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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326570/reproductive-disorders-in-female-rats-after-prenatal-exposure-to-betamethasone
#1
Cibele S Borges, Tainá L Pacheco, Marina T Guerra, Aline L Barros, Patricia V Silva, Gabriela Missassi, Katiussia Pinho da Silva, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, André S Pupo, Wilma De G Kempinas
Betamethasone is the drug of choice for antenatal treatment, promoting fetal lung maturation and decreasing mortality. Previous studies in rats reported male programming and alteration in sperm parameters and sexual behavior following intrauterine betamethasone exposure. The impact on the female reproductive development is not known. In this study, rat female offspring was assessed for sexual development, morphophysiology of the reproductive tract and fertility after maternal exposure to 0.1 mg kg(-1) of betamethasone or vehicle on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320989/differentially-methylated-cpg-sites-in-bull-spermatozoa-revealed-by-human-dna-methylation-arrays-and-bisulfite-analysis
#2
Kumiko Takeda, Eiji Kobayashi, Satoshi Akagi, Kagetomo Nishino, Masahiro Kaneda, Shinya Watanabe
The methylation status of sperm DNA differs between individual bulls. However, the relationship between methylation status and bull sperm parameters is not well elucidated. The present study investigated genome-wide methylation profiles at 450,000 CpG sites in bull spermatozoa by using a human DNA methylation microarray. Semen samples from three adult Japanese Black bulls with different in vitro fertilization (IVF) results and from a young Holstein bull through sexual maturation (at ages 10, 10.5, 15, and 25 months) were used for the analysis...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320892/sepiapterin-reductase-gene-disrupted-mice-suffer-from-hypertension-with-fluctuation-and-bradycardia
#3
Chiho Sumi-Ichinose, Yui Suganuma, Taiki Kano, Noriko Ihira, Hiroko Nomura, Kazuhisa Ikemoto, Tadayoshi Hata, Setsuko Katoh, Hiroshi Ichinose, Kazunao Kondo
(6R)-l-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for monoamine and nitric oxide (NO) production. Sepiapterin reductase (SPR) catalyzes the final step in BH4 biosynthesis. We analyzed the cardiovascular function of adult Spr gene-disrupted (Spr(-/-)) mice for the first time. After weaning, Spr(-/-) mice suffered from hypertension with fluctuation and bradycardia, while the monoamine contents in these mice were less than 10% of those in the wild-type mice as a result of BH4 depletion...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320833/inflammatory-changes-in-bone-marrow-microenvironment-associated-with-declining-b-lymphopoiesis
#4
Domenick E Kennedy, Katherine L Knight
B lymphopoiesis arrests precipitously in rabbits such that by 2-4 mo of age, before sexual maturity, little to no B lymphopoiesis occurs in the bone marrow (BM). Previously, we showed that in mice, adipocytes inhibit B lymphopoiesis in vitro by inducing inflammatory myeloid cells, which produce IL-1β. In this study, we characterized rabbit BM after the arrest of B lymphopoiesis and found a dramatic increase in fat, increased CD11b(+) myeloid cells, and upregulated expression of the inflammatory molecules, IL-1β and S100A9, by the myeloid cells...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318602/metals-hormones-and-sexual-maturation-in-flemish-adolescents-in-three-cross-sectional-studies-2002-2015
#5
Sam De Craemer, Kim Croes, Nicolas van Larebeke, Stefaan De Henauw, Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Ilse Loots, Tim Nawrot, Vera Nelen, Elly Den Hond, Liesbeth Bruckers, Yue Gao, Willy Baeyens
Sex hormone levels and timing of sexual maturation are considered important markers for health status of adolescents in puberty, and previous research suggests they might be influenced by metal exposure. In three campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS I 2002-2006; FLEHS II 2007-2011 and FLEHS III 2012-2015), data were collected on internal exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Mn, Tl, Ni, Sb, Hg, As and As species) and sexual maturation in 2671 14-15years old adolescents. All metals were measured in blood and/or urine, except total- and methylmercury which were measured in hair samples...
