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Toxicant exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223910/analysis-of-the-interactions-between-environmental-and-food-contaminants-cadmium-and-deoxynivalenol-in-different-target-organs
#1
Thanh-Huong Le, Imourana Alassane-Kpembi, Isabelle P Oswald, Philippe Pinton
Cadmium (Cd), a common and widespread toxic heavy metal, and mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) are frequent contaminants of the food supply. Most of the data on their toxicity concern their effects when present alone. However, consumers can be exposed to a cocktail of DON and Cd. To improve the understanding of their combined toxicity, the effects of DON and Cd alone or in combination were investigated in different human cell lines from the kidney (HEK-293), intestine (Caco-2), blood (HL-60) and liver (HepG2)...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223822/exposure-to-acrylamide-induces-cardiac-developmental-toxicity-in-zebrafish-during-cardiogenesis
#2
Mengmeng Huang, Jingjing Jiao, Jun Wang, Zhidan Xia, Yu Zhang
Acrylamide (AA), an environmental pollutant, has been linked to neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity. AA is widely used to synthesize polymers for industrial applications, is widely found in Western-style carbohydrate-rich foods and cigarette smoke, and can also be detected in human umbilical cord blood and breast milk. This is the first study that demonstrated the cardiac developmental toxicity of AA in zebrafish embryos. Post-fertilization exposure to AA caused a clearly deficient cardiovascular system with a shrunken heart and abortive morphogenesis and function...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223814/a-metabolomics-strategy-to-assess-the-combined-toxicity-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-and-short-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-sccps
#3
Feidi Wang, Haijun Zhang, Ningbo Geng, Xiaoqian Ren, Baoqin Zhang, Yufeng Gong, Jiping Chen
The combined toxicity of mixed chemicals is usually evaluated according to several specific endpoints, and other potentially toxic effects are disregarded. In this study, we provided a metabolomics strategy to achieve a comprehensive understanding of toxicological interactions between mixed chemicals on metabolism. The metabolic changes were quantified by a pseudotargeted analysis, and the types of combined effects were quantitatively discriminated according to the calculation of metabolic effect level index (MELI)...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223809/cadmium-induces-bnip3-dependent-autophagy-in-chicken-spleen-by-modulating-mir-33-ampk-axis
#4
Menghao Chen, Xiaojing Li, Ruifeng Fan, Jie Yang, Xi Jin, Sattar Hamid, Shiwen Xu
Cadmium (Cd), a widespread environmental pollutant, has toxic effects on organs including spleen. However, the underlying mechanisms of Cd induced spleen toxicity and the roles of micro-RNA (miRNA) in this process remain poorly understood. To investigate this, cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 10 mg/kg) was administered in the diet of chickens for 90 days. Electron microscopy, qPCR and Western blot were performed. Results showed that Cd exposure suppressed miR-33-5q which increased the levels of AMPK. Subsequently, significant decrease in AKT/mTOR signaling and HSP70 were observed...
December 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223574/evaluation-of-the-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-on-folic-acid-uptake-by-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-cells
#5
Yuko Kurosawa, Ayako Furugen, Ayako Nishimura, Katsuya Narumi, Masaki Kobayashi, Ken Iseki
Folate status during pregnancy is important for fetal development and health. The placenta plays an important role in supplying the fetus with folate. Most women with epilepsy continue their medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of 16 antiepileptic drugs, clinically used for treatment of epilepsy, on folic acid uptake in two in vitro placental models, BeWo and JEG-3 cells. Short-term exposure to antiepileptic drugs had no effects on [3H]-folic acid uptake by BeWo cells...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223572/curcumin-ameliorates-the-in-vitro-efficacy-of-carfilzomib-in-human-multiple-myeloma-u266-cells-targeting-p53-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways
#6
Alessandro Allegra, Antonio Speciale, Maria Sofia Molonia, Letterio Guglielmo, Caterina Musolino, Guido Ferlazzo, Gregorio Costa, Antonella Saija, Francesco Cimino
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant B-cell neoplasm with accumulation of malignant plasma cells in bone marrow. Pharmacological therapy improves response frequency even if with various associated toxicities. Herein, we investigated if combination of curcumin with carfilzomib (CFZ) can induce a better cytotoxic effect on in vitro cultured U266 cells. Cell viability data showed that curcumin significantly ameliorates CFZ cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, curcumin alone did not affect proteasome at the tested dose, confirming the involvement of different mechanisms in the observed effects...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222745/mir-26a-functions-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-ambient-particulate-matter-bound-metal-triggered-lung-cancer-cell-metastasis-by-targeting-lin28b-il6-stat3-axis
#7
Yan-Yang Lu, Yi Lin, Dong-Xiao Ding, Shu Su, Qiao-Qiao Chi, You-Chi Zhang, Jian Sun, Xu Zhang, Hui-Min Zhu, Qian-Sheng Huang, Yu-Lang Chi, Guo-Zhu Ye, Shu Tao, Si-Jun Dong
Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) has been linked to the increasing incidence and mortality of lung cancer, but the principal toxic components and molecular mechanism remain to be further elucidated. In this study, human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells were treated with serial concentrations of water-extracted PM10 (WE-PM10) collected from Beijing, China. Our results showed that exposure to 25 and 50 μg/ml of WE-PM10 for 48 h significantly suppressed miR-26a to upregulate lin-28 homolog B (LIN28B), and in turn activated interleukin 6 (IL6) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in A549 cells, subsequently contributing to enhanced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and accelerated migration and invasion...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222715/clinical-validation-study-of-dried-blood-spot-for-determining-everolimus-concentration-in-patients-with-cancer
