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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458016/renal-toxicological-evaluations-of-sulphonated-nanocellulose-from-khaya-sengalensis-seed-in-wistar-rats
#1
Adewale Adewuyi, Chiagoziem A Otuechere, Olusegun L Adebayo, Chibuzo Anazodo, Fabiano V Pereira
Nanocellulose is currently gaining attention due to its unique properties. This attention includes its application as building blocks for developing novel functional materials, plant drug and also in drug delivery systems. However, its safety remains largely untested or less understood. Thus, sulphonated nanocellulose (KSS) was prepared from cellulose (KSC) isolated from Khaya senegalensis seed (KS). KS, KSC and KSS were characterized using Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG), particle size distribution (PSD), zeta potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
February 16, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457957/synergistic-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungus-fusarium-oxysporum-extract-in-combination-with-temephos-against-three-major-mosquito-vectors
#2
Perumal Vivekanandhan, Sengodan Karthi, Muthugounder S Shivakumar, Giovanni Benelli
Mosquito control using chemical insecticides is facing a major challenge due to development of insecticide resistance. Improving the efficiency of existing insecticides using synergistic secondary metabolites of biological origin is increasingly being researched. Herein, we evaluated the toxicity of Fusarium oxysporum extract alone and in binary combinations with temephos, on larvae and pupae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefaciatus. F. oxysporum extract was characterized using TLC, FT-IR and GC-MS...
February 19, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457833/a-green-method-to-determine-vuv-185-nm-fluence-rate-based-on-hydrogen-peroxide-production-in-aqueous-solution
#3
Laxiang Yang, Mengkai Li, Wentao Li, James R Bolton, Zhimin Qiang
A mini-fluidic vacuum ultraviolet/ultraviolet (VUV/UV) photoreaction system (MVPS) was developed in our previous study. Based on the MVPS, a green method to determine VUV fluence rate has been developed using the production rate of H2 O2 when water is exposed to 185 nm VUV. The H2 O2 production followed pseudo-zero-order reaction kinetics well over the first 10 min of VUV/UV exposure. This new method was well calibrated with a standard cis-cyclooctene cis-trans photoisomerization actinometer as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry...
February 19, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457669/n-acetyl-cysteine-mediated-inhibition-of-spermatogonial-cells-apoptosis-against-malathion-exposure-in-testicular-tissue
#4
Jitender Kumar Bhardwaj, Priyanka Saraf, Priya Kumari, Meenu Mittal, Vijay Kumar
Toxicological studies so far suggest that excessive use of malathion, an organophosphate insecticide, causes serious ill-effects in mammalian reproductive physiology. The present study aims at assessing malathion-induced toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner with mitigating effects of N-acetyl-l-cysteine. The testicular germ cell viability was monitored using MTT assay, where NAC, being an antioxidant significantly reduced malathion-induced toxicity by enhancing the frequency of cell viability. The histomorphological analysis showed that NAC successfully diminished several apoptotic features in testicular cells, induced by malathion...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457141/extrahepatic-toxicity-of-acetaminophen-critical-evaluation-of-the-evidence-and-proposed-mechanisms
#5
Stefanie Kennon-McGill, Mitchell R McGill
Research on acetaminophen (APAP) toxicity over the last several decades has focused on the pathophysiology of liver injury, but increasing attention is being paid to other known and possible adverse effects. It has been known for decades that APAP causes acute kidney injury, but confusion exists regarding prevalence, and the mechanisms have not been well investigated. More recently, a number of experimental, clinical and epidemiological studies have reported evidence for pulmonary, endocrine, neurological and neurodevelopmental toxicity, but the quality of evidence from those studies varies...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456264/hazardous-chemical-releases-occurring-in-school-settings-14-states-2008-2013
#6
Ayana R Anderson, Taniece R Eure, Maureen F Orr, Lloyd J Kolbe, Alan Woolf
Children are considered to be a vulnerabletion when it comes to exposures to hazardous substances. Schools, where children spend about one third of their day, are expected to be a safe environment. Yet, there are many hazardous substances in schools that can be inadvertently or intentionally released and harm the health of students and teachers alike. The purpose of this analysis is to characterize acute chemical release incidents in school settings and identify prevention practices. The acute chemical incident surveillance programs of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) captured 24,748 acute chemical release incidents from 14 states that participated during 2008-2013...
