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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351109/coordination-of-the-environmental-influences-on-child-health-outcomes-program-so-the-whole-is-greater-than-the-sum-of-its-parts
#1
Brian Smith, Susan Knox, Daniel K Benjamin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program's mission is to enhance the health of children for generations to come. In this manuscript, we describe the structure of the ECHO Coordinating Center (ECHO-CC) and its role in developing the infrastructure for the ECHO program. RECENT FINDINGS: The ECHO-CC supports ECHO's mission by developing the framework of the ECHO program, coordinating multiple levels of membership in the ECHO community, developing ECHO policies and procedures, and fostering communication and engagement inside and outside of ECHO...
January 17, 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351016/patterns-of-local-community-composition-are-linked-to-large-scale-diversification-and-dispersal-of-clades
#2
John J Wiens
At any location, a group of organisms may be represented by several clades. What determines which clades will dominate local communities in terms of their species richness? Here, this relatively neglected question is addressed by analyzing 166 local assemblages of snakes distributed globally. For most regions, local assemblages are dominated by clades with higher global-scale diversification rates and more frequent dispersal into each region, and not by clades that have been present in that region longer. This result contrasts with many other studies of local richness (in other organisms), which show strong impacts of regional colonization time on overall local species richness of clades...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350440/abrupt-burial-imparts-persistent-changes-to-the-bacterial-diversity-of-turbidite-associated-sediment-profiles
#3
B K Harrison, A Myrbo, B E Flood, J V Bailey
The emplacement of subaqueous gravity-driven sediment flows imposes a significant physical and geochemical impact on underlying sediment and microbial communities. Although previous studies have established lasting mineralogical and biological signatures of turbidite deposition, the response of bacteria and archaea within and beneath debris flows remains poorly constrained. Both bacterial cells associated with the underlying sediment and those attached to allochthonous material must respond to substantially altered environmental conditions and selective pressures...
January 19, 2018: Geobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350285/gut-shuttle-service-endozoochory-of-dispersal-limited-soil-fauna-by-gastropods
#4
Manfred Türke, Markus Lange, Nico Eisenhauer
Numerous important ecosystem functions and services depend on soil biodiversity. However, little is known about the mechanisms which maintain the vast belowground biodiversity and about the filters shaping soil community composition. Yet, biotic interactions like facilitation and dispersal by animals are assumed to play a crucial role, particularly as most soil animal taxa are strongly limited in their active dispersal abilities. Here, we report on a newfound interaction of potentially high ubiquity and importance in soil communities: the endozoochorous dispersal of soil fauna by gastropods...
January 19, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349739/enhanced-reductive-dechlorination-of-1-1-1-trichloroethane-using-zero-valent-iron-biochar-carrageenan-microspheres-preparation-and-microcosm-study
#5
Changling Ji, Liang Meng, Hualin Wang
In this study, a composite remediation material for the enhanced reductive dechlorination (ERD) of 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) in aqueous solution was prepared. This material was comprised of biochar as the carrier and adsorbent, and carrageenan (CG) as the embedding medium to entrap the organic carbon sources and zero-valent iron (ZVI). We determined the suitable biochar dosage and organic carbon source in the composite alongside the optimal preparation conditions. Furthermore, using an anaerobic microcosm study, we discussed the performance and possible mechanisms of the composite on 1,1,1-TCA removal in aqueous solution...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349499/spatial-coverage-of-mangrove-communities-in-the-arabian-gulf
#6
Hanan Almahasheer
Mangroves are the natural protectors of the coast, carbon sinks, and a nursery to many terrestrial as well as aquatic organisms. Different effects caused by natural forces together with anthropogenic factors have reduced mangrove cover on a global scale, yet little is known about the overall surface covered by mangroves in the Arabian Gulf. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine their spatial coverage and distribution along the Gulf coastlines, using 25 satellite imagery recently acquired from Landsat 8 data for the year 2017...
