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K C Zhang, L Chen
Different proficiency in minimally invasive surgery has great impact on efficacy of minimally invasive surgery. Therefore, great importance should be attached to the standardization of minimally invasive surgery. Accurate preoperative staging plays a prerequisite role which emphasizes multiple diagnostic strategies. Precise intraoperative procedure plays an essential role which should be performed according to the evidence-based expert consensus and guideline. Standardized postoperative management plays a crucial role which includes ex vivo lymph node dissection, registry of complication and follow-up and establishment of medical database...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
Daisuke Shimaoka, Kenneth D Harris, Matteo Carandini
Changes in arousal modulate the activity of mouse sensory cortex, but studies in different mice and different sensory areas disagree on whether this modulation enhances or suppresses activity. We measured this modulation simultaneously in multiple cortical areas by imaging mice expressing voltage-sensitive fluorescent proteins (VSFP). VSFP imaging estimates local membrane potential across large portions of cortex. We used temporal filters to predict local potential from running speed or from pupil dilation, two measures of arousal...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Manami Yamashita, Shin-Ya Kawaguchi, Tetsuya Hori, Tomoyuki Takahashi
Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Peter Brukner, Thomas J Gara, Lauren V Fortington
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a historical review of direct trauma-related deaths in Australian cricket, both organised and informal. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted an extensive search of digitised print media (three databases) and traditional scientific literature (two databases) for on-field cricket incidents in Australia that resulted in deaths during the period 1858-2016. Main outcomes and measures: Numbers of cricket-related deaths by decade; type of cricket match (organised match or training, or informal play); site of fatal injury (eg, head, chest); activity at the time of the incident (eg, batting, fielding, watching)...
March 26, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
Paulo Gentil, Vítor A Marques, Josaphat P P Neto, Anna C G Santos, James Steele, James P Fisher, Antonio Paoli, Martim Bottaro
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in movement velocity during resistance training with different loads while the trainees are attempting to move the load at a pre-determined repetition duration. Twenty-one resistance-trained men (age: 25.7 ± 5 years; height: 177.0 ± 7.2 cm; mass: 85.4 ± 13.56 kg) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants performed two tests sessions. The first to determine 1 repetition maximum (1RM) load, and the second to evaluate velocity loss during a set to failure performed at 75% and 50% of 1RM using a 2 second concentric and 2 second eccentric repetition duration, controlled by a mobile app metronome...
March 21, 2018: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Geoffrey H Tison, José M Sanchez, Brandon Ballinger, Avesh Singh, Jeffrey E Olgin, Mark J Pletcher, Eric Vittinghoff, Emily S Lee, Shannon M Fan, Rachel A Gladstone, Carlos Mikell, Nimit Sohoni, Johnson Hsieh, Gregory M Marcus
Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 34 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of stroke. A readily accessible means to continuously monitor for AF could prevent large numbers of strokes and death. Objective: To develop and validate a deep neural network to detect AF using smartwatch data. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multinational cardiovascular remote cohort study coordinated at the University of California, San Francisco, smartwatches were used to obtain heart rate and step count data for algorithm development...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Guillaume Huguet, Catherine Schramm, Elise Douard, Lai Jiang, Aurélie Labbe, Frédérique Tihy, Géraldine Mathonnet, Sonia Nizard, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Alexandre Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Eva Loth, Roberto Toro, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod, Zdenka Pausova, Celia Greenwood, Tomas Paus, Thomas Bourgeron, Sébastien Jacquemont
Importance;: Copy number variants (CNVs) classified as pathogenic are identified in 10% to 15% of patients referred for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, their effect sizes on cognitive traits measured as a continuum remain mostly unknown because most of them are too rare to be studied individually using association studies. Objective: To measure and estimate the effect sizes of recurrent and nonrecurrent CNVs on IQ. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study identified all CNVs that were 50 kilobases (kb) or larger in 2 general population cohorts (the IMAGEN project and the Saguenay Youth Study) with measures of IQ...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Erika L Rangel, Douglas S Smink, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Gifty Kwakye, Marguerite Changala, Adil H Haider, Gerard M Doherty
Importance: Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. Objective: To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. Design, Setting, and Participants: A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Manoel Vieira de Miranda Neto, Talita Rewa, Valéria Marli Leonello, Maria Amélia de Campos Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: Reflect on the role of advanced practice nursing (APN) in the context of Brazilian primary health care. METHOD: analysis of the main scientific productions and of the discussion on the implementation of APN. RESULTS: there are favorable areas for the work of APN in primary health care, especially in the family health strategy. Professional master's degree and nurse residency programs constitute powerful training spaces. As a challenge, standardized definition of the roles of advanced practice nurses and of minimum training for work are necessary...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Cibele Monteiro Macedo, Paula Orchiucci Miura, Dora Mariela Salcedo Barrientos, Gisele Almeida Lopes, Emiko Yoshikawa Egry
OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze in the scientific literature coping strategies for domestic violence against pregnant female adolescents. METHOD: This is an integrative literature review, conducted from July to August 2017 on LILACS, SciELO and PubMed, using the descriptors and the MeSH terms: confrontation, violence, adolescent, pregnant women, prenatal care. RESULT: The sample comprised 9 articles that were organized and characterized according to year, country of study and coping strategy used...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Jéssica Rauane Teixeira Martins, Bruna Gabrielly Pereira Alexandre, Valéria Conceição de Oliveira, Selma Maria da Fonseca Viegas
