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Sexual maturation

David A Landry, Lia Rossi-Perazza, Simon Lafontaine, Marc-Andre Sirard
The use of younger gamete donors in dairy cattle genetic selection programs significantly accelerates genetic gains by decreasing the interval between generations. Ovarian stimulation and the practice of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) withdrawal, also known as coasting, are intensively used in pre-pubertal heifers without detrimental effects on subsequent reproductive performance but generally with lower embryo yields. However, recent data from embryo transfer programs showed similar embryo yields in younger and sexually mature animals but with a significant difference in the coasting period...
June 15, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Kate A Gustavsen, Bonnie L Raphael, Martin J Wildes, Denise McAloose, Colleen M McCann, Julia K Hilliard, Paul P Calle
  Langur alphaherpesvirus (HVL), a provisionally named alphaherpesvirus in the Simplexvirus genus, was first identified in 1991 at the Bronx Zoo in wild-origin silvered langurs ( Trachypithecus cristatus) and their descendants. HVL is closely related to B virus ( Macacine alphaherpesvirus 1) based on serologic and genetic data, but its natural history and zoonotic potential remain unknown. A cohort study was undertaken to describe the epidemiology, clinical impact, and potential management implications of this virus in a naturally infected, zoo-based population of silvered langurs...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Antonio Parra, José M Moreno
In fire-prone ecosystems, changes in rainfall after fire could differentially affect seeders and resprouters, thus leading to long-lasting impacts on the vegetation. Climate change in the Mediterranean region is projected to reduce precipitation, expand the summer drought and increase fire danger. Understanding the sensitivity to changes in rainfall during the post-fire regeneration stage is critical to anticipate the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean-type areas of the world. Here, we investigated how species differing in post-fire regeneration strategy (seeders vs resprouters) responded to rainfall changes in a Cistus-Erica shrubland of central Spain...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Glaucia B Cabral, Vera T C Carneiro, Ana Cristina M M Gomes, Ana Luiza Lacerda, Adriana P Martinelli, Diva M A Dusi
Brachiaria brizantha is a forage grass well adapted to tropical areas and cultivated in millions of hectares in Brazil. The apomictic mode of reproduction in this species, in addition to differences in ploidy between sexual and apomictic plants, impairs crossbreeding. The development of a methodology to transform apomictic cultivars will provide an option to introduce agronomic important traits to B. brizantha cv. Marandu. In addition, it will open the possibility to study in vivo the function of candidate genes involved in the apomictic reproduction...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Lulu Yan, Chao Zhao, Jun Zhang, Lihua Qiu, Zuozhi Chen
Sthenoteuthis oualaniensis (SA) is an important squid species in the South China Sea. Based on SA samples collected in 2016, SA was divided into the "dwarf" form (DF) and "medium" form (MF). To understand the changes in gastrointestinal function in SA during sexual maturation, we undertook transcriptomic analyses of the stomach and intestine tissues of the mature and immature DF and MF of SA using the deep-sequencing platform Illumina HiSeq™. We exploited a high-throughput method to delineate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the DF and MF of SA...
2018: PloS One
Xiaofan Niu, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Lilianna A Lopez, Howard S Judelson
Sexual reproduction remains an understudied feature of oomycete biology. To expand our knowledge of this process, we used RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics to examine matings in Phytophthora infestans. Exhibiting significant changes in mRNA abundance in three matings between different A1 and A2 strains compared to nonmating controls were 1170 genes, most being mating-induced. Rising by >10-fold in at least one cross were 455 genes, and 182 in all three crosses. Most genes had elevated expression in a self-fertile strain...
2018: PloS One
F Ghiselli, M Iannello, G Puccio, P L Chang, F Plazzi, S V Nuzhdin, M Passamonti
Comparative genomics has become a central tool for evolutionary biology, and a better knowledge of understudied taxa represents the foundation for future work. In this study we characterized the transcriptome of male and female mature gonads in the European clam Ruditapes decussatus, compared to that in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum providing, for the first time in bivalves, information about transcription dynamics and sequence evolution of sex-biased genes. In both the species we found a relatively low number of sex-biased genes (1,284, corresponding to 41...
