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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820481/studies-on-the-presence-of-mycotoxins-in-biological-samples-an-overview
#1
REVIEW
Laura Escrivá, Guillermina Font, Lara Manyes, Houda Berrada
Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites with bioaccumulation levels leading to their carry-over into animal fluids, organs, and tissues. As a consequence, mycotoxin determination in biological samples from humans and animals has been reported worldwide. Since most mycotoxins show toxic effects at low concentrations and considering the extremely low levels present in biological samples, the application of reliable detection methods is required. This review summarizes the information regarding the studies involving mycotoxin determination in biological samples over the last 10 years...
August 18, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820078/effects-of-excitotoxic-lesion-with-inhaled-anesthetics-on-nervous-system-cells-of-rodents
#2
Maria Fernanda Quiroz Padilla, Gemma Guillazo-Blanch, Magdy Sanchez, Maria Andrea Dominguez, Rosa Margaria Gomez
Different anesthesia methods can variably influence excitotoxic lesion effects on the brain. The main purpose of this review is to identify potential differences in the toxicity to nervous system cells of two common inhalation anesthesia methods, isoflurane and sevoflurane, used in combination with an excitotoxic lesion procedure in rodents. The use of bioassays in animal models has provided the opportunity to examine the role of specific molecules and cellular interactions that underlie important aspects of neurotoxic effects relating to calcium homeostasis and apoptosis activation...
August 17, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820073/immunomodulatory-role-of-arsenic-on-regulatory-t-cells
#3
Rizwanul Haque, Archana Chaudhary, Nadra Sadaf
Background and objective-Chronic Arsenic (As) exposure continued to be a cause of major problem associated with different kind of diseases including skin problem and different types of cancer. As exposure leads to numerous other pathological conditions that affect millions of people worldwide on a regular basis. It was recently established that As toxicity affects immune system and modulate the function and survival of cells involved in immune regulation. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) was reported to be an effective apoptosis inducer in a variety of cell types...
August 17, 2017: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819717/mitigation-of-acute-aluminum-toxicity-by-sodium-selenite-and-n-acetylcysteine-in-adult-male-rats
#4
Naglaa H Nour-Eldein, El-Sayed A Hassanin, Wael M El-Sayed
The objective of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of aluminum and the potential alleviation of selenite and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on this toxicity. Acute aluminum toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AlCl3 (30 mg Al(3+)/kg) for four consecutive days. Al(3+) damaged the synthetic capability and regeneration power of liver cells and induced inflammation. It also damaged the kidney and disturbed the lipid profile enhancing the total cholesterol level and LDL-cholesterol level increasing the risks of atherosclerosis...
August 17, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819542/mulberry-fruit-extract-affords-protection-against-ethyl-carbamate-induced-cytotoxicity-and-oxidative-stress
#5
Wei Chen, Yuting Li, Tao Bao, Vemana Gowd
Ethyl carbamate (EC) is a food and environmental toxicant and is a cause of concern for human exposure. Several studies indicated that EC-induced toxicity was associated with oxidative stress. Mulberry fruits are reported to have a wide range of bioactive compounds and pharmacological activities. The present study was therefore aimed to investigate the protective property of mulberry fruit extract (MFE) on EC-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. Chemical composition analysis showed that total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in MFE were 502...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818592/the-impact-of-chemosensitisation-on-bioaccumulation-and-sediment-toxicity
#6
Denise Kurth, Stefan Lips, Riccardo Massei, Martin Krauss, Till Luckenbach, Tobias Schulze, Werner Brack
Cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) transport proteins enhance the efflux of numerous organic pollutants. However, MXR proteins may be blocked or saturated by xenobiotic compounds, acting as inhibitors - also called chemosensitisers. Although effective on a cellular level, the environmental relevance of chemosensitisers has not been conclusively demonstrated. Since sediments are an important source of bioaccumulating compounds in aquatic ecosystems, sediments and sediment-associated hydrophobic pollutants were investigated for their potential to increase exposure and toxicity in the presence of chemosensitisation...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818300/birth-outcome-racial-disparities-a-result-of-intersecting-social-and-environmental-factors
#7
Heather H Burris, Michele R Hacker
Adverse birth outcomes such as preterm birth, low-birth weight, and infant mortality continue to disproportionately affect black and poor infants in the United States. Improvements in healthcare quality and access have not eliminated these disparities. The objective of this review was to consider societal factors, including suboptimal education, income inequality, and residential segregation, that together lead to toxic environmental exposures and psychosocial stress. Many toxic chemicals, as well as psychosocial stress, contribute to the risk of adverse birth outcomes and black women often are more highly exposed than white women...
