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Felix Stibany, Stine Nørgaard Schmidt, Andreas Schäffer, Philipp Mayer
The aims of the present study were (1) to develop a passive dosing approach for aquatic toxicity testing of liquid substances with very high Kow values and (2) to apply this approach to the model substance dodecylbenzene (DDB, Log Kow = 8.65). The first step was to design a new passive dosing format for testing DDB exactly at its saturation limit. Silicone O-rings were saturated by direct immersion in pure liquid DDB, which resulted in swelling of >14%. These saturated O-rings were used to establish and maintain DDB exposure exactly at the saturation limit throughout 72-h algal growth inhibition tests with green algae Raphidocelis subcapitata...
October 18, 2016: Chemosphere
Bin Wang, Qian Chen, Lixiao Shen, Shasha Zhao, Weiyi Pang, Jun Zhang
Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are commonly used in industrial applications and consumer products, and their potential health impacts are of concern, especially for vulnerable population like fetuses. However, in utero exposure to PFASs and health implications are far from fully characterized in China. To fill in the gap, we analyzed 10 PFASs in cord plasma samples (N=687) collected in Shanghai between 2011 and 2012, one of the regions widely polluted with PFASs in China. A questionnaire survey on maternal and diet-related factors was conducted...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Philippe Glorennec, Jean-Paul Lucas, Anne-Camille Mercat, Alain-Claude Roudot, Barbara Le Bot
Children are exposed to toxic metals and metalloids via their diet and environment. Our objective was to assess the aggregate chronic exposure of children aged 3-6years, living in France, to As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sb, Sr, and V present in diet, tap water, air, soil and floor dust in the years 2007-2009. Dietary data came from the French Total Diet Study, while concentrations in residential tap water, soil and indoor floor dust came from the 'Plomb-Habitat' nationwide representative survey on children's lead exposure at home...
October 19, 2016: Environment International
Shunjie Yan, Lingjie Song, Shifang Luan, Zhirong Xin, Shanshan Du, Hengchong Shi, Shuaishuai Yuan, Yuming Yang, Jinghua Yin
Bacterial infections are problematic in many healthcare-associated devices. Antibacterial surfaces integrating the strength of bacteria repellent and bactericidal functions exhibit an encouraging efficacy in tackling this problem. Herein, a hierarchical dual-function antibacterial polymer brush coating that integrates an antifouling bottom layer with a bactericidal top layer is facilely constructed via living photograft polymerization. Excellent resistance to bacterial attachment is correlated with the antifouling components, and good bactericidal activity is afforded by the bactericidal components, and therefore the hierarchical coating shows an excellent long-term antibacterial capability...
August 12, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Fu-Yan Xing, Lin-Lin Guan, Yan-Long Li, Chun-Juan Jia
This work reports a one-step simple synthesis method for functionalized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanosheets by a Platanus orientalis leaf extract polyphenol-mediated deoxygenation of graphene oxide (GO). Microscopic and spectroscopic characterization revealed the successful deoxygenation of GO and subsequent stabilization by oxidized polyphenols of plant extract. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction analyses were used to examine the reduction of GO. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy results revealed capping of RGO with oxidized polyphenols of Platanus orientalis extract, which prevented aggregation of graphene sheets...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Qin Jiang, Xiyue Li, Shanshan Cheng, Yuxiu Gu, Gui Chen, Yuexin Shen, Yixi Xie, Yi Cao
We have recently proposed that the interaction between food components and nanoparticles (NPs) should be considered when evaluating the toxicity of NPs. In the present study, we used THP-1 differentiated macrophages as a model for immune cells and investigated the combined toxicity of low levels of palmitate (PA; 10 or 50μM) and ZnO NPs. The results showed that PA especially at 50μM changed the size, Zeta potential and UV-vis spectra of ZnO NPs, indicating a possible coating effect. Up to 32μg/mL ZnO NPs did not significantly affect mitochondrial activity, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) or release of interleukin 6 (IL-6), but significantly impaired lysosomal function as assessed by neutral red uptake assay and acridine orange staining...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Alexandra E Neal, Paul A Moore
