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Toxicant exposure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088022/valorization-of-aluminum-scrap-via-an-acid-washing-treatment-for-reductive-removal-of-toxic-bromate-from-water
#1
Kun-Yi Andrew Lin, Jia-Yin Lin, Hsing-Lung Lien
Aluminum scrap (AS) is adopted for the first time as a readily available aluminum source to prepare zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) for removing bromate from water via a reductive reaction. Since aluminum is easily oxidized to aluminum oxide (Al2O3) on exposure to air, an acid-washing pretreatment on AS is developed to remove the layer of Al2O3. HCl is found as the most effective acid to pretreat AS and the HCl-pretreated or acid-washed AS (AWAS) is able to remove bromate from water and convert it to bromide. Factors, such as temperature, pH, co-existing anions, and particle size, which influence the bromate removal using AWAS are also investigated...
January 6, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087839/understanding-the-property-activity-relationships-of-polyhedral-cuprous-oxide-nanocrystals-in-terms-of-reactive-crystallographic-facets
#2
Yanlin Feng, Yun Chang, Xiujuan Sun, Ning Liu, Yan Cheng, Yuqing Feng, Haiyuan Zhang, Xi Li
The property-activity relationship is usually established to understand the toxicity mechanism of nanomaterials. In the present study, different morphological Cu2O nanocrystals, octahedrons, truncated octahedrons, cuboctahedrons, and cubes, were synthesized to precisely tuning the {100} and {111} facet percentages in purpose of systematically investigating the toxicity role of crystallographic facets in BEAS-2B and RAW 264.7 cells. It was found that the toxicity of polyhedral Cu2O nanocrystals was highly dependent on the exposed {100} surface after short-term exposure because {100} facets could produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS) than {111} facets, however, after long-term exposure, their toxicity showed again the correlation with total surface property because toxic copper ions were largely released from the whole nanocrystal surface irrespective of {100} or {111} facet and this copper dissolution caused the collapse of surface crystals and the vanishing of ROS...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087835/study-of-tio2-p25-nanoparticles-genotoxicity-on-lung-blood-and-liver-cells-in-lung-overload-and-non-overload-conditions-after-repeated-respiratory-exposure-in-rats
#3
Charlène Relier, Marielle Dubreuil, Omar Lozano Garcia, Eugenia Cordelli, Jorge Mejia, Patrizia Eleuteri, Franck Robidel, Thomas Loret, Francesca Pacchierotti, Stéphane Lucas, Ghislaine Lacroix, Bénédicte Trouiller
Inhaled titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) can have negative health effects, and have been shown to cause respiratory tract cancer in rats. Inflammation has been linked to oxidative stress, and both have been described as possible mechanisms for genotoxicity of NPs, but rarely examined side-by-side in animal studies. In the present study, a wide range of complementary endpoints have been performed to study TiO2 P25 NP-induced genotoxicity in lung overload and non-overload conditions. Additionally, lung burden, inflammation, cytotoxicity and oxidative stress have also been evaluated in order to link genotoxicity with these responses...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087834/environmental-deflection-the-impact-of-toxicant-exposures-on-the-aging-epigenome
#4
Joseph Kochmanski, Luke Montrose, Jaclyn M Goodrich, Dana C Dolinoy
Epigenetic drift and age-related methylation have both been used in the literature to describe changes in DNA methylation that occurs with aging. However, ambiguity remains regarding the exact definition of both of these terms, and neither of these fields of study explicitly considers the impact of environmental factors on the aging epigenome. Recent twin studies have demonstrated longitudinal, pair-specific discordance in DNA methylation patterns, suggesting an effect of the environment on age-related methylation and/or epigenetic drift...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087322/cutaneous-exposure-to-vesicant-phosgene-oxime-acute-effects-on-the-skin-and-systemic-toxicity
#5
Neera Tewari-Singh, Dinesh G Goswami, Rama Kant, Claire R Croutch, Robert P Casillas, David J Orlicky, Rajesh Agarwal
Phosgene Oxime (CX), an urticant or nettle agent categorized as a vesicant, is a potential chemical warfare and terrorist weapon. Its exposure can result in widespread and devastating effects including high mortality due to its fast penetration and ability to cause immediate severe cutaneous injury. It is one of the least studied chemical warfare agents with no effective therapy available. Thus, our goal was to examine the acute effects of CX following its cutaneous exposure in SKH-1 hairless mice to help establish a relevant injury model...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087315/assessing-light-independent-effects-of-hypericin-on-cell-viability-ultrastructure-and-metabolism-in-human-glioma-and-endothelial-cells
#6
Veronika Huntosova, Marta Novotova, Zuzana Nichtova, Lucia Balogova, Maria Maslanakova, Dana Petrovajova, Katarina Stroffekova
Cell exposure to light-independent effects of photosensitizers (PS) used in PDT is clinically relevant when PS affect the pro-apoptotic cascade.In many malignant cells, Hypericin (Hyp) has PS displayed light-dependent anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effects with no cytotoxicity in the dark. Recent studies have shown that Hyp also exhibited light-independent cytotoxic effects in a wide range of concentrations. The molecular mechanisms underlying Hyp light-independent (dark) toxicity may be due to its interaction with different molecules at the Hyp accumulation sites including mitochondria, and these mechanisms are not understood in detail...