August 14, 2017: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817620/gtsp1-expression-in-non-smoker-and-non-drinker-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck
#8
Pamela de Oliveira Soares, Patrícia Maluf Cury, Rossana Verónica Mendoza López, Cláudio Roberto Cernea, Erika Erina Fukuyama, David Livingstone Alves Figueiredo, Francisco Gorgonio da Nobrega, Otavio Alberto Curioni, Fabio Daumas Nunes, Raquel Ajub Moyses, Maria Lúcia Bueno Garcia
INTRODUCTION: The main risk factors for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are tobacco and alcohol consumption and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. However, in a subset of patients, no risk factors can be identified. Glutathione S-transferase π (GTSP1) is a carcinogen-detoxifying enzyme that is activated by exposure to carcinogens, and it is associated with a reduction in response to toxic therapies. We studied the expression of GTSP1 in tumor and non-tumor tissue samples from patients with and without these risks to identify whether GTSP1 expression differs according to exposure to carcinogens...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817263/responses-of-periphyton-to-fe2o3-nanoparticles-a-physiological-and-ecological-basis-for-defending-nanotoxicity
#9
Jun Tang, Ningyuan Zhu, Yan Zhu, Junzhuo Liu, Chenxi Wu, Philip G Kerr, Yonghong Wu, Kwan Sing Paul Kwan-Sing Lam
The toxic effects of nanoparticles on individual organisms have been widely investigated, while few studies have investigated the effects of nanoparticles on ubiquitous multi-community microbial aggregates. Here, periphyton as a model of microbial aggregates, was employed to investigate the responses of microbial aggregates exposed continuously to Fe2O3 nanoparticles (5.0 mg L-1) for 30 days. The Fe2O3 nanoparticles enter the microbial cells of the periphyton and disperse in the cytoplasm. The exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles results in the chlorophyll (a, b and c) contents of periphyton increasing and the total antioxidant capacity decreasing...
August 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815728/effects-of-bifenthrin-exposure-on-the-estrogenic-and-dopaminergic-pathways-in-zebrafish-embryos-and-juveniles
#10
Luísa Becker Bertotto, Jaben Richards, Jay Gan, David Christopher Volz, Daniel Schlenk
Bifenthrin (BF) is a pyrethroid insecticide used in urban and agricultural applications. Previous studies have shown that environmentally relevant (ng/L) concentrations of BF increased plasma concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and altered the expression of dopaminergic (DA) pathway components. DA neurons can indirectly regulate E2 biosynthesis, suggesting that BF may disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. Since embryos do not have a complete HPG axis, the hypothesis that BF impairs DA regulation was tested in embryonic and one-month old juvenile zebrafish (Danio rerio) with exposure to measured concentrations of 0...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815697/case-control-study-of-chronic-low-level-exposure-of-inorganic-arsenic-species-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#11
Tae-Hoon Kim, Jeong-Wook Seo, Young-Seoub Hong, Ki-Hoon Song
A significant relationship between arsenic exposure and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is well known. The toxicity of arsenics which develop NMSC is dependent on their species. Accordingly, total arsenic levels are unreliable for risk assessment of NMSC. However, there are few studies on quantitative exposure assessment of arsenic species in NMSC patients. To validate the contribution of each arsenic species to NMSC, we compared the creatinine-adjusted urinary concentration of arsenic species in NMSC patients and community controls...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815642/nox4-and-nrf2-mediated-oxidative-stress-induced-by-silver-nanoparticles-in-vascular-endothelial-cells
#12
Xia Sun, Yi Yang, Junpeng Shi, Chengcheng Wang, Zhenfeng Yu, Hongwu Zhang
It has been widely reported that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) induce oxidative stress in various cell lines. However, the mechanism for this effect and its consequences for cellular signaling are poorly understood. In this study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the toxicity and investigate the associated molecular mechanisms caused by exposure to AgNPs. We demonstrated that AgNP exposure significantly and dose-dependently decreased the cell viability, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and led to early apoptosis in HUVECs...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815461/drug-induced-kidney-injury-in-the-elderly
#13
REVIEW
Sana Khan, Valentina Loi, Mitchell H Rosner
The incidence of acute kidney injury in the elderly has grown over the past decade. One of the primary drivers is drug-induced nephrotoxicity, which is the result of a combination of the unique susceptibilities to kidney injury and the increased use of medications in the elderly population. Specific drug classes are associated with increased rates of kidney injury including agents that block the renin angiotensin system, antimicrobials, and chemotherapeutic agents. Mechanistically, injury may be due to hemodynamic effects, tubular or glomerular toxicity, and interstitial nephritis...
