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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944520/human-activities-as-a-driver-of-spatial-variation-in-the-trophic-structure-of-fish-communities-on-pacific-coral-reefs
#1
Jonathan L W Ruppert, Laurent Vigliola, Michel Kulbicki, Pierre Labrosse, Marie-Josée Fortin, Mark G Meekan
Anthropogenic activities such as land-use change, pollution and fishing impact the trophic structure of coral reef fishes, which can influence ecosystem health and function. Although these impacts may be ubiquitous, they are not consistent across the tropical Pacific Ocean. Using an extensive database of fish biomass sampled using underwater visual transects on coral reefs, we modelled the impact of human activities on food webs at Pacific-wide and regional (1,000s-10,000s km) scales. We found significantly lower biomass of sharks and carnivores, where there were higher densities of human populations (hereafter referred to as human activity); however, these patterns were not spatially consistent as there were significant differences in the trophic structures of fishes among biogeographic regions...
September 25, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944408/etiology-of-childhood-pneumonia-what-we-know-and-what-we-need-to-know-based-on-5th-dr-ic-verma-excellence-oration-award
#2
Joseph L Mathew
Childhood community acquired pneumonia continues to be an important clinical problem at the individual, institutional and community levels. Determination of microbial etiology is critical to develop evidence-based management (therapeutic and prophylactic) decisions. For decades, the approach to this relied on culture of lung aspirate specimens obtained from children with radiographically confirmed pneumonia, before administering antibiotics. Such studies revealed the major bacteria associated with pneumonia, prompting the World Health Organization to develop a highly sensitive clinical definition of pneumonia and advocate empiric antibiotic therapy; in order to save lives (focusing on community settings lacking resources for diagnostic tests)...
September 25, 2017: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943875/chasing-after-non-cyanobacterial-nitrogen-fixation-in-marine-pelagic-environments
#3
Pia H Moisander, Mar Benavides, Sophie Bonnet, Ilana Berman-Frank, Angelicque E White, Lasse Riemann
Traditionally, cyanobacterial activity in oceanic photic layers was considered responsible for the marine pelagic dinitrogen (N2) fixation. Other potentially N2-fixing bacteria and archaea have also been detected in the pelagic water column, however, the activity and importance of these non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs (NCDs) remain poorly constrained. In this perspective we summarize the N2 fixation rates from recently published studies on photic and aphotic layers that have been attributed to NCD activity via parallel molecular measurements, and discuss the status, challenges, and data gaps in estimating non-cyanobacterial N2 fixation NCNF in the ocean...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943866/from-the-surface-to-the-deep-sea-bacterial-distributions-across-polymetallic-nodule-fields-in-the-clarion-clipperton-zone-of-the-pacific-ocean
#4
Markus V Lindh, Brianne M Maillot, Christine N Shulse, Andrew J Gooday, Diva J Amon, Craig R Smith, Matthew J Church
Marine bacteria regulate fluxes of matter and energy essential for pelagic and benthic organisms and may also be involved in the formation and maintenance of commercially valuable abyssal polymetallic nodules. Future mining of these nodule fields is predicted to have substantial effects on biodiversity and physicochemical conditions in mined areas. Yet, the identity and distributions of bacterial populations in deep-sea sediments and associated polymetallic nodules has received relatively little attention. We examined bacterial communities using high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments from samples collected in the water column, sediment, and polymetallic nodules in the Pacific Ocean (bottom depth ≥4,000 m) in the eastern Clarion-Clipperton Zone...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943750/promoting-student-teacher-interactions-exploring-a-peer-coaching-model-for-teachers-in-a-preschool-setting
#5
Stacy R Johnson, Kristy J Finlon, Roger Kobak, Carroll E Izard
Peer coaching provides an attractive alternative to traditional professional development for promoting classroom quality in a sustainable, cost-effective manner by creating a collaborative teaching community. This exploratory study describes the development and evaluation of the Colleague Observation And CoacHing (COACH) program, a peer coaching program designed to increase teachers' effectiveness in enhancing classroom quality in a preschool Head Start setting. The COACH program consists of a training workshop on coaching skills and student-teacher interactions, six peer coaching sessions, and three center meetings...