January 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349238/engagement-with-health-care-providers-as-a-mediator-between-social-capital-and-quality-of-life-among-a-sample-of-people-living-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-path-analysis
#7
SoSon Jong, Adam Carrico, Bruce Cooper, Lisa Thompson, Carmen Portillo
Background: Social capital is "features of social organizations-networks, norms, and as trust that facilitate coordination and cooperation for mutual benefit". People with high social capital have lower mortality and better health outcomes. Although utilization of social networks has grown, social capital continues to be a complex concept in relation to health promotion. This study examined 1) associations between social capital and quality of life (QoL), 2) factors of social capital leading to higher QoL among people living with HIV (PLWH), 3) role of health care providers (HCP) as a mediator between social capital and QoL...
December 2017: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348571/high-resolution-time-series-reveals-cohesive-but-short-lived-communities-in-coastal-plankton
#8
Antonio M Martin-Platero, Brian Cleary, Kathryn Kauffman, Sarah P Preheim, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Eric J Alm, Martin F Polz
Because microbial plankton in the ocean comprise diverse bacteria, algae, and protists that are subject to environmental forcing on multiple spatial and temporal scales, a fundamental open question is to what extent these organisms form ecologically cohesive communities. Here we show that although all taxa undergo large, near daily fluctuations in abundance, microbial plankton are organized into clearly defined communities whose turnover is rapid and sharp. We analyze a time series of 93 consecutive days of coastal plankton using a technique that allows inference of communities as modular units of interacting taxa by determining positive and negative correlations at different temporal frequencies...
January 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348433/speciation-of-common-gram-negative-pathogens-using-a-highly-multiplexed-high-resolution-melt-curve-assay
#9
Thomas Edwards, Shugo Sasaki, Christopher Williams, Glyn Hobbs, Nicholas A Feasey, Katie Evans, Emily R Adams
The identification of the bacterial species responsible for an infection remains an important step for the selection of antimicrobial therapy. Gram-negative bacteria are an important source of hospital and community acquired infections and frequently antimicrobial resistant. Speciation of bacteria is typically carried out by biochemical profiling of organisms isolated from clinical specimens, which is time consuming and delays the initiation of tailored treatment. Whilst molecular methods such as PCR have been used, they often struggle with the challenge of detecting and discriminating a wide range of targets...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#10
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347946/effects-of-long-term-balance-training-with-vibrotactile-sensory-augmentation-among-community-dwelling-healthy-older-adults-a-randomized-preliminary-study
#11
Tian Bao, Wendy J Carender, Catherine Kinnaird, Vincent J Barone, Geeta Peethambaran, Susan L Whitney, Mohammed Kabeto, Rachael D Seidler, Kathleen H Sienko
BACKGROUND: Sensory augmentation has been shown to improve postural stability during real-time balance applications. Limited long-term controlled studies have examined retention of balance improvements in healthy older adults after training with sensory augmentation has ceased. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of long-term balance training with and without sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults. METHODS: Twelve participants (four males, eight females; 75...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347829/biofilm-community-structure-and-the-associated-drag-penalties-of-a-groomed-fouling-release-ship-hull-coating
#12
Kelli Z Hunsucker, Gary J Vora, J Travis Hunsucker, Harrison Gardner, Dagmar H Leary, Seongwon Kim, Baochuan Lin, Geoffrey Swain
Grooming is a proactive method to keep a ship's hull free of fouling. This approach uses a frequent and gentle wiping of the hull surface to prevent the recruitment of fouling organisms. A study was designed to compare the community composition and the drag associated with biofilms formed on a groomed and ungroomed fouling release coating. The groomed biofilms were dominated by members of the Gammaproteobacteria and Alphaproteobacteria as well the diatoms Navicula, Gomphonemopsis, Cocconeis, and Amphora. Ungroomed biofilms were characterized by Phyllobacteriaceae, Xenococcaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and the pennate diatoms Cyclophora, Cocconeis, and Amphora...
