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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667811/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-of-the-electrophilicity-of-physcion-and-its-oxidative-metabolites
#1
Xiaotong Qin, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Physcion (1,8-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-6-methyl-9,10-anthracenedione) is a bioactive component found in Polygoni Multiflori Radix (PMR) which has been widely used as traditional Chinese medicine. Unfortunately, studies showed hepatotoxicity of PMR during its clinical use. The mechanisms of its toxic action remain unknown. The major objectives of this study were to characterize oxidative metabolites of physcion in vitro and in vivo and to determine the electrophilicity of the parent compound and its oxidative metabolites...
April 18, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667303/mir-146a-regulates-pm-1-induced-inflammation-via-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-beas-2b-cells
#2
Limin Liu, Chong Wan, Wei Zhang, Longfei Guan, Guoxiong Tian, Fang Zhang, Wenjun Ding
Exposure to particulate matter (PM) leads to kinds of cardiopulmonary diseases, such as asthma, COPD, arrhythmias, lung cancer, etc., which are related to PM-induced inflammation. We have found that PM2.5 (aerodynamics diameter <2.5 µm) exposure induces inflammatory response both in vivo and in vitro. Since the toxicity of PM is tightly associated with its size and components, PM1 (aerodynamics diameter <1.0 µm) is supposed to be more toxic than PM2.5 . However, the mechanism of PM1 -induced inflammation is not clear...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667274/impact-of-farnesol-and-corsodyl-%C3%A2-on-candida-albicans-forming-dual-biofilm-with-streptococcus-mutans
#3
Lucia Černáková, Luisa Jordao, Helena Bujdáková
OBJECTIVE: This work studied the biofilm formed by Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans on a hydroxyapatite surface after exposure to the quorum-sensing molecule farnesol (200 μM) in comparison with the diluted mouthwash Corsodyl® (0.0001% chlorhexidine digluconate). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cytotoxicity of farnesol was evaluated by Galleria melonella surviving assay. The viability of biofilm cells after exposure to farnesol and Corsodyl® was determined by colony-forming units...
April 18, 2018: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667213/photosynthesis-is-differently-regulated-during-and-after-copper-induced-nutritional-stress-in-citrus-trees
#4
Franz W R Hippler, Veronica L Dovis, Rodrigo M Boaretto, Jose A Quaggio, Ricardo A Azevedo, Lorraine E Williams, Dirceu Mattos
Antioxidant enzymatic responses in Citrus leaves under Cu-induced stress depends on rootstock genotypes. However, there is a lack of information about how woody plants recover growth capacity after exposure to elevated Cu and whether growth is affected by the redistribution of the metal to new vegetative parts and consequently whether photosynthesis is affected. Therefore, the biomass of plants and Cu concentrations in new leaf flushes were determined in young citrus trees grafted onto contrasting rootstocks [Swingle citrumelo (SW) and Rangpur lime (RL)]...
April 17, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667134/two-phase-i-pharmacokinetic-and-pharmacodynamic-studies-of-dfp-10917-a-novel-nucleoside-analog-with-14-day-and-7-day-continuous-infusion-schedules
#5
Kamalesh Sankhala, Chris H Takimoto, Alain C Mita, Henry Xiong, Jordi Rodón, Amir Mehrvarz Sarshekeh, K Burns, Kenzo Iizuka, Scott Kopetz
Purpose DFP-10917 is a novel deoxycytidine analog with a unique mechanism of action. Brief exposure to high concentrations of DFP-10917 inhibits DNA polymerase resulting in S-phase arrest, while prolonged exposure to DFP-10917 at low concentration causes DNA fragmentation, G2/M-phase arrest, and apoptosis. DFP-10917 demonstrated activity in tumor xenografts resistant to other deoxycytidine analogs. Experimental design Two phase I studies assessed the safety, pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and preliminary efficacy of DFP-10917...