#8
A E C A B Willemsen, L M Knapen, Y M de Beer, R J M Brüggemann, S Croes, C M L van Herpen, N P van Erp
PURPOSE: Everolimus treatment is seriously hampered by its toxicity profile. As a relationship between everolimus exposure and effectiveness and toxicity has been established, early and ongoing concentration measurement can be key to individualize the dose and optimize treatment outcomes. Dried blood spot (DBS) facilitates sampling at a patients' home and thereby eases dose individualization. The aim of this study is to determine the agreement and predictive performance of DBS compared to whole blood (WB) to measure everolimus concentrations in cancer patients...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222658/phytotoxic-effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-in-tobacco-plants
#9
Petra Cvjetko, Mira Zovko, Petra Peharec Štefanić, Renata Biba, Mirta Tkalec, Ana-Marija Domijan, Ivana Vinković Vrček, Ilse Letofsky-Papst, Sandra Šikić, Biljana Balen
The small size of nanoparticles (NPs), with dimensions between 1 and 100 nm, results in unique chemical and physical characteristics, which is why they are implemented in various consumer products. Therefore, an important concern is the potential detrimental impact of NPs on the environment. As plants are a vital part of ecosystem, investigation of the phytotoxic effects of NPs is particularly interesting. This study investigated the potential phytotoxicity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants and compared it with the effects of the same AgNO3 concentrations...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222648/the-level-of-toxic-elements-in-edible-crops-from-seleniferous-area-punjab-india
#10
Margarita G Skalnaya, Sumit K Jaiswal, Ranjana Prakash, N Tejo Prakash, Andrei R Grabeklis, Irina V Zhegalova, Feng Zhang, Xiong Guo, Alexey A Tinkov, Anatoly V Skalny
The primary objective of the present study was to assess the level of selenium and toxic trace elements in wheat, rice, maize, and mustard from seleniferous areas of Punjab, India. The content of selenium (Se) and toxic trace elements, including aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn), in crop samples was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry after microwave digestion of the samples. The obtained data demonstrate that cultivation of crops on seleniferous soils significantly increased Se level in wheat, mustard, rice, and maize by a factor of more than 590, 111, 85, and 64, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222266/impact-of-bone-disease-and-pain-in-thalassemia
#11
REVIEW
Antonio Piga
Conventional treatment of thalassemia, namely regular blood transfusion and iron chelation, improves perspectives and quality of life; however, successful treatment leads to more time in which long-term complications such as bone disease can develop. Thalassemia bone disease (TBD) is unique: all aspects, from bone anatomy and bone quality to mineral density, may be affected, with important morbidity including osteoporosis, fractures, spinal deformities, nerve compression, and pain. Clinical presentations include growth impairment, rickets-like features, back pain, spinal deformities, any sign of nerve compression, severe osteoporosis, and fragility fractures...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222131/low-dose-anthracycline-and-risk-of-heart-failure-in-a-pharmacokinetic-model-of-human-myocardium-exposure-analog-specificity-and-role-of-secondary-alcohol-metabolites
#12
Emanuela Salvatorelli, Pierantonio Menna, Massimo Chello, Elvio Covino, Giorgio Minotti
Cumulative doses of doxorubicin and other antitumor anthracyclines may cause heart failure (HF). Cardiotoxicity is determined by cardiac exposure to anthracyclines and to more toxic secondary alcohol metabolites that are formed inside cardiomyocytes or diffuse from the bloodstream. Concerns exist that HF might be caused by cumulative anthracycline doses that were thought to be safe. Patients with gain-of-function polymorphism of carbonyl reductase 3 (CBR3), which converts anthracyclines to secondary alcohol metabolites, would be at a higher risk of HF...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222055/autophagy-plays-a-protective-role-in-mn-induced-toxicity-in-pc12-cells
#13
Qian Zhou, Xiaolong Fu, Xueting Wang, Qin Wu, Yuanfu Lu, Jingshan Shi, James E Klaunig, Shaoyu Zhou
Excessive environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with increased risk of neuron degenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the main mechanisms of Mn mediated neurotoxicity. Selective removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against neuronal toxicant-induced neurotoxicity. Whether autophagic flux plays a role in Mn-induced cytotoxicity remains to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on autophagy, and how modulation of autophagic flux alters the sensitivities of cells to Mn-elicited cytotoxicity...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222054/caramel-color-safety-an-update
#14
REVIEW
Thomas A Vollmuth
Caramel color has been used in foods and beverages for over 150 years and is globally regulated as a color additive. The four distinct classes of caramel color (Plain Caramel, Sulfite Caramel, Ammonia Caramel, and Sulfite Ammonia Caramel) are well characterized and each have specifications that take into account processing variables including reactants that can give rise to low molecular weight constituents (e.g., 4-MeI and THI) that may have toxicological significance for evaluating safety. Extensive safety testing has been conducted with the different classes of caramel color and its constituents, including toxicokinetics, genotoxicity, subchronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, and reproductive/developmental toxicity studies...