January 10, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086803/compendium-of-tcdd-mediated-transcriptomic-response-datasets-in-mammalian-model-systems
#7
Stephenie D Prokopec, Kathleen E Houlahan, Ren X Sun, John D Watson, Cindy Q Yao, Jamie Lee, Christine P'ng, Renee Pang, Alexander H Wu, Lauren C Chong, Ashley B Smith, Nicholas J Harding, Ivy D Moffat, Jere Lindén, Sanna Lensu, Allan B Okey, Raimo Pohjanvirta, Paul C Boutros
BACKGROUND: 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent congener of the dioxin class of environmental contaminants. Exposure to TCDD causes a wide range of toxic outcomes, ranging from chloracne to acute lethality. The severity of toxicity is highly dependent on the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR). Binding of TCDD to the AHR leads to changes in transcription of numerous genes. Studies evaluating the transcriptional changes brought on by TCDD may provide valuable insight into the role of the AHR in human health and disease...
January 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081489/protective-effect-of-chitosan-on-photosynthesis-and-antioxidative-defense-system-in-edible-rape-brassica-rapa-l-in-the-presence-of-cadmium
#8
Haiying Zong, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Xiaolin Chen, Pengcheng Li
Chitosan (CTS) induces plant tolerance against several abiotic stresses, including salinity and drought exposure. However, the role of CTS in cadmium (Cd)-induced stress amelioration is largely unknown. In the present study, a hydroponic pot experiment was conducted to study the roles of CTS with different molecular weight (Mw) (10kDa,5kDa and 1kDa) in alleviating Cd toxicity in edible rape (Brassica rapa L .). The results showed that Cd stress significantly decreased plant growth, leaf chlorophyll contents and increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in rape leaves...
January 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081255/changes-in-dna-methylation-in-mouse-lungs-after-a-single-intra-tracheal-administration-of-nanomaterials
#9
Ali M Tabish, Katrien Poels, Hyang-Min Byun, Katrien Luyts, Andrea A Baccarelli, Johan Martens, Stef Kerkhofs, Sven Seys, Peter Hoet, Lode Godderis
AIMS: This study aimed to investigate the effects of nanomaterial (NM) exposure on DNA methylation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Intra-tracheal administration of NM: gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) of 5-, 60- and 250-nm diameter; single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at high dose of 2.5 mg/kg and low dose of 0.25 mg/kg for 48 h to BALB/c mice. Study showed deregulations in immune pathways in NM-induced toxicity in vivo. NM administration had the following DNA methylation effects: AuNP 60 nm induced CpG hypermethylation in Atm, Cdk and Gsr genes and hypomethylation in Gpx; Gsr and Trp53 showed changes in methylation between low- and high-dose AuNP, 60 and 250 nm respectively, and AuNP had size effects on methylation for Trp53...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081197/morphine-withdrawal-modifies-prion-protein-expression-in-rat-hippocampus
#10
Vincenzo Mattei, Stefano Martellucci, Francesca Santilli, Valeria Manganelli, Tina Garofalo, Niccolò Candelise, Alessandra Caruso, Maurizio Sorice, Sergio Scaccianoce, Roberta Misasi
The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain structure susceptible to damage during aging and chronic stress. Repeated exposure to opioids may alter the brain so that it functions normally when the drugs are present, thus, a prolonged withdrawal might lead to homeostatic changes headed for the restoration of the physiological state. Abuse of morphine may lead to Reacting Oxygen Species-induced neurodegeneration and apoptosis. It has been proposed that during morphine withdrawal, stress responses might be responsible, at least in part, for long-term changes of hippocampal plasticity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079919/copper-oxide-nanoparticles-and-copper-sulphate-act-as-antigenotoxic-agents-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Mohamed Alaraby, Alba Hernández, Ricard Marcos
The biological reactivity of metal and metal oxide nanomaterials is attributed to their redox properties, which would explain their pro- or anti-cancer properties depending on exposure circumstances. In this sense, copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONP) have been proposed as a potential anti-tumoral agent. The aim of this study was to assess if CuONP can exert antigenotoxic effects using Drosophila melanogaster as an in vivo model. Genotoxicity was induced by two well-known genotoxic compounds, namely potassium dichromate (PD) and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)...
