fish escape into the wild. These escapees may interbreed with wild conspecifics raising concerns for both the fish-farming industry and fisheries managers. Thus, a better understanding of the interactions between domesticated and wild salmon is essential to the continued sustainability of the aquaculture industry and to the maintenance of healthy wild stocks...
2014: BMC Genomics
Sarah E Yeates, Sigurd Einum, Ian A Fleming, William V Holt, Matthew Jg Gage
Adaptations at the gamete level (a) evolve quickly, (b) appear sensitive to inbreeding and outbreeding and (c) have important influences on potential to reproduce. We apply this understanding to problems posed by escaped farm salmon and measure their potential to reproduce in the wild. Farm Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are a threat to biodiversity, because they escape in large numbers and can introgress, dilute or disrupt locally adapted wild gene pools. Experiments at the whole fish level have found farm reproductive potential to be significant, but inferior compared to wild adults, especially for males...
April 2014: Evolutionary Applications
Peter D Nichols, Brett Glencross, James R Petrie, Surinder P Singh
Seafood consumption enhances intake of omega-3 long-chain (≥C₂₀) polyunsaturated fatty acids (termed LC omega-3 oils). Humans biosynthesize only small amounts of LC-omega-3, so they are considered semi-essential nutrients in our diet. Concern has been raised that farmed fish now contain lower LC omega-3 content than wild-harvested seafood due to the use of oil blending in diets fed to farmed fish. However, we observed that two major Australian farmed finfish species, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and barramundi (Lates calcifer), have higher oil and LC omega-3 content than the same or other species from the wild, and remain an excellent means to achieve substantial intake of LC omega-3 oils...
2014: Nutrients
Pål A Olsvik, Ole B Samuelsen, Ane Erdal, Bjarte Holmelid, Bjørn T Lunestad
Increasing use of the chitin synthesis inhibitor diflubenzuron against the ectoparasitic salmon louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in marine aquaculture has raised concerns over its environmental impacts. This study evaluated how diflubenzuron affects Atlantic cod Gadus morhua, a fish species often found near Atlantic salmon Salmo salar farms, focusing on uptake kinetics and hepatic transcriptional responses. Two experiments were conducted, one time-series trial in which the fish were given a daily dose (3 mg kg-1 fish) of diflubenzuron for 14 d followed by a 3 wk depuration period, and one dose-response trial with increasing concentrations (3, 10 and 50 mg kg-1 fish)...
July 9, 2013: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Mohamed Faisal, Carolyn Schulz, Alaa Eissa, Travis Brenden, Andrew Winters, Gary Whelan, Martha Wolgamood, Edward Eisch, Jan VanAmberg
Bacterial kidney disease (BKD) has caused mortalities and chronic infections in wild and farm-raised salmonids throughout the world. In the Laurentian Great Lakes of North America, BKD was associated with several large-scale mortality events of Oncorhynchus spp. throughout the 1980s and 1990s. In response to these mortality events, the state of Michigan implemented several enhanced biosecurity measures to limit the occurrence of BKD in state-operated hatcheries and gamete-collection weirs. The objectives of this study were to assess if infection levels (prevalence and intensity) of Renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of BKD, have changed in broodstock and pre-stocking fingerlings of three feral Oncorhynchus spp...
December 1, 2012: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Oystein Wessel Finstad, Knut Falk, Marie Løvoll, Oystein Evensen, Espen Rimstad
Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector in the world. However, the increased production has been accompanied by the emergence of infectious diseases. Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is one example of an emerging disease in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L). Since the first recognition as a disease entity in 1999 it has become a widespread and economically important disease in Norway. The disease was recently found to be associated with infection with a novel reovirus, piscine reovirus (PRV)...
2012: Veterinary Research
Lars Holten-Andersen, Inger Dalsgaard, Kurt Buchmann
BACKGROUND: Furunculosis, caused by Aeromonas salmonicida, continues to be a major health problem for the growing salmonid aquaculture. Despite effective vaccination programs regular outbreaks occur at the fish farms calling for repeated antibiotic treatment. We hypothesized that a difference in natural susceptibility to this disease might exist between Baltic salmon and the widely used rainbow trout. STUDY DESIGN: A cohabitation challenge model was applied to investigate the relative susceptibility to infection with A...
