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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738205/developing-and-applying-a-site-specific-multimedia-fate-model-to-address-ecological-risk-of-oxytetracycline-discharged-with-aquaculture-effluent-in-coastal-waters-off-jangheung-korea
#1
Woojung Kim, Yunho Lee, Sang Don Kim
The overuse of oxytetracycline (OTC) in aquaculture has become a problem because of its chronic toxic effects on marine ecosystems. The present study assessed the ecological risk of OTC in the coastal waters near the Jangheung Flatfish Farm using a site-specific multimedia fate model to analyze exposure. Before the model was applied, its performance was validated by comparing it with field data. The coastal waters in the testbed were sampled and analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) followed by solid-phase extraction (SPE)...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738204/the-fate-of-sotalol-in-aqueous-chlorination-kinetics-mechanisms-and-ecotoxicity-assessment
#2
Wan Nor Adira Wan Khalit, Kheng Soo Tay
Unmetabolized pharmaceuticals often enter the water treatment plants and exposed to various treatment processes. Among these water treatment processes, disinfection is a process which involves the application of chemical oxidation to remove pathogen. Untreated pharmaceuticals from primary and secondary treatment have the potential to be exposed to the chemical oxidation process during disinfection. This study investigated the kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of sotalol during chlorination process. Chlorination with hypochlorous acid (HOCl) as main reactive oxidant has been known as one of the most commonly used disinfection methods...
July 21, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738199/acute-ecotoxicity-of-coated-colloidal-goethite-nanoparticles-on-daphnia-magna-evaluating-the-influence-of-exposure-approaches
#3
V González-Andrés, M Diez-Ortiz, C Delpivo, G Janer, A Fritzsche, S Vázquez-Campos
Synthesized iron oxide nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to non-dispersed iron oxides for in situ environmental remediation. Their colloidal properties enable their injection into porous media, i.e. soils and aquifers, and offer a higher efficiency in removing contaminants. However, this dispersed state is also the cause of concerns over their environmental fate and toxicity, e.g., by increasing the exposure time to aquatic organisms in groundwater remediation activities. Therefore, the objective of in situ groundwater remediation is to establish local reactive barriers in the subsurface by injection by means of reactive colloids with a controllable mobility under in situ conditions and present as colloids as shortly as possible...
July 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737685/microcystin-prevalence-throughout-lentic-waterbodies-in-coastal-southern-california
#4
Meredith D A Howard, Carey Nagoda, Raphael M Kudela, Kendra Hayashi, Avery Tatters, David A Caron, Lilian Busse, Jeff Brown, Martha Sutula, Eric D Stein
Toxin producing cyanobacterial blooms have increased globally in recent decades in both frequency and intensity. Despite the recognition of this growing risk, the extent and magnitude of cyanobacterial blooms and cyanotoxin prevalence is poorly characterized in the heavily populated region of southern California. Recent assessments of lentic waterbodies (depressional wetlands, lakes, reservoirs and coastal lagoons) determined the prevalence of microcystins and, in some cases, additional cyanotoxins. Microcystins were present in all waterbody types surveyed although toxin concentrations were generally low across most habitats, as only a small number of sites exceeded California's recreational health thresholds for acute toxicity...
July 22, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737682/cadmium-handling-toxicity-and-molecular-targets-involved-during-pregnancy-lessons-from-experimental-models
#5
REVIEW
Tania Jacobo-Estrada, Mitzi Santoyo-Sánchez, Frank Thévenod, Olivier Barbier
Even decades after the discovery of Cadmium (Cd) toxicity, research on this heavy metal is still a hot topic in scientific literature: as we wrote this review, more than 1440 scientific articles had been published and listed by the PubMed.gov website during 2017. Cadmium is one of the most common and harmful heavy metals present in our environment. Since pregnancy is a very particular physiological condition that could impact and modify essential pathways involved in the handling of Cd, the prenatal life is a critical stage for exposure to this non-essential element...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737434/defining-the-timing-of-25-oh-d-rescue-following-nitrogen-mustard-exposure
#6
Lopa M Das, Amy M Binko, Zachary P Traylor, Lori Duesler, Kurt Q Lu
OBJECTIVE: Mass exposure to alkylating agents such as nitrogen mustard (NM), whether accidental or intentional as during warfare, are known to cause systemic toxicity and severe blistering from cutaneous exposure. Thus, establishing the timing and appropriate dose of any potential drug designed to reverse or impede these toxicities is critical for wound repair and survival. Our previous data demonstrates that a single intraperitoneal injection of low-dose 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) given as early as 1 hour following NM exposure is sufficient to rescue mice from pancytopenia and death...