April 20, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Suk-Ling Wee, Thelma Peek, Anthony R Clarke
The males of different species of Bactrocera and Zeugodacus fruit flies are commonly attracted to plant-derived phenylpropanoids (e.g. methyl eugenol (ME)) or phenylbutanoids (e.g. raspberry ketone (RK)) but almost never to both. However, one particular plant-derived phenylbutanoid, zingerone (ZN), which possesses an intermediate chemical structure between ME and RK, weakly attracts both ME- and RK-responding fruit fly species. Bactrocera jarvisi, an Australian fruit fly species, is weakly attracted to cue lure (an analogue of RK) but strongly attracted to ZN...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
Chao Lv, Wen-Xian Yu, Yan Wang, Da-Jing Yi, Ming-Hua Zeng, Hong-Mei Xiao
Human preimplantation embryo development is susceptible to high rates of early embryo wastage. We determined the microRNA-21 (miR-21) expression of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in fertilized eggs and embryo of varying stages and their response to miR-21 microinjection. Sexually mature female and male mice were mated. Next, the expression and immunohistochemistry intensity of surface markers (CD9 and CD63) of EVs were detected in pregnant and non-pregnant mice. Exosomes were co-cultured with embryos for detection of blastocyst formation rate, and embryo apoptosis...
June 8, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Y E Morbey
Female-biased sexual dimorphism in size at maturity is a common pattern observed in freshwater fishes with indeterminate growth, yet can vary in magnitude among populations for reasons that are not well understood. According to sex-specific optimization models, female-biased sexual size dimorphism can evolve due to sexual selection favouring earlier maturation by males, even when sexes are otherwise similar in their growth and mortality regimes. The magnitude of sexual size dimorphism is expected to depend on mortality rate...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
S A S van der Klein, G Y Bédécarrats, F E Robinson, M J Zuidhof
To synchronize the onset of sexual maturity in the face of high BW variation, the age at photostimulation has been increasing in the broiler breeder industry. This experiment studied the effects of increased BW and earlier photostimulation on broiler breeder reproductive performance where within-treatment BW uniformity was very high. The experiment tested BW and age at photostimulation treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Hens (n = 120) were fed with a precision feeding system to allocate feed individually following the breeder-recommended target BW (Standard) or to a 22% heavier target BW curve reaching the Standard 21 wk BW at 18 wk (High)...
June 6, 2018: Poultry Science
S A S van der Klein, G Y Bédécarrats, M J Zuidhof
Body weight (BW) and rearing photoperiod are important factors affecting sexual maturation rate and reproductive performance in broiler breeders. The current experiment used a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments to study the interaction between BW and rearing photoperiod on reproductive performance in group housed broiler breeder hens, while minimizing variation in BW. Hens (n = 180) were fed with a precision feeding system to allocate feed individually to achieve the breeder-recommended target curve (Standard) or to a target curve that reached the 21 wk BW at 18 wk (High)...
June 6, 2018: Poultry Science
James A Simon, Irwin Goldstein, Noel N Kim, Susan R Davis, Susan Kellogg-Spadt, Lior Lowenstein, JoAnn V Pinkerton, Cynthia A Stuenkel, Abdulmaged M Traish, David F Archer, Gloria Bachmann, Andrew T Goldstein, Rossella E Nappi, Linda Vignozzi
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this consensus document is to broaden the perspective on clinical management of genitourinary syndrome of menopause to include androgens. METHODS: A modified Delphi method was used to reach consensus among the 14 international panelists representing multiple disciplines and societies. RESULTS: Menopause-related genitourinary symptoms affect over 50% of midlife and older women. These symptoms have a marked impact on sexual functioning, daily activities, emotional well-being, body image, and interpersonal relations...