July 2017: Early Childhood Education Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943446/evaluation-of-genotoxicity-and-subchronic-toxicity-of-the-standardized-leaves-infusion-extract-of-copaifera-malmei-harms-in-experimental-models
#6
Eduarda Pavan, Amilcar Sabino Damazo, Larissa Maria Scalon Lemos, Bulus Adzu, Sikiru Olaitan Balogun, Karuppusamy Arunachalam, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira Martins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Copaifera malmei Harms (Fabaceae), known mainly as óleo-mirim, is a native and endemic plant found in the states of Mato Grosso and Goiás of Brazil. The plant's leaves infusion is popularly used by riverine communities of the northern Araguaia microregion, Mato Grosso, Brazil, for the treatment of gastric ulcers and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract. The gastric antiulcer activity of the standardized leaves infusion extract of Copaifera malmei (SIECm) in rodents has been reported...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943115/international-children-s-advisory-network-a-multifaceted-approach-to-patient-engagement-in-pediatric-clinical-research
#7
Meghan Gwara, Sharon Smith, Christine Woods, Elizabeth Sheeren, Hampton Woods
Pediatric youth advisory groups were created to provide insight and guidance to the clinical research community. Such efforts have become a priority and parallel the demand for patient-centered health care. While steps are being made to integrate the patient voice into research, there remains a lack of pediatric-specific engagement in the development of pharmaceuticals and in clinical research. For example, a significant number of children are still treated with medications that are not approved for use in this age group, due to a lack of clinical trials involving younger children and neonates...
September 21, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943021/leadership-for-addressing-aging-in-america-the-health-and-aging-policy-fellowship
#8
Pamela Z Cacchione, Gary Epstein-Lubow, Amanda Borer, Peter Curran, Annette DeVito Dabbs, Julia Dreissen, Brian Kaskie, Fazal Khan, Madeline Naegle, Anne Ordway, Lynn F Reinke, Gary Stein, Turner West, Katie Wright, Sharon K Inouye
The Health and Aging Policy Fellows Program funded by The John A. Hartford Foundation and Atlantic Philanthropies trains future leaders to influence healthcare policy, systems, and program development in aging. Following a rigorous residential training in Washington, DC, Fellows establish placements of up to 1 year in the executive, legislative, or judicial branch of government, at a federal agency, state or community agency or committee, or with a nongovernmental organization. The 2016-2017 Fellows' activities represent a broad scope of work, including contributions to national and local policy priorities expected to build over time far beyond the core fellowship year...
October 1, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942845/community-composition-specificity-and-potential-role-of-phosphorus-solubilizing-bacteria-attached-on-the-different-bloom-forming-cyanobacteria
#9
Liu Yang, Yuqian Liu, Xiuyun Cao, Zijun Zhou, Siyang Wang, Jian Xiao, Chunlei Song, Yiyong Zhou
The abundance, phosphorus solubilizing ability and community composition of phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) attached on two bloom-forming cyanobacteria, Microcystis and Anabeana, were investigated in Guanqiao ponds in 2014 and Lake Chaohu in 2015 and 2016. Thirty organic phosphate-mineralizing bacteria (OPB) and eighteen inorganic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (IPB) isolated from Guanqiao ponds and Lake Chaohu were identified. The community compositions of PSB attached on Microcystis and Anabeana were found to be entirely different...