July 24, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737291/nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-reducing-strategies-in-hiv-treatment-assessing-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
C Orkin, J M Llibre, S Gallien, A Antinori, Gmn Behrens, A Carr
Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy, comprising a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) plus another ARV, is the recognized standard of care (SOC), which has helped extend life expectancy in people living with HIV. In a quest to reduce lifelong drug exposure and minimize or avoid the toxicity of NRTIs, "NRTI-reducing" regimens have been investigated. This descriptive review assessing the results of NRTI-reducing strategies from the largest randomized trials focuses on virological efficacy, resistance, regimen safety (in terms of bone mineral density, renal function, lipids and central nervous system function) and simplicity...
July 24, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737125/taxanes-in-combination-with-platinum-derivatives-for-the-treatment-of-ovarian-cancer%C3%A2-during-pregnancy-a-literature-review%C3%A2
#8
Xiaoling Zheng, Yao Zhu, Yunchun Zhao, Shisen Feng, Caihong Zheng
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common types of solid carcinoma diagnosed during pregnancy. Taxane plus a platinum derivative is a combination therapy that is predominantly used in the treatment of ovarian cancer in non-pregnant women. Pregnancy adds various complexities to a course of treatment. In pregnant patients diagnosed with cancer during the first trimester, the risks of fetal malformations and fetal loss increase following the administration of cytotoxic drugs, and this is higher with multi-agent vs...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737035/novel-wastewater-based-epidemiology-approach-based-on-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-assessing-population-exposure-to-tobacco-specific-toxicants-and-carcinogens
#9
Foon Yin Lai, Frederic Been, Adrian Covaci, Alexander van Nuijs
Tobacco smoking remains an important public health issue worldwide. Assessment of exposure to tobacco-related toxicants and carcinogens at the population level is thus an essential population health indicator. This can be achieved by wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE), which relies on the analysis of biomarkers in wastewater. However, required analytical methods for the simultaneous measurement of tobacco-related toxicants and carcinogens in wastewater are not available. In this study, a new analytical procedure was developed and validated to measure tobacco-related alkaloids, carcinogens and their metabolites in raw wastewater, including anabasine (ANABA), anatabine (ANATA), cotinine (COT), trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (COT-OH), N-nitrosoanabasine (NAB), N-nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), NNAL-N-β-glucuronide and NNAL-O-β-glucuronide...
July 24, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736933/disruption-of-oxidative-balance-in-the-gut-of-the%C3%A2-western-honeybee-apis-mellifera-exposed-to-the-intracellular-parasite-nosema-ceranae-and-to-the-insecticide-fipronil
#10
Laurianne Paris, Michaël Roussel, Bruno Pereira, Frédéric Delbac, Marie Diogon
The causes underlying the increased mortality of honeybee colonies remain unclear and may involve multiple stressors acting together, including both pathogens and pesticides. Previous studies suggested that infection by the gut parasite Nosema ceranae combined with chronic exposure to sublethal doses of the insecticide fipronil generated an increase in oxidative stress in the midgut of honeybees. To explore the impact of these two stressors on oxidative balance, we experimentally infected bees with N. ceranae and/or chronically exposed to fipronil at low doses for 22 days, and we measured soluble reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS damage by quantifying both protein and lipid oxidation in the midgut...