March 17, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317860/gene-delivery-to-nile-tilapia-cells-for-transgenesis-and-the-role-of-pi3k-c2%C3%AE-in-angiogenesis
#6
Fernanda Maria Policarpo Tonelli, Samyra Maria Dos Santos Nassif Lacerda, Marcela Santos Procópio, Breno Luiz Sales Lemos, Luiz Renato de França, Rodrigo Ribeiro Resende
Microinjection is commonly performed to achieve fish transgenesis; however, due to difficulties associated with this technique, new strategies are being developed. Here we evaluate the potential of lentiviral particles to genetically modify Nile tilapia cells to achieve transgenesis using three different approaches: spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) genetic modification and transplantation (SC), in vivo transduction of gametes (GT), and fertilised egg transduction (ET). The SC protocol using larvae generates animals with sustained production of modified sperm (80% of animals with 77% maximum sperm fluorescence [MSF]), but is a time-consuming protocol (sexual maturity in Nile tilapia is achieved at 6 months of age)...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316076/provenance-by-environment-interaction-of-reproductive-traits-in-the-invasion-of-spartina-alterniflora-in-china
#7
Wenwen Liu, Donald R Strong, Steven C Pennings, Yihui Zhang
Ecological invasions are facilitated by pre-adaptation and phenotypic plasticity, upon which evolution can act. The rapid invasion of the intertidal grass Spartina alterniflora in China during the last 36 years is a test case for the roles of these mechanisms. A previous study of S. alterniflora in China found strong latitudinal clines in vegetative and sexual traits and concluded that most of this variation was due to phenotypic plasticity. Recent observations suggested provenance by environment interactions, and we employed common gardens at multiple latitudes as a test of this idea...
March 17, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304252/utility-of-orchidometric-parameters-for-assessing-sexual-maturation-in-male-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fascicularis
#8
Michael L Mirsky, Susan Portugal, Harshan Pisharath, Jodi L Osowski, Laura Kearney
Testicular volume is one of several parameters that have been used in preclinical toxicology to facilitate the identification of sexually mature male cynomolgus macaques when semen evaluation is unavailable. Furthermore, testicular volume provides additional information to pathologists to aid in the interpretation of microscopic findings. Orchidometry has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing testicular volume. To assess its utility for this purpose, we used orchidometry to measure testicular volume in untreated control male cynomolgus macaques during preclinical toxicology studies...
December 1, 2016: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299491/effects-of-androgen-receptor-mutation-on-testicular-histopathology-of-patient-having-complete-androgen-insensitivity
#9
Ihtisham Bukhari, Guangyuan Li, Liu Wang, Furhan Iqbal, Huan Zhang, Jiansheng Zhu, Hui Liu, Xiangdong Fang, Nasser M Al-Daghri, Howard J Cooke, Yuanwei Zhang, Xiaohua Jiang
Androgens are required for normal male sex differentiation and development of male secondary sexual characteristics. Mutations in AR gene are known to cause defects in male sexual differentiation. In current study, we enrolled a 46,XY phenotypically female patient bearing testes in inguinal canal. DNA sequencing of the AR gene detected a missense mutation C.1715A > G (p. Y572C) in exon 2 which is already known to cause complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). We focused on the effects of this mutation on the testicular histopathology of the patient...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Molecular Histology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299419/insights-into-the-role-of-age-and-social-interactions-on-the-sexual-attractiveness-of-queens-in-an-eusocial-bee-melipona-flavolineata-apidae-meliponini
#10
Jamille Costa Veiga, Cristiano Menezes, Felipe Andrés León Contrera
The attraction of sexual partners is a vital necessity among insects, and it involves conflict of interests and complex communication systems among male and female. In this study, we investigated the developing of sexual attractiveness in virgin queens (i.e., gynes) of Melipona flavolineata, an eusocial stingless bee. We followed the development of sexual attractiveness in 64 gynes, belonging to seven age classes (0, 3, 6, 9, 15, 18 days post-emergence), and we also evaluated the effect of different social interactions (such as competition between queens and interactions with workers) on the development of attractiveness in other 60 gynes...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295471/long-term-feeding-of-hydroalcoholic-extract-powder-of-lepidium-meyenii-maca-enhances-the-steroidogenic-ability-of-leydig-cells-to-alleviate-its-decline-with-ageing-in-male-rats
#11
K Yoshida, Y Ohta, N Kawate, M Takahashi, T Inaba, S Hatoya, H Morii, K Takahashi, M Ito, H Tamada
This study examined whether feeding hydroalcoholic extract of Lepidium meyenii (maca) to 8-week-old (sexually maturing) or 18-week-old (mature) male rats for more than a half year affects serum testosterone concentration and testosterone production by Leydig cells cultured with hCG, 22R-hydroxycholesterol or pregnenolone. Testosterone concentration was determined in the serum samples obtained before and 6, 12, 18 and 24 weeks after the feeding, and it was significantly increased only at the 6 weeks in the group fed with the maca extract to maturing rats when it was compared with controls...