April 18, 2018: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666463/towards-a-generalized-toxicity-prediction-model-for-oxide-nanomaterials-using-integrated-data-from-different-sources
#6
Jang-Sik Choi, My Kieu Ha, Tung Xuan Trinh, Tae Hyun Yoon, Hyung-Gi Byun
A generalized toxicity classification model for 7 different oxide nanomaterials is presented in this study. A data set extracted from multiple literature sources and screened by physicochemical property based quality scores were used for model development. Moreover, a few more preprocessing techniques, such as synthetic minority over-sampling technique, were applied to address the imbalanced class problem in the data set. Then, classification models using four different algorithms, such as generalized linear model, support vector machine, random forest, and neural network, were developed and their performances were compared to find the best performing preprocessing methods as well as algorithms...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665769/sublethal-chronic-effects-of-oral-dietary-exposure-to-deltamethrin-in-swiss-albino-mice
#7
Anita Tewari, R S Banga, Jps Gill
The hazards of dietary exposure to environmentally relevant levels of deltamethrin are poorly understood though studies enunciate the acute toxicity hazards. In this study, prolonged exposure to low levels of deltamethrin in mice was investigated. The mice were exposed daily via gavage method for 60 days. Four doses (0.1, 0.05, 0.01, and 0.005 mg/kg bwt/d) were selected, which are equal to or less than the maximum residue limits for deltamethrin permitted in animal food/feed. Liver, kidney, lungs, spleen, and testes were collected on day 61 for histology, residue, and biochemical analysis (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALKP), total bilirubin (TBIL), total proteins (TPs), cholesterol (CHOL), urea, and creatinine)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665639/comparative-toxicity-and-bioaccumulation-of-two-dinotefuran-metabolites-uf-and-dn-in-earthworms-eisenia-fetida
#8
Tong Liu, Xiaolian Zhang, Xiuguo Wang, Dan Chen, Yiqiang Li, Fenglong Wang
Dinotefuran, as the latest generation of neonicotinoid insecticide, has broad application prospects around the world. However, dinotefuran is easily metabolized and the two main metabolites are 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) urea (UF) and 1-methyl-3-(tetrahydro-3-furylmethyl) guanidium dihydrogen (DN). In the present study, the risks of UF and DN in soil on typical non-target species earthworm were investigated. In the same time, the degradation in soil and accumulation in earthworms of UF and DN were monitored...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665635/a-mechanism-study-on-toxicity-of-graphene-oxide-to-daphnia-magna-direct-link-between-bioaccumulation-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Xiaohui Lv, Yao Yang, Yi Tao, Yuelu Jiang, Baiyang Chen, Xiaoshan Zhu, Zhonghua Cai, Bing Li
Graphene oxide (GO) possesses versatile applicability and high hydrophilicity, thus may have frequent contact with aquatic organisms. However, the ecological risks of GO in aquatic ecosystems remain largely unexplored currently. This study evaluated the comprehensive toxicological effects of GO on Daphnia magna, a key species in fresh water ecosystem. The results revealed nonsevere acute toxicities, including immobility (72 h EC50 : 44.3 mg/L) and mortality (72 h LC50 : 45.4 mg/L), of GO on D. magna. To understand the underlying mechanism of GO exposure, changes in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) of D...