Animals living in aquatic habitats regularly encounter anthropogenic chemical pollution. Typically, the toxicity of a chemical toxicant is determined by the median lethal concentration (LC50) through a static exposure test. However, LC50 values and static tests do not provide an accurate representation of exposure to pollutants within natural stream systems. In their native habitats, animals experience exposure as a fluctuating concentration due to turbulent mixing, temporal variations of contamination (seasonal inputs), and contaminant input type (point vs...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Akashdeep Singh Oberoi, Ligy Philip
In the present study, an attempt was made to understand the variation in the toxicity during the biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in single and multi-substrate system. The bacterial bioassay based on the inhibition of dehydrogenase enzyme activity of two different bacterial sp. E.coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens was used for toxicity assessment. Amongst the chosen pollutants, the highest acute toxicity was observed for benzothiophene followed by benzofuran having EC50 value of 16.60mg/L and 19.30mg/L respectively...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
J E Correia, C A Christofoletti, A C C Marcato, J F U Marinho, C S Fontanetti
Sugarcane vinasse is one of the main residues generated by the transformation of cane into ethanol. Because of the high organic content (COD), high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), low pH, the large amount that this residue is generated (15l for every liter of ethanol produced) and their use as fertilizer on the sugarcane crop, this residue is potentially polluting to the soil ecossystem and by percolation to water ecossystem too. Thus, this study aimed to assess the toxicity of vinasse by analyzing Oreochromis niloticus gills exposed to different dilutions (1%, 2...
October 19, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hans-Uwe Dahms, Eun-Ji Won, Hui-Su Kim, Jeonghoon Han, Heum Gi Park, Sami Souissi, Sheikh Raisuddin, Jae-Seong Lee
Aquatic invertebrates contribute significantly to environmental impact assessment of contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. Much effort has been made to identify viable and ecologically relevant invertebrate test organisms to meet rigorous regulatory requirements. Copepods, which are ecologically important and widely distributed in aquatic organisms, offer a huge opportunity as test organisms for aquatic toxicity testing. They have a major role not only in the transfer of energy in aquatic food chains, but also as a medium of transfer of aquatic pollutants across the tropic levels...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Friardi Ismed, Françoise Lohézic-Le Dévéhat, Isabelle Rouaud, Solenn Ferron, Amri Bakhtiar, Joël Boustie
The phytochemical study of Stereocaulon montagneanum harvested in Sumatra (Indonesia) led to the isolation of 11 known compounds including two metabolites not previously described in the genus Stereocaulon, peristictic acid (8) and menegazziaic acid (10). The complete 1H and 13C NMR spectral assignments of stictic acid derivatives are reported with some revisions. Five depsidones belonging to the stictic acid chemosyndrome were superoxide anion scavengers as potent as ascorbic acid and with no toxicity on two human cell lines...
October 22, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung. C, A Journal of Biosciences
Letícia Couto Garcia, Danilo Bandini Ribeiro, Fabio de Oliveira Roque, Jose Manuel Ochoa-Quintero, William F Laurance
In November 2015, a large mine-tailing dam owned by Samarco Corporation collapsed in Brazil, generating a massive wave of toxic mud that spread down the Doce River, killing 19 people and affecting biodiversity across hundreds of kilometers of river, riparian lands, and Atlantic coast. Besides the disaster's serious human and socioeconomic tolls, we estimate the regional loss of environmental services to be ~US$5.21 billion/year. Although our estimate is conservative, it is still six times higher than the fine imposed on Samarco by Brazilian environmental authorities...