December 5, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221954/total-particulate-matter-from-cigarette-smoke-disrupts-vascular-development-in-zebrafish-brain-danio-rerio
#15
Andrey Massarsky, G L Prasad, Richard T Di Giulio
Several studies have demonstrated zebrafish as a useful high-throughput in-vivo model to study the effects of cigarette smoke on early development. It has been shown previously that exposure of zebrafish to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM) leads to several adverse physiological aberrations, including heart deformities and improper angiogenesis. Consequently, this study investigated the effects of TPM on cardiovascular development in zebrafish that were exposed to increasing concentrations of TPM based upon nicotine content from 6h post fertilization (hpf) up to 72hpf...
December 5, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221951/role-of-drugs-in-the-prevention-and-amelioration-of-radiation-induced-toxic-effects
#16
REVIEW
Rakesh Raman Patyar, Sazal Patyar
As the use of radiation technology for nuclear warfare or for the benefits of mankind (e.g. in radiotherapy or radio-diagnosis) is increasing tremendously, the risk of associated side effects is becoming a cause of concern. These effects, ranging from nausea/vomiting to death, may result from accidental or deliberate exposure and begin in seconds. Through this review paper, efforts have been done to critically review different compounds which have been investigated as radioprotectors and radiation mitigators...
December 5, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220516/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-four-insecticides-on-the-aphidophagous-coccinellid-adalia-bipunctata-coleoptera-coccinellidae
#17
Laura Depalo, Alberto Lanzoni, Antonio Masetti, Edison Pasqualini, Giovanni Burgio
Conventional insecticide assays, which measure the effects of insecticide exposure on short-term mortality, overlook important traits, including persistence of toxicity or sub-lethal effects. Therefore, such approaches are especially inadequate for prediction of the overall impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods. In this study, the side effects of four modern insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, emamectin benzoate, spinosad, and spirotetramat) on Adalia bipunctata (L.) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions by exposition on treated potted plants...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220483/prenatal-exposure-to-bisphenol-a-disrupts-naturally-occurring-bimodal-dna-methylation-at-proximal-promoter-of-fggy-an-obesity-relevant-gene-encoding-a-carbohydrate-kinase-in-gonadal-white-adipose-tissues-of-cd-1-mice
#18
Julia A Taylor, Keiko Shioda, Shino Mitsunaga, Shiomi Yawata, Brittany M Angle, Susan C Nagel, Frederick S Vom Saal, Toshi Shioda
Exposure of mammalian fetuses to endocrine disruptors can increase the risk of adult-onset diseases. For example, we previously showed that exposure of mouse fetuses to bisphenol A (BPA) caused adult-onset obesity. To obtain insights into roles of epigenetic changes in the delayed toxic effects of endocrine disruption, we determined effects of fetal mouse exposure to BPA on genome-wide DNA methylation and mRNA expression in gonadal white adipose tissues by deep sequencing (MBD-seq and RNA-seq), bisulfite pyrosequencing, and real-time qPCR...
December 6, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220089/potato-plants-solanum-tuberosum-l-are-chloride-sensitive-is-this-dogma-valid
#19
Birgit W Hütsch, Katrin Keipp, Ann-Kathrin Glaser, Sven Schubert
BACKGROUND: Chloride sensitivity of the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars Marabel and Désirée was investigated in two pot experiments (soil/sand mixture and hydroponics). It was tested whether there are differential effects of KCl and K2 SO4 application on tuber yield and tuber quality, and whether both potato cultivars differ in their chloride sensitivity. RESULTS: Tuber yield, dry matter percentage of the tubers, starch concentration and starch yield were not significantly affected by potassium source (K2 SO4 or KCl)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218982/discovery-of-a-novel-polyfluoroalkyl-benzenesulfonic-acid-around-oilfields-in-northern-china
#20
Lin Xu, Yali Shi, Chuangxiu Li, Xiaowei Song, Zhanfen Qin, Dong Cao, Yaqi Cai
The existence of more than 3000 per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) on the global market has prompted the identification and hazard characterization of hitherto unknown PFASs. In the present study, a novel PFAS, sodium p-perfluorous nonenoxybenzenesulfonate (OBS), was identified using Orbitrap MS/MS in water samples around a suspected application area, Daqing Oilfield, China. The peak OBS concentration was 3.2 × 103 ng/L in a sample taken near the oil well with the longest production history in Daqing...
December 8, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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