March 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295469/assessing-new-peptides-that-may-be-involved-in-the-physiological-regulation-of-the-gonadal-axis-in-humans-gonadotropin-inhibitory-hormone
#12
Peter Y Liu
The hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular (HPT) and hypothalamo-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axes are integrated networks that regulate androgenization or estrogenization (including embryonic, infantile, pubertal and adult sexual maturation), male or female sexual behavior, and spermatogenesis or ovulation, respectively. Dysregulation of the HPT axis, for example, results in pubertal delay, eunuchism, impaired spermatogenesis, and reduced systemic androgen exposure; and may also contribute to some of the features of male aging, impair recovery from protracted critical illness, and induce visceral adiposity, sarcopenia, osteopenia, and insulin resistance...
March 13, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290309/polydactyly-suggesting-local-husbandry-of-pre-columbian-camelids-a-case-from-castillo-de-huarmey-archaeological-site-northern-coast-of-peru
#13
Weronika Tomczyk, Miłosz Giersz
Three camelid metapodials with polydactyly (additional digits) were found at the Wari culture archaeological site (dated to the Middle Horizon) of Castillo de Huarmey. The anomalous bones were excavated among numerous remains, and presumably represent animals that were sacrificed within the principal mortuary mausoleum. The bones derive from at least two individuals. The etiology of the deformities remains unknown, but the most probable causes include low genetic diversity in the herd or unintended effect of selective breeding...
March 2017: International Journal of Paleopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287085/dynamic-transcriptomes-identify-biogenic-amines-and-insect-like-hormonal-regulation-for-mediating-reproduction-in-schistosoma-japonicum
#14
Jipeng Wang, Ying Yu, Haimo Shen, Tao Qing, Yuanting Zheng, Qing Li, Xiaojin Mo, Shuqi Wang, Nana Li, Riyi Chai, Bin Xu, Mu Liu, Paul J Brindley, Donald P McManus, Zheng Feng, Leming Shi, Wei Hu
Eggs produced by the mature female parasite are responsible for the pathogenesis and transmission of schistosomiasis. Female schistosomes rely on a unique male-induced strategy to accomplish reproductive development, a process that is incompletely understood. Here we map detailed transcriptomic profiles of male and female Schistosoma japonicum across eight time points throughout the sexual developmental process from pairing to maturation. The dynamic gene expression pattern data reveal clear sex-related characteristics, indicative of an unambiguous functional division between males and females during their interplay...
