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Ultrasound and muscle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791963/nerve-entrapment-in-ankle-and-foot-ultrasound-imaging
#1
Basavaraj Chari, Eugene McNally
Peripheral nerve entrapment of the ankle and foot is relatively uncommon and often underdiagnosed because electrophysiologic studies may not contribute to the diagnosis. Anatomy of the peripheral nerves is variable and complex, and along with a comprehensive physical examination, a thorough understanding of the applied anatomy is essential. Several studies have helped identify specific areas in which nerves are commonly compressed. Identified secondary causes of nerve compression include previous trauma, osteophytes, ganglion cysts, edema, accessory muscles, tenosynovitis, vascular lesions, and a primary nerve tumor...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791962/nerve-entrapment-syndromes-at-the-wrist-and-elbow-by-sonography
#2
Andrea S Klauser, Tommaso Buzzegoli, Mihra S Taljanovic, Sylvia Strobl, Stefan Rauch, James Teh, Julia Wanschitz, Wolfgang Löscher, Carlo Martinoli
Nerve entrapment syndromes of the upper extremity are associated with structural abnormalities or by an intrinsic abnormality of the nerve. Nerve entrapment syndromes generally have a typical clinical presentation, and findings on physical examination and in conjunction with electrodiagnostic studies imaging is used to evaluate the cause, severity, and etiology of the entrapment. With the development of high-frequency linear array transducers (12-24 MHz), ultrasound (US) is incomparable in terms of spatial resolution to depict morphological aspects and changes in nerves...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791956/accessory-muscles-of-the-extremities
#3
Filip M Vanhoenacker, Julie Desimpel, Marc Mespreuve, Alberto Tagliafico
Accessory muscles and variations are not uncommon at the upper and lower extremity. They are often overlooked because they are asymptomatic and present as incidental findings on imaging. However, they may present as a soft tissue swelling, thereby mimicking soft tissue tumors. Other symptoms are attributed to impingement on neurovascular structures and to exercise-related pain. Thorough knowledge of the anatomy, systematic imaging analysis, and the awareness of it are the clues to correct identification. On ultrasound, accessory muscles have a similar echotexture as other muscles, whereas the signal intensity on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is similar to muscle...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791955/muscle-tendon-enthesis-unit
#4
Anthony S Tadros, Brady K Huang, Mini N Pathria
Injuries to the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit are common and a significant source of pain and loss of function. This article focuses on the important anatomical and biomechanical considerations for each component of the muscle-tendon-enthesis unit. We review normal and pathologic conditions affecting this unit, illustrating the imaging appearance of common disorders on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. Knowledge of the anatomy and biomechanics of these structures is crucial for the radiologist to make accurate diagnoses and provide clinically relevant assessments...
July 2018: Seminars in Musculoskeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790207/the-repeated-bout-effect-can-occur-without-mechanical-and-neuromuscular-changes-after-a-bout-of-eccentric-exercise
#5
Patricio A Pincheira, Ben W Hoffman, Andrew G Cresswell, Timothy J Carroll, Nicholas A T Brown, Glen A Lichtwark
Changes in muscle fascicle mechanics have been postulated to underpin the repeated bout effect (RBE) observed following exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, in the medial gastrocnemius (MG), mixed evidence exists on whether fascicle stretch amplitude influences the level of EIMD, thus questioning whether changes in fascicle mechanics underpin the RBE. An alternative hypothesis is that neural adaptations contribute to the RBE in this muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate neuromechanical adaptations during and after repeated bouts of a highly controlled muscle lengthening exercise that aimed to maximise EIMD in MG...
May 23, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781932/postoperative-analgesic-effect-of-ultrasound-guided-intermediate-cervical-plexus-block-on-unipolar-sternocleidomastoid-release-with-myectomy-in-pediatric-patients-with-congenital-muscular-torticollis-a-prospective-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Jin-Soo Kim, Han Bum Joe, Myong Chul Park, Hyoeun Ahn, Sook Young Lee, Yun Jeong Chae
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Unipolar sternocleidomastoid release with myectomy (USRM) for correction of congenital muscular torticollis in pediatric patients produces moderate to severe postoperative pain. The objective of this trial was to examine the effect of ultrasound-guided intermediate cervical plexus block on postoperative pain after USRM. METHODS: Thirty-two patients (1-7 years old) were enrolled in this parallel-group, patient- and observer-blinded, randomized controlled trial...