OBJECTIVE: To understand, from the perspective of the professional, the Permanent Education (PE) in the vaccination room in its real context. METHOD: Multiple holistic-qualitative case studies, based on Maffesoli's Interpretive Sociology with 56 participants from four microregions of the Western Extended Region of Minas Gerais State. RESULTS: They present PE as infrequent and insufficient. They denote that the practical-theoretical experience with vaccine contributes to the work; the search for knowledge, starting from the professional itself; and the professional training fails to perform in the vaccination room...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Willamis José Araújo, Evelyn Maria Braga Quirino, Clarissa Mourão Pinho, Maria Sandra Andrade
OBJECTIVE: Learn about the perception of health professionals who perform rapid tests in Health Centers (HCs). METHOD: This is a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in nine HCs in Recife. Data were collected through individual interviews and evaluated using Bardin's content analysis, in its thematic category. RESULTS: Challenges were observed in rapid tests related to the supply of products, physical structure, training for pre- and post-test counseling, and the need for improvements in permanent education actions...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
João Manuel Graveto, Cristina Santos, Paulo Santos Costa, Elisabete Fernandes, Susana Alarico, Nádia Osório, Helena Albano, Vânia Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the determining factors in hand hygiene management among nurses and identify associated collective health challenges. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was applied in four internal medicine units of a hospital of reference in Portugal. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 50 nurses aged 26 to 55 years (mean age of 34.88 years); 80% were women, 58% had a Bachelor's degree, and had 5-30 years of nursing practice (X̄ =11...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
B Steelant, V Hox, L Van Gerven, E Dilissen, E Dekimpe, A Kasran, S Aertgeerts, V Van Belle, K Peers, L J Dupont, P W Hellings, D M Bullens, S F Seys
BACKGROUND: A high burden of lower airway symptoms is found in elite swimmers. To what extent elite swimmers suffer from upper airway symptoms and how these associate with nasal inflammation is less clear. We here aimed to evaluate upper airway symptoms and nasal inflammation in elite athletes. METHODOLOGY: Elite swimmers, indoor athletes and age-matched controls were recruited. Upper airway symptoms were assessed by sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT)-22 questionnaire...
March 21, 2018: Rhinology
Paula Finatto, Edson Soares Da Silva, Alexandre B Okamura, Bruna P Almada, Henrique B Oliveira, Leonardo A Peyré-Tartaruga
PURPOSE: Strength training improves distance running economy and performance. This finding is based predominantly on maximal and explosive strength programmes applied to locomotor muscles, particularly on the lower limbs. It is not certain whether a minimization of metabolic cost (Cmet) and an improvement in running performance is feasible with strength training of the postural and trunk muscles. METHODS: Using kinematic, neuromuscular and metabolic measurements of running at two different speeds before and after a 12-week Pilates training programme, we tested the hypothesis that core training might improve the running Cmet and performance of trained runners...
2018: PloS One
Jian Zeng, Dorian Garrick, Jack Dekkers, Rohan Fernando
Genomic prediction exploits single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across the whole genome for predicting genetic merit of selection candidates. In most models for genomic prediction, e.g. BayesA, B, C, R and GBLUP, independence of SNP effects is assumed. However, SNP effects are expected to be locally dependent given the presence of a nearby QTL because SNPs surrounding the QTL do not segregate independently. A consequence of ignoring this dependence is that SNPs with small effects may be overly shrunk, e...
2018: PloS One
Alan Taitz, M Florencia Assaneo, Natalia Elisei, Mónica Trípodi, Laurent Cohen, Jacobo D Sitt, Marcos A Trevisan
Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract...
2018: PloS One
Meagen M Rosenthal, Erin R Holmes
The integration of advanced pharmacy services into community pharmacy practice is not complete. According to implementation research understanding professional culture, as a part of context, may provide insights for accelerating this process. There are three objectives in this study. The first objective of this study was to validate an adapted version of an organizational culture measure in a sample of United States' (US) community pharmacists. The second objective was to examine potential relationships between the cultural factors identified using the validated instrument and a number of socialization and education variables...
March 21, 2018: Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland)
Sreenivasan Ramaswami, Joachim Behrendt, Ralf Otterpohl
Reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) are among the state-of-the-art technologies for treating landfill leachates. Due to the complexity and variance in the composition of leachates, numerous combinations of multiple technologies are used for their treatment. One process chain for the treatment of raw leachate is RO followed by further concentration of RO-retentate using NF (RO-NF scheme). The aptness of this process train used by some landfill sites around the world (usually with the aim of volume reduction so as to re-inject the concentrate into the landfill) is questionable...
March 21, 2018: Membranes
Alex Antonio Florindo, Ligia Vizeu Barrozo, Gavin Turrell, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza Barbosa, William Cabral-Miranda, Chester Luiz Galvão Cesar, Moisés Goldbaum
Cities that support cycling for transportation reap many public health benefits. However, the prevalence of this mode of transportation is low in Latin American countries and the association with facilities such as bike paths and train/subway stations have not been clarified. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the relationship between bike paths, train/subway stations and cycling for transportation in adults from the city of Sao Paulo. We used data from the Sao Paulo Health Survey ( n = 3145). Cycling for transportation was evaluated by a questionnaire and bike paths and train/subway stations were geocoded using the geographic coordinates of the adults' residential addresses in 1500-m buffers...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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