2012: PloS One
Jian Zhang, Chunrong Wang, Lixiang Li, Qingqing Man, Liping Meng, Pengkun Song, Livar Frøyland, Zhen-Yu Du
Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35-70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week...
October 28, 2012: British Journal of Nutrition
E M Hevrøy, R Waagbø, B E Torstensen, H Takle, I Stubhaug, S M Jørgensen, T Torgersen, L Tvenning, S Susort, O Breck, T Hansen
Due to global and local climate changes, farmed salmon may experience periods of elevated sea temperatures. An experiment was conducted to examine endocrine and dietary effects of high sea temperatures in adult (2.0 kg) and sexually immature Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Groups of salmon were exposed to 19 °C while others were kept as controls at 14 °C. The experiment lasted for 56 days, and fish were given iso-nitrogenous diets with either a normal (335 g kg(-1); L34) or a lower lipid level (298 g kg(-1); L30)...
January 1, 2012: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Robert G Brinson, Andrea L Szakal, John P Marino
Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) has emerged as a virus of great concern to the aquaculture industry since it can lead to highly contagious and lethal infections in farm-raised salmon populations. While little is known about the transcription/replication cycle of ISAV, initial evidence suggests that it follows molecular mechanisms similar to those found in other orthomyxoviruses, which include the highly pathogenic influenza A (inf A) virus. During the life cycle of orthomyxoviruses, a panhandle structure is formed by the pairing of the conserved 5' and 3' ends of each genomic RNA...
December 2011: Journal of Virology
M Werkman, D M Green, L A Munro, A G Murray, J F Turnbull
Movement of live animals is a key contributor to disease spread. Farmed Atlantic salmon Salmo salar, rainbow trout Onchorynchus mykiss and brown/sea trout Salmo trutta are initially raised in freshwater (FW) farms; all the salmon and some of the trout are subsequently moved to seawater (SW) farms. Frequently, fish are moved between farms during their FW stage and sometimes during their SW stage. Seasonality and differences in contact patterns across production phases have been shown to influence the course of an epidemic in livestock; however, these parameters have not been included in previous network models studying disease transmission in salmonids...
August 29, 2011: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Susan K Raatz, Mikhail Y Golovko, Stephen A Brose, Thad A Rosenberger, Gary S Burr, William R Wolters, Matthew J Picklo
The consumption of seafood enriched in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease. Several n-3 oxidation products from eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) have known protective effects in the vasculature. It is not known whether the consumption of cooked seafood enriched in n-3 PUFA causes appreciable consumption of lipid oxidation products. We tested the hypothesis that baking Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) increases the level of n-3 and n-6 PUFA oxidation products over raw salmon...
October 26, 2011: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Fei Wang, Lin Jiang, Qianru Yang, Feifei Han, Siyi Chen, Shuaihua Pu, Amanda Vance, Beilei Ge
Seafood is a leading commodity implicated in foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States. Seafood importation rose dramatically in the past 3 decades and now contributes to more than 80% of the total U.S. seafood supply. However, limited data are available on the microbiological safety of imported seafood. In this study, we obtained a total of 171 salmon, shrimp, and tilapia samples imported from 12 countries in three retail stores in Baton Rouge, LA. The total microbial population and the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibilities of six major foodborne-pathogen genera (Campylobacter, Escherichia coli, Listeria, Salmonella, Shigella, and Vibrio) were determined...
September 2011: Journal of Food Protection
David C Love, Sarah Rodman, Roni A Neff, Keeve E Nachman
Veterinary drugs are used to treat or prevent a wide array of production-related diseases in aquaculture. Residues of these drugs in seafood products may pose risks to consumers, prompting governments to set drug residue tolerance levels and inspect seafood for violations of these standards. This study characterizes veterinary drug inspection policies and violations among four inspecting bodies (European Union (E.U.), United States (U.S.), Canada, and Japan), using government-collected veterinary drug violation data from 2000 to 2009...
September 1, 2011: Environmental Science & Technology
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