August 16, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814866/graphene-oxide-and-reduced-graphene-oxide-induced-neural-pheochromocytoma-derived-pc12-cell-lines-apoptosis-and-cell-cycle-alterations-via-the-erk-signaling-pathways
#14
Yiyuan Kang, Jia Liu, Junrong Wu, Qian Yin, Huimin Liang, Aijie Chen, Longquan Shao
Given the novel applications of graphene materials in biomedical and electronics industry, the health hazards of these particles have attracted extensive worldwide attention. Although many studies have been performed on graphene material-induced toxic effects, toxicological data for the effect of graphene materials on the nervous system are lacking. In this study, we focused on the biological effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) materials on PC12 cells, a type of traditional neural cell line...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814818/multigenerational-effects-of-copper-nanomaterials-cuonms-are-different-of-those-of-cucl2-exposure-in-the-soil-invertebrate-enchytraeus-crypticus
#15
Rita C Bicho, Fátima C F Santos, Janeck J Scott-Fordsmand, Mónica J B Amorim
Nanomaterials (NMs) are recommended to be tested in longer term exposures. Multigenerational (MG) studies are scarce and particularly important because effects can be transferred to the next generation. The current risk assessment framework does not include MG effects and this is a caveat for persistent materials. Here, the effects of copper NMs (CuONMs) and copper salt (CuCl2) were assessed in a MG exposure (4 generations in spiked soil + 2 generations in clean soil, F1 to F7 generations in total), with the standard soil model Enchytraeus crypticus, using relevant reproduction test effect concentrations (EC10, EC50), monitoring survival and reproduction...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814476/phase-i-trial-of-the-androgen-receptor-modulator-cr1447-in-breast-cancer
#16
Martin Zweifel, Beat Thuerlimann, Salome Riniker, Patrik Weder, Roger von Moos, Olivia Pagani, Martin Bigler, Karin M Rothgiesser, Christiane Pilop, Hanne Hawle, Peter Brauchli, Coya Tapia, Wolfgang Schoenfeld, Cristiana Sessa
CR 1447 (4-hydroxytestosterone, 4-OHT) binds to the androgen receptor and has antiproliferative activity in both ER-positive and ER-negative/AR-positive breast cancer cells in pre-clinical studies. The objective of this first-in man trial was to evaluate safety and to determine the dose of CR1447, administered as an ointment, for Phase II. Escalating doses (100, 200, 400 mg) of CR1447 were administered topically on a daily basis to patients with ER-positive/AR-positive/HER2-negative advanced breast cancer pretreated with several lines of therapy...
August 16, 2017: Endocrine Connections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813693/thyrotoxicity-of-arsenate-and-arsenite-on-juvenile-mice-at-organism-subcellular-and-gene-levels-under-low-exposure
#17
Hong-Jie Sun, Shi-Wei Li, Chao Li, Wen-Qian Wang, Hong-Bo Li, Lena Q Ma
Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a worldwide issue, posing threat to human health. Arsenic is an endocrine system disruptor, however, limited information is available regarding its long-term effects on thyroid endocrine system at low exposure. In this study, we assessed the thyroid toxicity of arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII) at 10-100 μg L(-1) in juvenile mice after 8-week of exposure via drinking water. After 1-2 week, AsV and AsIII had little influence on thyroxine (T4) level (56.3-64.7 μg L(-1)) in mouse blood compared to control mice at 57...
August 10, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#18
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812438/acute-formaldehyde-exposure-induced-early-alzheimer-like-changes-in-mouse-brain
#19
Xudong Liu, Yuchao Zhang, Ruliu Wu, Meng Ye, Yuqing Zhao, Jun Kang, Ping Ma, Jinquan Li, Xu Yang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a serious, common, global disease, yet its etiology and pathogenesis are incompletely understood. Although an association between AD and exposure to air pollutants has been discussed, the effects of pollutants on the functioning of the brain remain unclear. The indoor environment is where exposure to formaldehyde (FA) can occur. Whether exposure to FA contributes to the development of AD needs to be investigated. To determine the objective, C57BL/6 mice were exposed daily to FA (0, 0...
August 16, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812381/retrospective-review-of-sglt2-inhibitor-exposures-reported-to-13-poison-centers
#20
Scott E Schaeffer, Carol DesLauriers, Henry A Spiller, Alfred Aleguas, Salvador Baeza, Mark L Ryan
BACKGROUND: SGLT2 inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetics prescribed in the United States since 2013. They act by inhibiting reabsorption of glucose in the proximal convoluted tubule of the kidney, allowing excess glucose to be excreted. Little has been reported regarding effects of non-therapeutic exposure to this class of medication. METHODS: Retrospective records from 13 poison centers were examined for human exposures to SGLT2 inhibitors between 1st January 2013 and 31st December 2016...
August 16, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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