March 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665551/a-multi-medium-chain-modeling-approach-to-estimate-the-cumulative-effects-of-cadmium-pollution-on-human-health
#10
Xingmei Liu, Libin Zhong, Jun Meng, Fan Wang, Jiangjiang Zhang, Yuyou Zhi, Lingzao Zeng, Xianjin Tang, Jianming Xu
Cadmium is a highly persistent and toxic heavy metal that poses severe health risks to humans. Diet is the primary source of human exposure to cadmium, especially in China. Soil, as the main medium that transfers cadmium to rice, can be used as a helpful indicator to predict human exposure to cadmium in soils. There is, however, very little work that links a soil-rice transfer model with a biokinetic model to assess health risks. In this work, we introduce a multi-medium chain model based upon a soil-rice-human continuum to address this issue...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665550/polyfluorinated-iodine-alkanes-regulated-distinct-breast-cancer-cell-progression-through-binding-with-estrogen-receptor-alpha-or-beta-isoforms
#11
Wenting Song, Qian S Liu, Zhendong Sun, Xiaoxi Yang, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Polyfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) are a kind of emerging chemicals with endocrine disrupting effects. Based on the different binding preferences of PFIs to estrogen receptor alpha and beta isoforms (ERα and β), two representative PFIs, dodecafluoro-1,6-diiodohexane (PFHxDI) and tridecafluorohexyl iodide (PFHxI), were selected to evaluate their effects on the proliferation of two kinds of breast cancer cells with different ERα/β expression levels, MCF-7 and T47D. The cell viability assay showed PFHxDI could cause higher cellular toxicity than did PFHxI in both MCF-7 and T47D...
April 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665541/evaluation-of-a-single-extraction-test-to-estimate-the-human-oral-bioaccessibility-of-potentially-toxic-elements-in-soils-towards-more-robust-risk-assessment
#12
S M Rodrigues, N Cruz, L Carvalho, A C Duarte, E Pereira, A G F Boim, L R F Alleoni, P F A M Römkens
Intake of soil by children and adults is a major exposure pathway to contaminants including potentially toxic elements (PTEs). However, only the fraction of PTEs released in stomach and intestine are considered as bioaccessible and results from routine analyses of the total PTE content in soils, therefore, are not necessarily related to the degree of bioaccessibility. Experimental methods to determine bioaccessibility usually are time-consuming and relatively complicated in terms of analytical procedures which limits application in first tier assessments...
April 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665530/the-burden-of-disease-attributable-to-ambient-pm2-5-bound-pahs-exposure-in-nagpur-india
#13
Tunde O Etchie, Saravanadevi Sivanesan, Ayotunde T Etchie, Gregory O Adewuyi, Kannan Krishnamurthi, K V George, Padma S Rao
Exposure to PM2.5 -bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can elicit several types of cancer and non-cancer effects. Previous studies reported substantial burdens of PAH-induced lung cancer, but the burdens of other cancer types and non-cancer effects remain unknown. Thus, we estimate the cancer and non-cancer burden of disease, in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), attributable to ambient PM2.5 -bound PAHs exposure in Nagpur district, India, using risk-based approach. We measured thirteen PAHs in airborne PM2...
April 11, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665483/absorption-of-arsenic-from-soil-and-water-by-two-chard-beta-vulgaris-l-varieties-a-potential-risk-to-human-health
#14
L M Yañez, J A Alfaro, G Bovi Mitre
The accumulation of arsenic (As) in vegetables poses a risk of contamination to humans via the food chain. Two chard (var. cicla and var. d'ampuis) crops were grown for 60 days in greenhouses on Aridisol soil, and irrigated with water from Pastos Chicos, Jujuy (Argentina). The soil and water used in the trial presented 49 and 1.44 mg/L As concentration levels, respectively. Total dry biomass (TDB) and total As were determined in soils, roots and leaves. The latter was quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generation, and bioconcentration and translocation factors were determined...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665383/impact-of-aging-alzheimer-s-disease-and-parkinson-s-disease-on-the-blood-brain-barrier-transport-of-therapeutics
#15
Yijun Pan, Joseph A Nicolazzo
Older people are at greater risk of medicine-induced toxicities resulting from either increased drug sensitivity or age-related pharmacokinetic changes. The scenario is further complicated with the two most prevalent age-related neurodegenerative diseases, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). With aging, AD and PD, there is growing evidence of altered structure and function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), including modifications to tight junctions and efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665350/pxr-structure-specific-activation-by-hepatotoxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids
#16
Claudia Luckert, Albert Braeuning, Alfonso Lampen, Stefanie Hessel-Pras
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) comprise a large group of more than 660 secondary metabolites found in more than 6000 plant species worldwide. Acute PA intoxication induces severe liver damage. Chronic exposure to sub-lethal doses may cause cumulative damage or cancer. Nuclear receptor activation often constitutes a molecular event for xenobiotic-induced toxicity. However, so far nothing is known about potential interactions of PAs with nuclear receptors as a toxicological mode of action. Thus, in the present study PA-dependent activation of a comprehensive panel of nuclear receptors (PPARs, LXRα, RARα, RXRα, FXR, CAR, PXR, ERα/β) was investigated using GAL4/UAS-based transactivation reporter gene assays...