December 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942772/hook-line-and-infection-a-guide-to-culturing-parasites-establishing-infections-and-assessing-immune-responses-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#10
Alexander Stewart, Joseph Jackson, Iain Barber, Christophe Eizaguirre, Rachel Paterson, Pieter van West, Chris Williams, Joanne Cable
The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a model organism with an extremely well-characterized ecology, evolutionary history, behavioural repertoire and parasitology that is coupled with published genomic data. These small temperate zone fish therefore provide an ideal experimental system to study common diseases of coldwater fish, including those of aquacultural importance. However, detailed information on the culture of stickleback parasites, the establishment and maintenance of infections and the quantification of host responses is scattered between primary and grey literature resources, some of which is not readily accessible...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942552/soil-spore-bank-communities-of-ectomycorrhizal-fungi-in-endangered-chinese-douglas-fir-forests
#11
Zhugui Wen, Liang Shi, Yangze Tang, Lizhou Hong, Jiawang Xue, Jincheng Xing, Yahua Chen, Kazuhide Nara
Chinese Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga sinensis) is an endangered Pinaceae species found in several isolated regions of China. Although soil spore banks of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi can play an important role in seedling establishment after disturbance, such as in the well-known North American relative (Pseudotsuga menziesii), we have no information about soil spore bank communities in relict forests of Chinese Douglas-fir. We conducted bioassays of 73 soil samples collected from three Chinese Douglas-fir forests, using North American Douglas-fir as bait seedlings, and identified 19 species of ECM fungi...
September 23, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942318/detection-of-terrigenous-and-marine-organic-matter-flow-into-a-eutrophic-semi-enclosed-bay-by-%C3%AE-13-c-and-%C3%AE-15-n-of-intertidal-macrobenthos-and-basal-food-sources
#12
Iman Arbi, Songlin Liu, Jingping Zhang, Yunchao Wu, Xiaoping Huang
The pathways of terrigenous and marine organic matter originating into Daya Bay intertidal habitats were investigated using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses. Spatiotemporal (sites, seasons and tidal levels) variations in isotopic ratios of basal food sources and macrobenthic consumers, and also the contribution of sources to the diet of representative species and the whole macrobenthic biomass were estimated using Isosource mixing model. Results showed the anthropogenic impacts on benthic and pelagic organic matter as well as macrobenthos, depending on the spatial and temporal scales...
September 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942276/augmenting-atrazine-and-hexachlorobenzene-degradation-under-different-soil-redox-conditions-in-a-bioelectrochemistry-system-and-an-analysis-of-the-relevant-microorganisms
#13
Hui Wang, Xian Cao, Lei Li, Zhou Fang, Xianning Li
Soil microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are a sustainable technology that degrades organic pollutants while generating electricity. However, there have been no detailed studies of the mechanisms of pollutant degradation in soil MFCs. In this study, the effects of external resistance and electrode effectiveness on atrazine and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) degradation were evaluated, the performance of soil MFCs in the degradation of these pollutants under different soil redox conditions was assessed, and the associated microorganisms in the anode were investigated...
September 20, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941642/physiological-responses-of-coastal-phytoplankton-visakhapatnam-sw-bay-of-bengal-india-to-experimental-copper-addition
#14
Haimanti Biswas, Debasmita Bandyopadhyay
Trace amount of copper (Cu) is essential for many physiological processes; however, it can be potentially toxic at elevated levels. The impact of variable Cu concentrations on a coastal phytoplankton community was investigated along a coastal transect in SW Bay of Bengal. A small increase in Cu supply enhanced the concentrations of particulate organic carbon, particulate organic nitrogen, biogenic silica, total pigment, phytoplankton cell and total bacterial count. At elevated Cu levels all these parameters were adversely affected...
September 14, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941534/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-children-a-new-paradigm
#15
REVIEW
Peter M Mourani, Marci K Sontag
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a serious complication of critical illness. Surveillance definitions have undergone revisions for more objective and consistent reporting. The 1 organism-1 disease paradigm for microbial involvement may not adequately apply to many cases of VAP, in which pathogens are introduced to a pre-existing and often complex microbial community that facilitates or hinders the potential pathogen, consequently determining whether progression to VAP occurs. As omics technology is applied to VAP, a paradigm is emerging incorporating simultaneous assessments of microbial populations and their activity, as well as the host response, to personalize prevention and treatment...