May 17, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781931/ultrasound-assessment-of-ice-ball-formation-by-cryoneurolysis-device-in-an-ex-vivo-model
#7
Adrian Kastler, Hannes Gruber, Elke Gizewski, Alexander Loizides
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Real-time ice-ball formation during cryoneurolysis has sparsely been assessed with ultrasound (US). Cryoneurolysis in lower back pain syndrome represents a validated management option in cases of facet joint syndrome. Ultrasound may be a useful tool to perform facet joint cryodenervation. The objective of this study was to assess, ex vivo, the ability of US to assess the ice-ball formation of a cryoneurolysis device. METHODS: Ultrasound assessment of the ice-ball depiction was done using chicken muscle at 22°C in which several freezing cycles were performed with both 2...
May 17, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779705/an-investigation-into-the-use-of-ultrasound-as-a-surrogate-measure-of-diaphragm-function
#8
Samantha Holtzhausen, Marianne Unger, Alison Lupton-Smith, Susan Hanekom
PURPOSE: Sonographic assessment of the diaphragm may be a surrogate for interpretation of diaphragm function in mechanically ventilated patients. This study aimed to determine the correlation between respiratory muscle function and diaphragm thickness in a healthy population. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted. Diaphragm thickness was determined by sonographic measurement. Respiratory muscle strength, fatigue and endurance was determined using a mouth pressure manometer...
May 17, 2018: Heart & Lung: the Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778826/intra-and-inter-rater-reliabilities-for-novel-muscle-thickness-assessment-during-co-contraction-with-dual-rehabilitative-ultrasound-imaging
#9
Hwang-Jae Lee, Hyun-Geun Ha, Joohee Hahn, Seungyeop Lim, Wan-Hee Lee
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of dual-rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (D-RUSI) for the simultaneous measurement of the thickness of the tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius (GCM) muscles in healthy young adults. DESIGN: A single-group repeated-measures reliability study. SETTING: Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging analysis laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty-six healthy participants (23 males; age = 26...
May 17, 2018: Physical Therapy in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776776/reliability-of-the-lateral-abdominal-muscle-thickness-measurements-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-patients
#10
Pawel Linek, Anna Klepek, Tomasz Wolny, Grzegorz Mikołajowski
BACKGROUND: To date, the reliability of ultrasound imaging (US) measures of the abdominal muscle thickness in idiopathic scoliosis (IS) patients during early stages of adolescence has not been confirmed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra-rater reliability of US measures of the thickness of the external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transversus abdominis (TrA) on convex and concave body sides in adolescents with IS. DESIGN: One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and reliability study...
May 3, 2018: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774894/value-of-diffusion-weighted-imaging-for-monitoring-tissue-change-during-magnetic-resonance-guided-high-intensity-focused-ultrasound-therapy-in-bone-applications-an-ex-vivo-study
#11
Sharon L Giles, Jessica M Winfield, David J Collins, Ian Rivens, John Civale, Gail R Ter Haar, Nandita M deSouza
Background: Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can palliate metastatic bone pain by periosteal neurolysis. We investigated the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring soft tissue changes adjacent to bone during MR-guided HIFU. We evaluated the repeatability of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurement, the temporal evolution of ADC change after sonication, and its relationship with thermal parameters. Methods: Ex-vivo experiments in lamb legs ( n = 8) were performed on a Sonalleve MR-guided HIFU system...
2018: European radiology experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771607/mechanistic-insights-into-the-modulatory-role-of-the-mechanoreflex-on-central-hemodynamics-using-passive-leg-movement-in-humans
#12
Nicholas T Kruse, William E Hughes, Darren P Casey
The aim of this study was to examine the independent contributions of joint range of motion (ROM), muscle fascicle length (MFL) and joint angular velocity on mechanoreceptor mediated central cardiovascular dynamics using passive leg movement (PLM) in humans. Twelve healthy males (age: 23{plus minus}2 yrs, body mass index: 23.7 kg/m2 ) performed continuous PLM at various randomized joint angles ROM (0-50{degree sign} vs. 50-100{degree sign} vs. 0-100{degree sign}) and joint angular velocities ('fast': 200{degree sign}/s vs...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769823/relationship-between-achilles-tendon-stiffness-and-ground-contact-time-during-drop-jumps
#13
Mohamed Abdelsattar, Andreas Konrad, Markus Tilp
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Achilles tendon stiffness and ground contact time (GCT) during drop jumps. The property of "springiness" and a short GCT during the movement is required in several types of sports. Therefore, a stiff tendon might be advantageous due to the quick force transmission from the muscle to the bone. Hence, a secondary aim was to relate Achilles tendon stiffness with squat jump (SJ) and counter movement jump (CMJ) performance, respectively...