April 14, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664942/dietary-cyanogen-exposure-and-early-child-neurodevelopment-an-observational-study-from-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#17
Espérance Kashala-Abotnes, Marie-Thérèse Sombo, Daniel L Okitundu, Marcel Kunyu, Guy Bumoko Makila-Mabe, Thorkild Tylleskär, Alla Sikorskii, Jean-Pierre Banea, Dieudonné Mumba Ngoyi, Désiré Tshala-Katumbay, Michael J Boivin
BACKGROUND: Dietary cyanogen exposure from ingesting bitter (toxic) cassava as a main source of food in sub-Saharan Africa is related to neurological impairments in sub-Saharan Africa. We explored possible association with early child neurodevelopmental outcomes. METHODS: We undertook a cross-sectional neurodevelopmental assessment of 12-48 month-old children using the Mullen Scale of Early Learning (MSEL) and the Gensini Gavito Scale (GGS). We used the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist-10 (HSCL-10) and Goldberg Depression Anxiety Scale (GDAS) to screen for symptoms of maternal depression-anxiety...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664296/ppar%C3%AE-mediates-the-hepatoprotective-effects-of-nutmeg
#18
Xiao Nan Yang, Xue-Mei Liu, JIan-He Fang, Xu Zhu, Xiu-Wei Yang, Xue-Rong Xiao, Jian-Feng Huang, Frank J Gonzalez, Fei Li
Nutmeg is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Some reports indicated that nutmeg has hepatoprotective activity. In this study, a thioacetamide (TAA)-induced acute liver injury model in mice was used to explore the mechanism of the protective effects of nutmeg extract (NME), including its major bioactive component myrislignan. The results indicated that NME could effectively protect TAA-induced liver damage as assessed by recovery of increased serum liver transaminases, decrease hepatic oxidative stress and lower hepatic inflammation...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663928/a-tiered-experimental-approach-for-characterization-and-silver-release-of-silver-containing-wound-dressings
#19
Liming Xu, Ru Bai, Xiang Cheng, Anliang Shao, Liang Chen, Shuxin Qu, Chunying Chen
Silver-containing dressings are widely used for wound care owing to their broad-spectrum microbicidal activity. However, the potential adverse effects on human health emerging from exposure to their active ingredients (silver ions or nanoparticles) have resulted in widespread concerns about their use. The release profiles of various chemical forms of silver (Ag) from silver-containing dressing are closely related to their bioavailability and potential adverse effects on the body. In this research, we demonstrated a tiered experimental approach for systematic characterization and assessment of silver-containing wound dressing, which provides information for risk assessments...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663826/antioxidant-and-hepato-preventive-effect-of-citrus-aurantium-extract-against-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-hepatotoxicity-in-rats-and-characterisation-of-its-bioactive-compounds-by-hplc-ms
#20
Anis Ben Hsouna, Manel Gargouri, Wissal Dhifi, Walid Saibi
The objective of this study is to explore the preventive effects of ethyl acetate fraction from Citrus aurantium leaf extract (EACA), associated with its phytochemical content, against the toxic impacts of acute exposure to carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ) in the liver of adult rats. HPLC analysis of ethyl acetate fraction from extract C. aurantium revealed eight compounds. Administration of a single dose of CCl4 caused hepatoxicity as monitored by an increase in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and in protein carbonyl level but a decrease in antioxidant markers in the liver tissue...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
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