October 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941090/estimating-treatment-coverage-for-people-with-substance-use-disorders-an-analysis-of-data-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#16
Louisa Degenhardt, Meyer Glantz, Sara Evans-Lacko, Ekaterina Sadikova, Nancy Sampson, Graham Thornicroft, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Jordi Alonso, Laura Helena Andrade, Ronny Bruffaerts, Brendan Bunting, Evelyn J Bromet, José Miguel Caldas de Almeida, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Yueqin Huang, Aimee Karam, Elie G Karam, Andrzej Kiejna, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Daphna Levinson, Maria Elena Medina-Mora, Yosikazu Nakamura, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Beth-Ellen Pennell, José Posada-Villa, Kate Scott, Dan J Stein, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Zahari Zarkov, Somnath Chatterji, Ronald C Kessler
Substance use is a major cause of disability globally. This has been recognized in the recent United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in which treatment coverage for substance use disorders is identified as one of the indicators. There have been no estimates of this treatment coverage cross-nationally, making it difficult to know what is the baseline for that SDG target. Here we report data from the World Health Organization (WHO)'s World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS), based on representative community household surveys in 26 countries...
October 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940830/cultivar-mixtures-a-meta-analysis-of-the-effect-of-intraspecific-diversity-on-crop-yield
#17
Emily R Reiss, Laurie E Drinkwater
Extensive research has shown that greater plant community diversity leads to higher levels of productivity and other ecosystem services, and such increased diversity has been suggested as a way to improve yield and agricultural sustainability. Increasing intraspecific diversity with cultivar mixtures is one way to increase diversity in agricultural systems. We examined the relationship between intraspecific diversity and yield in cultivar mixtures using a meta-analysis of 91 studies and >3600 observations...
September 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940452/template-for-using-biological-trait-groupings-when-exploring-large-scale-variation-in-seafloor-multifunctionality
#18
Anna Villnäs, Judi Hewitt, Martin Snickars, Mats Westerbom, Alf Norkko
Understanding large-scale spatial variation in ecosystem properties and associated functionality is key for successful conservation of ecosystems. This study provides a template for how to estimate differences in ecosystem functionality over large spatial scales by using groupings of biological traits. We focus on trait groupings that describe three important benthic ecosystem properties, namely bioturbation, community stability and juvenile dispersal. Recognizing that groups of traits interact and are constrained within an organism, we statistically define important functional trait subgroups that describe each ecosystem property...
September 22, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940445/phytoplankton-size-scaling-of-net-energy-flux-across-light-and-biomass-gradients
#19
Martino E Malerba, Craig R White, Dustin J Marshall
Many studies examine how body size mediates energy use, but few examine how size simultaneously regulates energy acquisition. Furthermore, rarely energy fluxes are examined while accounting for the role of biotic and abiotic factors in which they are nested. These limitations contribute to an incomplete understanding of how size affects the transfer of energy through individuals, populations, and communities. Here we characterized photosynthesis-irradiance (P-I) curves and per-cell net-energy use for 21 phytoplankton species spanning across 4 orders of magnitude of size and 7 phyla, each measured across 6 light intensities and 4 population densities...
September 22, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940184/cognitive-trajectory-changes-over-20%C3%A2-years-before-dementia-diagnosis-a-large-cohort-study
#20
Ge Li, Eric B Larson, Jane B Shofer, Paul K Crane, Laura E Gibbons, Wayne McCormick, James D Bowen, Mary Lou Thompson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Longitudinal studies have shown an increase in cognitive decline many years before clinical diagnosis of dementia. We sought to estimate changes, relative to "normal" aging, in the trajectory of scores on a global cognitive function test-the Cognitive Abilities Screening Instrument (CASI). DESIGN: A prospective cohort study. SETTING: Community-dwelling members of a U.S. health maintenance organization. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older who had no dementia diagnosis at baseline and had at least two visits with valid CASI test score (N = 4,315)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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