November 2017: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456142/the-feronia-receptor-kinase-maintains-cell-wall-integrity-during-salt-stress-through-ca-2-signaling
#7
Wei Feng, Daniel Kita, Alexis Peaucelle, Heather N Cartwright, Vinh Doan, Qiaohong Duan, Ming-Che Liu, Jacob Maman, Leonie Steinhorst, Ina Schmitz-Thom, Robert Yvon, Jörg Kudla, Hen-Ming Wu, Alice Y Cheung, José R Dinneny
Cells maintain integrity despite changes in their mechanical properties elicited during growth and environmental stress. How cells sense their physical state and compensate for cell-wall damage is poorly understood, particularly in plants. Here we report that FERONIA (FER), a plasma-membrane-localized receptor kinase from Arabidopsis, is necessary for the recovery of root growth after exposure to high salinity, a widespread soil stress. The extracellular domain of FER displays tandem regions of homology with malectin, an animal protein known to bind di-glucose in vitro and important for protein quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455353/lethal-and-sub-lethal-effects-of-cyproconazole-on-freshwater-organisms-a-case-study-with-chironomus-riparius-and-dugesia-tigrina
#8
Althiéris S Saraiva, Renato A Sarmento, Oksana Golovko, Tomas Randak, João L T Pestana, Amadeu M V M Soares
The fungicide cyproconazole (CPZ) inhibits the biosynthesis of ergosterol, an essential sterol component in fungal cell membrane and can also affect non-target organisms by its inhibitory effects on P450 monooxygenases. The predicted environmental concentration of CPZ is up to 49.05 μg/L and 145.89 μg/kg in surface waters and sediments, respectively, and information about CPZ toxicity towards non-target aquatic organisms is still limited. This study aimed to address the lack of ecotoxicological data for CPZ, and thus, an evaluation of the lethal and sub-lethal effects of CPZ was performed using two freshwater invertebrates (the midge Chironomus riparius and the planarian Dugesia tigrina)...
February 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455124/combination-effects-of-airborne-particulate-matter-exposure-and-high-fat-diet-on-hepatic-fibrosis-through-regulating-the-ros-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-tgf%C3%AE-smads-axis-in-mice
#9
Shibin Ding, Lanlan Yu, Baijie An, Guofu Zhang, Pengxin Yu, Zhe Wang
BACKGROUND: Hepatic fibrosis, characterized by an excessive accumulation of extracellular matrix, is associated with toxic substance exposure, chronic infections, mechanical injury, airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) exposure and metabolic disease. This study aimed to investigate the effect and mechanism of long-term, real-world airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure on hepatic fibrosis and further explored whether combination treatment of PM exposure and high-fat diet (HFD) aggravate the adverse effects in mice...
February 14, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455116/linking-mode-of-action-of-the-model-respiratory-and-photosynthesis-uncoupler-3-5-dichlorophenol-to-adverse-outcomes-in-lemna-minor
#10
Li Xie, Tânia Gomes, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, You Song, Knut Erik Tollefsen
Standard chemical toxicity testing guidelines using aquatic plant Lemna minor have been developed by several international standardisation organisations. Although being highly useful for regulatory purposes by focusing on traditional adverse endpoints, these tests provide limited information about the toxic mechanisms and modes of action (MoA). The present study aimed to use selected functional assays in L. minor after exposure to 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) as a model to characterise the toxic mechanisms causing growth inhibition and lethality in primary producers...