January 12, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079192/differential-cytotoxic-effects-of-graphene-and-graphene-oxide-on-skin-keratinocytes
#12
Marco Pelin, Laura Fusco, Verónica León, Cristina Martín, Alejandro Criado, Silvio Sosa, Ester Vázquez, Aurelia Tubaro, Maurizio Prato
Impressive properties make graphene-based materials (GBMs) promising tools for nanoelectronics and biomedicine. However, safety concerns need to be cleared before mass production of GBMs starts. As skin, together with lungs, displays the highest exposure to GBMs, it is of fundamental importance to understand what happens when GBMs get in contact with skin cells. The present study was carried out on HaCaT keratinocytes, an in vitro model of skin toxicity, on which the effects of four GBMs were evaluated: a few layer graphene, prepared by ball-milling treatment (FLG), and three samples of graphene oxide (GOs, a research-grade GO1, and two commercial GOs, GO2 and GO3)...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079158/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-ahr-dependent-regulation-of-pulmonary-mirna-by-chronic-cigarette-smoke-exposure
#13
Sarah Rogers, Angela Rico de Souza, Michela Zago, Matthew Iu, Necola Guerrina, Alvin Gomez, Jason Matthews, Carolyn J Baglole
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically known for its toxic responses to man-made pollutants such as dioxin. More recently, the AhR has emerged as a suppressor of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis from cigarette smoke by mechanisms that may involve the regulation of microRNA. However, little is known about the AhR regulation of miRNA expression in the lung in response to inhaled toxicants. Therefore, we exposed Ahr(-/-) and Ahr(+/-) mice to cigarette smoke for 4 weeks and evaluated lung miRNA expression by PCR array...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079015/chemometrics-expertise-in-the-links-between-ecotoxicity-and-physicochemical-features-of-silver-nanoparticles-environmental-aspects
#14
Miroslava A Nedyalkova, Borjana V Donkova, Vasil D Simeonov
Studies of the ecotoxicological aspects of nanomaterials in aquatic environments are scarce. Given the growing varietyof nanoparticles (NPs), along with the diversity of aquatic species and environments, the key to promoting sound risk assessment in nanoecotoxicology is understanding the mechanisms that govern the fate of NPs in aquatic environments and their behavior at the NP-biota interface. In this paper, data collected from the literature on ecotoxicological effects observed in aquatic species is discussed and analyzed using multivariate statistics techniques...
January 12, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078980/bioremediation-of-toxic-heavy-metals-a-patent-review
#15
Neelam Verma, Rajni Sharma
BACKGROUND: The global industrialization is fulfilling the demands of modern population at the cost of environmental exposure to various contaminants including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect water and soil quality. Moreover these enter into the food chain and exhibit their lethal effects on the human health even when present at slightly higher concentration than required for normal metabolism. To the worst of their part, the heavy metals may become carcinogenic. Henceforth, the efficient removal of heavy metals is the demand of sustainable development...