July 24, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736188/asparaginase-associated-pancreatitis-in-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukaemia-an-observational-ponte-di-legno-toxicity-working-group-study
#11
Benjamin O Wolthers, Thomas L Frandsen, André Baruchel, Andishe Attarbaschi, Shlomit Barzilai, Antonella Colombini, Gabriele Escherich, Kathrine Grell, Hiroto Inaba, Gábor Kovacs, Der-Cherng Liang, Marion Mateos, Veerle Mondelaers, Anja Möricke, Tomasz Ociepa, Sujith Samarasinghe, Lewis B Silverman, Inge M van der Sluis, Martin Stanulla, Lynda M Vrooman, Michihiro Yano, Ester Zapotocka, Kjeld Schmiegelow
BACKGROUND: Survival for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia surpasses 90% with contemporary therapy; however, patients remain burdened by the severe toxic effects of treatment, including asparaginase-associated pancreatitis. To investigate the risk of complications and risk of re-exposing patients with asparaginase-associated pancreatitis to asparaginase, 18 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia trial groups merged data for this observational study. METHODS: Patient files from 26 trials run by 18 trial groups were reviewed on children (aged 1·0-17·9 years) diagnosed with t(9;22)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukaemia between June 1, 1996, and Jan 1, 2016, who within 50 days of asparaginase exposure developed asparaginase-associated pancreatitis...
July 20, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736047/health-risk-assessment-as-an-approach-to-manage-an-old-landfill-and-to-propose-integrated-solid-waste-treatment-a-case-study-in-italy
#12
O Paladino, M Massabò
The aim of the present paper is to show how an approach based on human health risk analysis can be used as a decisional tool for the evaluation of impacts on population and for deciding between different waste treatment processes. The situation in which the increasing production of solid wastes cannot be confined in the old existing Municipal Solid Waste landfill (settled in Genoa, Liguria Region, Italy) is used as a case study. Risk assessment for human health due to air, surface water, groundwater and soil contamination is performed in different scenarios for the old landfill and compared with alternative Waste-to-Energy management solutions that consider thermal treatment by gasification of the total waste or gasification of the dry fraction coupled with anaerobic digestion of the wet fraction, plus biogas combustion with or without sludge and bottom ash/slag disposal in the old landfill...
July 20, 2017: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735887/effect-of-pyrethroids-on-female-genital-system-review
#13
REVIEW
Elena Marettova, Milan Maretta, Jaroslav Legáth
Pyrethroids have been associated with a range of toxicological effects on various organs in animals.Recent animal studies suggest that neurodevelopmental, reproductive, and immunological effects may result following exposure to some pyrethroids at levels below those that induce overt signs of neurotoxicity. A variety of pyrethroids and their metabolites have the potential to affect the reproductive system. Dose-dependent effects on reproduction are associated with exposure across pyrethroid types. In mammals, permethrin and tetramethrin and cypermethrin have been found to be associated with adverse effects at high doses...
July 16, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735558/nicotinic-receptor-abnormalities-in-the-cerebellar-cortex-of-sudden-unexplained-fetal-and-infant-death-victims-possible-correlation-with-maternal-smoking
#14
Anna M Lavezzi, Stefano Ferrero, Luca Roncati, Francesco Piscioli, Luigi Matturri, Teresa Pusiol
Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are cationic channels of the neuronal cell membrane, differentially expressed in the central nervous system which, when activated by endogenous acetylcholine or exogenous nicotine, are able to enhance cholinergic transmission. The aim of this study was to investigate in human perinatal age the immunohistochemical expression of the α7-nAChR subtype, given its involvement in neuronal differentiation and its significant vulnerability to the toxic effects of nicotine...
July 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735496/low-level-prenatal-toxin-exposures-and-breastfeeding-duration-a-prospective-cohort-study
#15
Casey B Rosen-Carole, Peggy Auinger, Cynthia R Howard, Elizabeth A Brownell, Bruce P Lanphear
Introduction Maternal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with shortened breastfeeding duration, but few studies have examined the effects on breastfeeding outcomes of low level exposures to other toxic chemicals. Moreover, it is unclear if passive smoking is associated with duration of breastfeeding. Our objective was therefore to examine the effect of low-level prenatal exposures to common environmental toxins (tobacco smoke, lead, and phthalates) on breastfeeding exclusivity and duration. Methods We conducted an analysis of data from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment (HOME) Study...