February 10, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455088/parasite-susceptibility-in-an-amphibian-host-is-modified-by-salinization-and-predators
#11
Nicholas Buss, Jessica Hua
Secondary salinization represents a global threat to freshwater ecosystems. Salts, such as NaCl, can be toxic to freshwater organisms and may also modify the outcome of species interactions (e.g. host-parasite interactions). In nature, hosts and their parasites are embedded in complex communities where they face anthropogenic and biotic (i.e. predators) stressors that influence host-parasite interactions. As human populations grow, considering how anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to shape host-parasite interactions will become increasingly important...
February 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455008/quantitative-estimation-of-mercury-intake-by-toxicokinetic-modelling-based-on-total-mercury-levels-in-humans
#12
K Abass, A Huusko, H K Knutsen, P Nieminen, P Myllynen, H M Meltzer, K Vahakangas, A Rautio
Mercury is a toxic metal that can be disseminated into the environment from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Human exposure to the metal stems mainly from food, and more particularly from the consumption of fish and other seafoods. Examining dietary exposure and measuring mercury levels in body tissues are two ways of estimating exposure to mercury. In this study, we utilized a modelling system consisting of three linear toxicokinetic models for describing the fate of methyl mercury, inorganic mercury, and metallic mercury in the body, in order to estimate daily intake of mercury as measured through total mercury concentrations in the blood...
February 15, 2018: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454991/toxicological-effect-of-underutilized-plant-cleistanthus-collinus-leaf-extracts-against-two-major-stored-grain-pests-the-rice-weevil-sitophilus-oryzae-and-red-flour-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#13
Govindharaj Guru-Pirasanna-Pandi, Totan Adak, Basana Gowda, Naveenkumar Patil, Mahendiran Annamalai, Mayabini Jena
Toxicity and repellency activity of Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.) (CC) leaf extracts were evaluated against rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) under laboratory condition. Five concentration(s) (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5% and 4%) with two controls (acetone and water) treatments along with deltamethrin were used for direct and contact residual toxicity. The insect that survived after CC exposure were transferred to an untreated feeding substrate and the population buildup of subsequent two generation were recorded after 30 (F1 ) and 60 days (F2 )...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454986/nano-sized-tio-2-ntio-2-induces-metabolic-perturbations-in-physarum-polycephalum-macroplasmodium-to-counter-oxidative-stress-under-dark-conditions
#14
Zhi Zhang, Zhi Cheng Liang, Jian Hua Zhang, Sheng Li Tian, Jun Le Qu, Jiao Ning Tang, Shi De Liu
Nano-sized TiO2 (nTiO2 ) exerts an oxidative effect on cells upon exposure to solar or UV irradiation and ecotoxicity of the nTiO2 is an urgent concern. Little information is available regarding the effect of TiO2 on cells under dark conditions. Metabolomics is a unique approach to the discovery of biomarkers of nTiO2 cytotoxicity, and leads to the identification of perturbed metabolic pathways and the mechanism underlying nTiO2 toxicity. In the present study, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics was performed to investigate the effect of nTiO2 on sensitive cells (P...
February 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454866/behavioral-toxicity-of-sodium-cyanide-following-oral-ingestion-in-rats-dose-dependent-onset-severity-survival-and-recovery
#15
Nathaniel C Rice, Noah A Rauscher, Jeffrey L Langston, Todd M Myers
Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is a commonly and widely used industrial and laboratory chemical reagent that is highly toxic. Its availability and rapid harmful/lethal effects combine to make cyanide a potential foodborne/waterborne intentional-poisoning hazard. Thus, laboratory studies are needed to understand the dose-dependent progression of toxicity/lethality following ingestion of cyanide-poisoned foods/liquids. We developed an oral-dosing method in which a standard pipette was used to dispense a sodium cyanide solution into the cheek, and the rat then swallowed the solution...