June 2018: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767650/immediate-effect-of-continuous-ultrasound-vs-sham-ultrasound-for-bilateral-masseter-myalgia-a-double-blinded-trial
#14
Haseeb Hussain, Heidi Crow, Yoly Gonzalez, W D McCall
AIMS: To investigate the local and segmental effects of therapeutic ultrasound at a dose of 0.4 w/cm2 with 100% duty cycle for 5 minutes compared to the effect of sham ultrasound on painful masticatory muscles. METHODS: A total of 20 adult female subjects with bilateral masseter myalgia diagnosed according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) were included. Each subject was randomized to either an active ultrasound group or a sham ultrasound group...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765882/relationship-between-functional-level-and-muscle-thickness-in-young-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#15
Yeo Reum Choe, Joo Sup Kim, Kee Hoon Kim, Tae Im Yi
Objective: To investigate the relationship between functional level and muscle thickness (MT) of the rectus femoris (RF) and the gastrocnemius (GCM) in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods: The study participants were comprised of 26 children (50 legs) with spastic CP, aged 3-6 years, and 25 age-matched children with typical development (TD, 50 legs). The MT of the RF, medial GCM, and lateral GCM was measured with ultrasound imaging. The functional level was evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measurement-88 (GMFM-88), Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), and based on the mobility area of the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI)...
April 2018: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763373/oral-glucose-challenge-impairs-skeletal-muscle-microvascular-blood-flow-in-healthy-people
#16
Ryan D Russell, Donghua Hu, Timothy Greenaway, James E Sharman, Stephen Rattigan, Stephen M Richards, Michelle A Keske
Skeletal muscle microvascular (capillary) blood flow increases in the post-prandial state or during insulin infusion due to dilation of pre-capillary arterioles to augment glucose disposal. This effect occurs independent of changes in large artery function. However, acute hyperglycemia impairs vascular function, causes insulin to vasoconstrict pre-capillary arterioles, and causes muscle insulin resistance in vivo. We hypothesize that acute hyperglycemia impairs post-prandial muscle microvascular perfusion, without disrupting normal large artery hemodynamics, in healthy humans...
May 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761537/scapular-upward-rotator-morphologic-characteristics-in-individuals-with-and-without-forward-head-posture-a-case-control-study
#17
Fariba Khosravi, Anneli Peolsson, Noureddin Karimi, Leila Rahnama
OBJECTIVES: There are several reports suggesting that forward head posture contributes to alterations in scapular kinematics and muscle activity, leading to the development of shoulder problems. Currently, it is unknown whether forward head posture alters the thickness of the scapular muscles. The aim of this study was to compare the thickness of the serratus anterior and upper and lower trapezius muscles at rest and during loaded isometric contractions in individuals with and without forward head posture...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757913/association-between-muscle-wasting-and-muscle-strength-in-patients-who-developed-severe-sepsis-and-septic-shock
#18
Rodrigo Cerqueira Borges, Francisco Garcia Soriano
PURPOSE: To evaluate the association between the rectus femoris cross-sectional area (RFCSA) and the muscular strength obtained at the bedside in patients forwarded to the intensive care unit (ICU) for severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS: A prospective cohort study. RFCSA was assessed by ultrasound on the following day of the ICU admission and monitored during hospitalization. The patients performed clinical tests of muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) scale and handgrip dynamometry), when they could understand the verbal commands of the examiners...
May 11, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756164/methods-for-the-determination-of-skeletal-muscle-blood-flow-development-strengths-and-limitations
#19
REVIEW
Lasse Gliemann, Stefan P Mortensen, Ylva Hellsten
Since the first measurements of limb blood flow at rest and during nerve stimulation were conducted in the late 1800s, a number of methods have been developed for the determination of limb and skeletal muscle blood flow in humans. The methods, which have been applied in the study of aspects such as blood flow regulation, oxygen uptake and metabolism, differ in terms of strengths and degree of limitations but most have advantages for specific settings. The purpose of this review is to describe the origin and the basic principles of the methods, important aspects and requirements of the procedures...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751209/differential-involvement-of-forearm-muscles-in-als-does-not-relate-to-sonographic-structural-nerve-alterations
#20
Stefanie Schreiber, Frank Schreiber, Grazyna Debska-Vielhaber, Cornelia Garz, Nathalie Hensiek, Judith Machts, Susanne Abdulla, Reinhard Dengler, Susanne Petri, Peter J Nestor, Stefan Vielhaber
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess whether differential peripheral nerve involvement parallels dissociated forearm muscle weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: The analysis comprised 41 ALS patients and 18 age-, sex-, height- and weight-matched healthy controls. Strength of finger-extension and -flexion was measured using the Medical Research Council (MRC) scale. Radial, median and ulnar nerve sonographic cross-sectional area (CSA) and echogenicity, expressed by the hypoechoic fraction (HF), were determined...
May 1, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
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