January 18, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347723/hierarchical-benchmark-graphs-for-testing-community-detection-algorithms
#13
Zhao Yang, Juan I Perotti, Claudio J Tessone
Hierarchical organization is an important, prevalent characteristic of complex systems; to understand their organization, the study of the underlying (generally complex) networks that describe the interactions between their constituents plays a central role. Numerous previous works have shown that many real-world networks in social, biologic, and technical systems present hierarchical organization, often in the form of a hierarchy of community structures. Many artificial benchmark graphs have been proposed to test different community detection methods, but no benchmark has been developed to thoroughly test the detection of hierarchical community structures...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346908/mechanisms-of-self-organized-criticality-in-social-processes-of-knowledge-creation
#14
Bosiljka Tadić, Marija Mitrović Dankulov, Roderick Melnik
In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A)...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346885/theoretical-microbial-ecology-without-species
#15
Mikhail Tikhonov
Ecosystems are commonly conceptualized as networks of interacting species. However, partitioning natural diversity of organisms into discrete units is notoriously problematic and mounting experimental evidence raises the intriguing question whether this perspective is appropriate for the microbial world. Here an alternative formalism is proposed that does not require postulating the existence of species as fundamental ecological variables and provides a naturally hierarchical description of community dynamics...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346534/microbial-community-structure-of-sea-spray-aerosols-at-three-california-beaches
#16
Katherine Graham, Linsey C Marr, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
We characterized the microbial communities in SSA, water, and sand of three beaches in central California (Cowell Beach, Baker Beach, and Lovers Point) by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Average concentrations of 16S rRNA genes in SSA ranged from 2.4 × 104 to 1.4 × 105 gene copies per m3 of air. A total of 9,781 distinct OTUs were identified in SSA and of these, 1,042 OTUs were found in SSA of all beaches. SSA microbial communities included marine taxa, as well as some associated with the terrestrial environment...
January 15, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346370/structure-function-and-control-of-the-human-musculoskeletal-network
#17
Andrew C Murphy, Sarah F Muldoon, David Baker, Adam Lastowka, Brittany Bennett, Muzhi Yang, Danielle S Bassett
The human body is a complex organism, the gross mechanical properties of which are enabled by an interconnected musculoskeletal network controlled by the nervous system. The nature of musculoskeletal interconnection facilitates stability, voluntary movement, and robustness to injury. However, a fundamental understanding of this network and its control by neural systems has remained elusive. Here we address this gap in knowledge by utilizing medical databases and mathematical modeling to reveal the organizational structure, predicted function, and neural control of the musculoskeletal system...
January 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346234/a-qualitative-study-of-multidisciplinary-providers-experiences-with-the-transfer-process-for-injured-children-and-ideas-for-improvement
#18
Marcie Gawel, Beth Emerson, John S Giuliano, Alana Rosenberg, Karl E Minges, Shelli Feder, Pina Violano, Patricia Morrell, Judy Petersen, Emily Christison-Lagay, Marc Auerbach
OBJECTIVE: Most injured children initially present to a community hospital, and many will require transfer to a regional pediatric trauma center. The purpose of this study was 1) to explore multidisciplinary providers' experiences with the process of transferring injured children and 2) to describe proposed ideas for process improvement. METHODS: This qualitative study involved 26 semistructured interviews. Subjects were recruited from 6 community hospital emergency departments and the trauma and transport teams of a level I pediatric trauma center in New Haven, Conn...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346099/cell-membrane-tracking-in-living-brain-tissue-using-differential-interference-contrast-microscopy
#19
John Lee, Ilya Kolb, Craig R Forest, Christopher J Rozell
Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy is widely used for observing unstained biological samples that are otherwise optically transparent. Combining this optical technique with machine vision could enable the automation of many life science experiments; however, identifying relevant features under DIC is challenging. In particular, precise tracking of cell boundaries in a thick ( ) slice of tissue has not previously been accomplished. We present a novel deconvolution algorithm that achieves the state-of-the-art performance at identifying and tracking these membrane locations...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345750/mobility-trajectories-at-the-end-of-life-comparing-clinical-condition-and-latent-class-approaches
#20
June R Lunney, Steven M Albert, Robert Boudreau, Diane Ives, Suzanne Satterfield, Anne B Newman, Tamara Harris
OBJECTIVES: To assess mobility disability trajectories before death in a large sample of very old adults using two analytical approaches to determine how well they corresponded. DESIGN: Decedent sample from the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. Data were collected between 1997 and 2015. SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals randomly selected from well-functioning white Medicare beneficiaries and all black community residents meeting age criteria (70-79) (N = 3,075)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
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