February 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454865/inhibitory-effects-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-cytotoxicity-in-pc12-cells-via-regulating-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis
#16
Kaniz Fatima Binte Hossain, Md Mostafizur Rahman, Md Tajuddin Sikder, Takeshi Saito, Toshiyuki Hosokawa, Masaaki Kurasaki
Purpose of this study is to investigate mechanism/s of cyto-protection by selenium (Na2 SeO3 ; Se4+ ) against cadmium (CdCl2 ; Cd2+ )-induced cytotoxicity using PC12 cells. In addition, Se (5, 10, 20 and 40 μM) and Cd (2.5, 5 and 10 μM)-induced cytotoxicity is determined. Cytotoxicity assays and western blot analyses confirmed that Se (≥10 μM) promotes autophagic cell death via inhibition of mTOR activation and p62 accumulation due to increase of cellular oxidative stress. On the other hand, co-presence of non-toxic Se (5 μM) and toxic Cd (5 μM) showed to increase cell viability, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) levels, and to decrease DNA fragmentation and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity compared to Cd-treated (5 μM) cells alone...
February 15, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454490/subchronic-exposure-to-acrylamide-leads-to-pancreatic-islet-remodeling-determined-by-alpha-cell-expansion-and-beta-cell-mass-reduction-in-adult-rats
#17
Milena Stošić, Milica Matavulj, Jelena Marković
Acrylamide (AA) is a toxic substance, used to synthesize polymers for industrial and laboratory processes. Also, AA is a food contaminant formed during the high temperature preparation of carbohydrate-rich food. The main subject of this study was to examine effects of subchronic AA treatment on the islets of Langerhans of adult rats. Adult male Wistar rats were orally treated with 25 or 50 mg/kg bw of AA for 3 weeks. Qualitative and quantitative immunohistochemical evaluation of glucagon and insulin expression and stereological analyses of pancreatic alpha and beta cells were performed...
February 14, 2018: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454269/biological-effects-of-four-iron-containing-nanoremediation-materials-on-the-green-alga-chlamydomonas-sp
#18
Nhung H A Nguyen, Nadia R Von Moos, Vera I Slaveykova, Katrin Mackenzie, Rainer U Meckenstock, Silke Thűmmler, Julian Bosch, Alena Ševců
As nanoremediation strategies for in-situ groundwater treatment extend beyond nanoiron-based applications to adsorption and oxidation, ecotoxicological evaluations of newly developed materials are required. The biological effects of four new materials with different iron (Fe) speciations ([i] FerMEG12 - pristine flake-like milled Fe(0) nanoparticles (nZVI), [ii] Carbo-Iron ® - Fe(0)-nanoclusters containing activated carbon (AC) composite, [iii] Trap-Ox® Fe-BEA35 (Fe-zeolite) - Fe-doped zeolite, and [iv] Nano-Goethite - 'pure' FeOOH) were studied using the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas sp...
February 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454062/laser-assisted-delivery-of-synergistic-combination-chemotherapy-in-in-vivo-skin
#19
Emily Wenande, Joshua Tam, Brijesh Bhayana, Steven Kyle Schlosser, Emily Ishak, William A Farinelli, Agata Chlopik, Mai P Hoang, Omar R Pinkhasov, Peter Caravan, R Rox Anderson, Merete Haedersdal
The effectiveness of topical drugs for treatment of non-melanoma skin cancer is greatly reduced by insufficient penetration to deep skin layers. Ablative fractional lasers (AFLs) are known to enhance topical drug uptake by generating narrow microchannels through the skin, but information on AFL-drug delivery in in vivo conditions is limited. In this study, we examined pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and toxicity of two synergistic chemotherapy agents, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), following AFL-assisted delivery alone or in combination in in vivo porcine skin...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454059/towards-a-regulatory-use-of-alternative-developmental-neurotoxicity-testing-dnt
#20
Andrea Terron, Susanne Hougaard Bennekou
There is a need for a more effective Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) screening which is scientifically driven by the fact that the developing nervous system might be more sensitive to exposures to some hazardous chemical. Additional concern comes from the recent societal concerns that toxic chemicals can contribute to the prevalence of neurodevelopment disabilities. Consequently, hazard identification and actions to reduce exposure to these chemicals is a priority in chemical risk assessment. To reach this goal a cost-efficient testing strategy based on a reliable in-vitro testing battery should be developed...
February 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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