January 11, 2017: Recent Patents on Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078911/c5a-increases-the-injury-to-primary-neurons-elicited-by-fibrillar-amyloid-beta
#16
Michael X Hernandez, Pouya Namiranian, Eric Nguyen, Maria I Fonseca, Andrea J Tenner
C5aR1, the proinflammatory receptor for C5a, is expressed in the central nervous system on microglia, endothelial cells, and neurons. Previous work demonstrated that the C5aR1 antagonist, PMX205, decreased amyloid pathology and suppressed cognitive deficits in two Alzheimer's Disease (AD) mouse models. However, the cellular mechanisms of this protection have not been definitively demonstrated. Here, primary cultured mouse neurons treated with exogenous C5a show reproducible loss of MAP-2 staining in a dose-dependent manner within 24 hr of treatment, indicative of injury to neurons...
February 2017: ASN Neuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078540/preplanned-safety-analysis-of-the-jfmc37-0801-trial-a-randomized-phase-iii-study-of-six-months-versus-twelve-months-of-capecitabine-as-adjuvant-chemotherapy-for-stage-iii-colon-cancer
#17
Takeshi Suto, Megumi Ishiguro, Chikuma Hamada, Katsuyuki Kunieda, Hiroyuki Masuko, Ken Kondo, Hideyuki Ishida, Genichi Nishimura, Kazuaki Sasaki, Takayuki Morita, Shoichi Hazama, Koutarou Maeda, Hideyuki Mishima, Hideyuki Ike, Sotaro Sadahiro, Kenichi Sugihara, Masazumi Okajima, Shigetoyo Saji, Junichi Sakamoto, Naohiro Tomita
BACKGROUND: Six months of adjuvant chemotherapy is regarded as the standard of care for patients with stage III colon cancer. However, whether longer treatment can improve prognosis has not been fully investigated. We conducted a phase III study comparing 6 and 12 months of adjuvant capecitabine chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, and report here the results of our preplanned safety analysis. METHODS: Patients aged 20-79 years with curatively resected stage III colon cancer were randomly assigned to receive 8 cycles (6 months) or 16 cycles (12 months) of capecitabine (2500 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-14 of each 21-day cycle)...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078519/decrease-in-the-genotoxicity-of-metal-contaminated-soils-with-biochar-amendments
#18
Frédéric Rees, Adrien Dhyèvre, Jean Louis Morel, Sylvie Cotelle
Biochar amendments, i.e., the solid product of biomass pyrolysis, reduce soil metal availability, which may lower the toxicity of metal-contaminated soils. A direct link between the decrease in soil metal availability and improved plant development is however often difficult to establish, as biochar may induce undesirable side effects on plant growth, e.g., a modification to plant nutrition. In order to investigate toxicity processes at a cellular level, roots of Vicia faba were exposed for 7 days to three metal-contaminated substrates and one control soil, amended with a 0 or 5% (w/w) addition of a wood-derived biochar...
January 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078368/time-dependent-toxicity-responses-in-daphnia-magna-exposed-to-cuo-and-zno-nanoparticles
#19
Soyoun Kim, Palas Samanta, Jisu Yoo, Woo-Keun Kim, Jinho Jung
Aggregation and dissolution of CuO and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) increased with increasing exposure time (24, 48, and 72 h). Acute toxicity of CuO NPs to Daphnia magna also increased significantly with increasing exposure time (p < 0.05), whereas exposure time did not significantly affect acute toxicity of ZnO NPs. The dissolved Cu concentration of CuO NPs was much lower than the median effective concentration (EC50) value (44 μg L(-1) at 72 h), implying that the increase in acute toxicity was caused by particles rather than by dissolved ions...
January 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077780/exposure-to-crvi-during-early-pregnancy-increases-oxidative-stress-and-disrupts-the-expression-of-antioxidant-proteins-in-placental-compartments
#20
Sakhila K Banu, Jone A Stanley, Kirthiram K Sivakumar, Robert J Taylor, Joe A Arosh, Robert C Burghardt
Epidemiologic studies document relationships between chromium VI (CrVI) exposure and increased risk of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and neonatal death in pregnant women. Environmental contamination with CrVI is a growing problem both in the United States and developing countries. CrVI is widely used in numerous industries. This study was designed to understand the mechanism of CrVI toxicity on placental oxidative stress and antioxidant (AOX) machinery. Pregnant mother rats were treated with or without CrVI (50 ppm K2Cr2O7) through drinking water from gestational day (GD) 9...
November 15, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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