March 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283410/insecticide-pyrethroids-in-liver-of-striped-dolphin-from-the-mediterranean-sea
#15
Òscar Aznar-Alemany, Joan Giménez, Renaud de Stephanis, Ethel Eljarrat, Damià Barceló
Pyrethroid pesticides were analysed in liver of striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Alboran Sea (south of Spain, Mediterranean Sea). The occurrence and bioaccumulation of pyrethroid insecticides in marine mammal tissues from the northern hemisphere had never been determined before. Pyrethroids were detected in 87% of the specimens with a mean total concentration of 300 ng g(-1) lw ± 932 (range 2.7-5200 ng g(-1) lw). Permethrin and tetramethrin were the main contributors to the pyrethroid profiles, with enantiospecific accumulation for the first and isomer specific accumulation for the latter...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281522/genetic-architecture-of-threshold-reaction-norms-for-male-alternative-reproductive-tactics-in-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l
#16
Olivier Lepais, Aurélie Manicki, Stéphane Glise, Mathieu Buoro, Agnès Bardonnet
Alternative mating tactics have important ecological and evolutionary implications and are determined by complex interactions between environmental and genetic factors. Here, we study the genetic effect and architecture of the variability in reproductive tactics among Atlantic salmon males which can either mature sexually early in life in freshwater or more commonly only after completing a migration at sea. We applied the latent environmental threshold model (LETM), which provides a conceptual framework linking individual status to a threshold controlling the decision to develop alternative traits, in an innovative experimental design using a semi-natural river which allowed for ecologically relevant phenotypic expression...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281185/sex-and-age-as-determinants-of-rat-t-cell-phenotypic-characteristics-influence-of-peripubertal-gonadectomy
#17
Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Duško Kosec, Ivan Pilipović, Mirjana Nacka-Aleksić, Biljana Bufan, Zorica Stojić-Vukanić, Gordana Leposavić
The study examined the influence of age, sex and peripubertal gonadectomy on a set of T-cell phenotypic parameters. Rats of both sexes were gonadectomised at the age of 1 month and peripheral blood and spleen T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised and gonadectomised 3- and 11-month-old rats were examined for the expression of differentiation/activation (CD90/CD45RC) and immunoregulatory markers. Peripheral blood T lymphocytes from non-gonadectomised rats showed age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in (1) total count (lower in female than male 11-month-old rats); (2) CD4+:CD8 + cell ratio (higher in female than male rats of both ages); (3) the proportion of recent thymic emigrants in CD8 + T cells (lower in female than male 3-month-old rats) and (4) the proportions of mature naïve and memory/activated cells (irrespective of age, the proportion of naïve cells was higher, whereas that of memory/activated cells was lower in females)...
March 9, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271178/the-choosing-of-sleeping-position-in-the-overnight-aggregation-by-the-solitary-bees-amegilla-florea-urens-in-iriomote-island-of-japan
#18
Tomoyuki Yokoi, Naoto Idogawa, Ikuo Kandori, Aoi Nikkeshi, Mamoru Watanabe
In addition to the process of joining the sleeping aggregation, the choice of sleeping position is an important night-time behaviour of small diurnal insects because of the increased risk for predator attacks as well as bad weather. The aggregation behaviour of the solitary bee Amegilla florea urens was investigated to elucidate the choice of sleeping position on substrates. Male and female constructed single-sex aggregations on hanging leaves during May and June, respectively. Most individuals tended to form aggregations with other individuals while few individuals slept alone...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263902/mollicutes-in-vaginal-microbiology-mycoplasma-hominis-ureaplasma-urealyticum-ureaplasma-parvum-and-mycoplasma-genitalium
#19
David Taylor-Robinson
Mycoplasma hominis was isolated in 1937 from the human genital tract, followed 17 years later by Ureaplasma urealyticum and 27 years after that by Mycoplasma genitalium. The first two proved relatively easy to culture but the latter required a polymerase chain reaction assay for further studies. In sexually mature women, M. hominis may be found in the vagina/cervix of about 20-50%, ureaplasmas in 40-80% and M. genitalium in 0-5%. Some heterogeneity has been found among strains of all these species, sufficient to divide ureaplasmas into two species, namely U...
March 2, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262836/dynamics-of-mirna-transcriptome-during-gonadal-development-of-zebrafish
#20
Christopher Presslauer, Teshome Tilahun Bizuayehu, Martina Kopp, Jorge M O Fernandes, Igor Babiak
Studies in non-teleost vertebrates have found microRNAs (miRNAs) to be essential for proper gonadal development. However, comparatively little is known about their role during gonadal development in teleost fishes. So far in zebrafish, a model teleost, transcript profiling throughout gonadal development has not been established because of a tiny size of an organ in juvenile stages and its poor distinguishability from surrounding tissues. We performed small RNA sequencing on isolated gonads of See-Thru-Gonad line, from the undifferentiated state at 3 weeks post fertilization (wpf) to fully mature adults at 24 wpf...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
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