October 22, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Jeannine Coburn, Jamie Harris, Alexander D Zakharov, Jennifer Poirier, Naohiko Ikegaki, Andre Kajdacsy-Balla, Monika Pilichowska, Alexander V Lyubimov, Hiroyuki Shimada, David L Kaplan, Bill Chiu
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial childhood solid tumor. Treatment of high risk tumors require intense multi-cycle chemotherapies, resulting in short- and long-term toxicities. Here we present treatment of an orthotopic neuroblastoma mouse model, with silk fibroin materials loaded with vincristine, doxorubicin, or the combination as a intratumoral, sustained release system. The materials, loaded with vincristine with or without doxorubicin, significantly decreased neuroblastoma tumor growth compared to materials loaded without drug or doxorubicin only as well as intravenous (IV) drug treatment...
October 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
N Gamkrelidze, N Pavliashvili, R Otarashvili
This study describes hematocrit values and quantitative changes in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels according to the severity of crush syndrome (CS) compression and decompression periods. The experiments were carried out on 50 randomly selected 200-250 gr mass Wistar rats with the use of the standard crush syndrome modeling method. The plasma level of ET-1 was determined by the immuneenzyme method with the use of ELISA REDEAR URIT 660. Hematocrit was determined using the standard method and measured according to tube column divisions...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Riin Tamm, Reedik Mägi, Roman Tremmel, Stefan Winter, Evelin Mihailov, Alenka Smid, Anja Möricke, Kathrin Klein, Martin Schrappe, Martin Stanulla, Richard Houlston, Richard Weinshilboum, Irena Mlinarič Raščan, Andres Metspalu, Lili Milani, Matthias Schwab, Elke Schaeffeler
Thiopurine-related hematotoxicity in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel diseases has been linked to genetically defined variability in thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) activity. While gene testing of TPMT is being clinically implemented, it is unclear if additional genetic variation influences TPMT activity with consequences for thiopurine-related toxicity. To examine this possibility, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of red blood cell TPMT activity in 844 Estonian individuals and 245 paediatric ALL-cases...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Khandaker Rayhan Mahbub, Kannan Krishnan, Ravi Naidu, Mallavarapu Megharaj
Three different soils were spiked with 12 different concentrations of inorganic mercury (Hg). Sub-chronic Hg toxicity tests were carried out with Eisenia fetida in spiked soils by exposing the worms for 28 days following standard procedures. The toxicity studies revealed that Hg exerted less lethal effect on earthworms in acidic soil with higher organic carbon (S-3 soil) where water soluble Hg recovery was very low compared to the water soluble Hg fractions in soils with less organic carbon and higher pH (S-1 and S-2 soils)...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Narendra Kumar, Vijay Kumar, Rohit Panwar, Chand Ram
The toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd) appears as one of the major global threats to human and animal health. Human being and aquatic life are exposed to Cd by breathing, eating, or drinking when industrial effluents released into environment. The study was aimed to identify cadmium-binding Lactobacillus strain to reduce its bioaccessibility in in vitro digestion model. In this context, forty-eight lactobacilli strains isolated and characterized from fermented dairy products and human origin were screened for their Cd biosorption potential using Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS)...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana Mladenovič, Sandra Hamler, Nina Zupančič
The environmental acceptability of geotechnical composites made of treated municipal sewage sludge (SwS) and paper ash (PA) after two different curing periods has been investigated. The mineral composition of such composites, including their content of major oxides, is mainly influenced by the PA. The content of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the initial materials and in the composites varies considerably. In the SwS the Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn contents are above the legally permitted limits. The PTE content of PA are lower, but still somewhat above the permitted values for Ba and Cu...
October 21, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paolo Girardi, Roberto Brugnoli, Giovanni Manfredi, Gabriele Sani
Lithium has been a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) for several decades. Despite a general reduction in the use of lithium over the past several years, it is effective in the management of both manic and depressive episodes in BD and continues to be recommended as a first-line mood stabilizer. This review provides an overview of the pharmacology of lithium and highlights its clinical profile in the management of BD, focusing on the potential advantages of prolonged-release (PR) versus immediate-release (IR) formulations of lithium...
October 21, 2016: Drugs in R&D
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