July 22, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735378/a-phase-i-ii-trial-and-pharmacokinetic-study-of-mithramycin-in-children-and-adults-with-refractory-ewing-sarcoma-and-ews-fli1-fusion-transcript
#16
Patrick J Grohar, John Glod, Cody J Peer, Tristan M Sissung, Fernanda I Arnaldez, Lauren Long, William D Figg, Patricia Whitcomb, Lee J Helman, Brigitte C Widemann
PURPOSE: In a preclinical drug screen, mithramycin was identified as a potent inhibitor of the Ewing sarcoma EWS-FLI1 transcription factor. We conducted a phase I/II trial to determine the dose-limiting toxicities (DLT), maximum tolerated dose (MTD), and pharmacokinetics (PK) of mithramycin in children with refractory solid tumors, and the activity in children and adults with refractory Ewing sarcoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Mithramycin was administered intravenously over 6 h once daily for 7 days for 28 day cycles...
July 22, 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735337/thresholds-of-toxicological-concern-setting-a-threshold-for-testing-below-which-there-is-little-concern
#17
Thomas Hartung
Low dose, low risk; very low dose, no real risk. Setting a pragmatic threshold below which concerns become negligible is the purpose of thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC). The idea is that such threshold values do not need to be established for each and every chemical based on experimental data, but that by analyzing the distribution of lowest or no-effect doses of many chemicals, a TTC can be defined - typically using the 5th percentile of this distribution and lowering it by an uncertainty factor of, e...
2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735243/interactions-between-pteris-vittata-l-genotypes-and-a-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-pah-degrading-bacterium-alcaligenes-sp-in-arsenic-uptake-and-pah-dissipation
#18
Lu Sun, Ganghui Zhu, Xiaoyong Liao, Xiulan Yan
The effects of two Pteris vittata L. accessions and a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium (Alcaligenes sp.) on arsenic (As) uptake and phenanthrene dissipation were studied. The Alcaligenes sp. survived in the rhizosphere and improved soil As bioavailability with co-exposure. However, bacterial inoculation altered Pteris vittata L. stress tolerance, and substantially affected the As distribution in the rhizosphere of the two P. vittata accessions. Bacterial inoculation was beneficial to protect the Guangxi accession against the toxic effects, and significantly increased plant As and phenanthrene removal ratios by 27...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735239/effects-of-a-glyphosate-based-herbicide-in-pejerrey-odontesthes-humensis-embryonic-development
#19
Yuri Dornelles Zebral, Patrícia Gomes Costa, Bruna de Castro Knopp, Luize Real Lansini, Bruna Zafalon-Silva, Adalto Bianchini, Ricardo Berteaux Robaldo
Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Among them, the Roundup formulations are the most popular. Some aspects of GBH toxicity are well known, such as induction of oxidative stress. However, embryotoxicity is scarcely known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of exposure to different Roundup Transorb R concentrations (0.36, 1.80, 3.62 and 5.43 mg glyphosate a.e./L) on Odontesthes humensis embryonic development. Embryos were sampled at three exposure times (48, 72 and 96 h)...
July 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734988/can-adverse-effects-of-excessive-vitamin-d-supplementation-occur-without-developing-hypervitaminosis-d
#20
REVIEW
Mohammed S Razzaque
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that has endocrine, paracrine and autocrine functions. Consumption of vitamin D-supplemented food & drugs have increased significantly in the last couple of decades due to campaign and awareness programs. Despite such wide use of artificial vitamin D supplements, serum levels of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] does not always reflect the amount of uptake. In contrast to the safe sunlight exposure, prolonged and disproportionate consumption of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, even without developing hypervitaminosis D...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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