June 4, 2018: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Vivian Ozoemena Onukwuli, Josephat Chinawa, Christopher Bismarck Eke, Ada Rosemary Nwokocha, Ifeoma Josephine Emodi, Anthony Nnaemeka Ikefuna
Adolescence is an important developmental period of childhood. Good health and adequate nutrition consisting major food constituents and trace elements like zinc are fundamental for optimal sexual maturation. To determine the relationship between zinc levels and pattern of breast and pubic hair development, as well as menarcheal age of female SCA children aged 6-18 years and their matched controls with hemoglobin genotype AA. Cross sectional, case-control study. Information on biodata, age at menarche, medical and drug history as well as 24-hour dietary recall was documented using interviewer administered questionnaire...
June 5, 2018: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Joseph H Manson
Life history theory has generated cogent, well-supported hypotheses about individual differences in human biodemographic traits (e.g., age at sexual maturity) and psychometric traits (e.g., conscientiousness), but little is known about how variation in life history strategy (LHS) is manifest in quotidian human behavior. Here I test predicted associations between the self-report Arizona Life History Battery and frequencies of 12 behaviors observed over 72 h in 91 US college students using the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), a method of gathering periodic brief audio recordings as participants go about their daily lives...
2018: PeerJ
Michelle E Freeman, Brett P Murphy, Anna E Richards, Peter A Vesk, Garry D Cook
Fire is a major determinant of savanna tree communities and, as such, manipulation of fire frequency is an important management tool. Resolving the effects of fire management on tree size class distributions can help managers predict and plan for short-term ecological and economic outcomes, reveal different strategies by which woody plants cope with frequent fire, and help us predict vegetation changes under future fire scenarios. Savanna structure and size class distribution are strongly influenced by the ability of suppressed tree resprouts to escape stem death by frequent fire...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Fei Liu, Li Li, Wenqi Zheng, Yiwen He, Yaru Wang, Xiaotong Zhu, Takafumi Tsuboi, Liwang Cui, Meilian Wang, Yaming Cao
Transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs) interrupting malaria transmission are an integrated tool for malaria eradication. We characterized a sexual stage-specific gene (PBANKA_060330) from Plasmodium berghei and studied its TBV potential. This gene, referred to as Pbg37 , encodes a protein of 37 kDa with a signal peptide and multiple transmembrane domains, and is preferentially expressed in gametocytes. Recombinant protein (rPbg37) targeting the N-terminal 63 amino acids (26-88) expressed in bacteria elicited strong antibody responses in mice...
June 4, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Jianjun Cui, Jinting Shi, Jianheng Zhang, Lintao Wang, Shaoying Fan, Zhenyang Xu, Yuanzi Huo, Qiaoyun Zhou, Yuwei Lu, Peimin He
Green algal blooms have occurred in the Yellow Sea for 11 consecutive years since 2007. A "seed bank" comprising micro-propagules including gametes, meiospores, and zygotes, played an important role in the rapid formation of a green tide. In the present study, germination differences among zygotes, meiospores, and gametes were examined. The growth ability and maturation period of alternating generations of sexual Ulva prolifera strains were also assessed. The zygote and meiospore germination rate was 91...
May 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Anusha Kamesh, Emily A E Black, Alastair V Ferguson
Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone which performs over 300 biological functions including those that require binding to prolactin receptor (PRL-R) in neurons within the central nervous system (CNS)1 . To enter the CNS, circulating PRL must overcome the blood-brain barrier. As such, areas of the brain that do not possess a blood-brain barrier, such as the subfornical organ (SFO), are optimally positioned to interact with systemic PRL. The SFO has been classically implicated in energy and fluid homeostasis but has the potential to influence estrous cyclicity and gonadotropin release, which are also functions of PRL2-4 ...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Sallie R Permar, Ofer Levy, Tobias Kollmann, Anjali Singh, Kristina De Paris
Limited success of current HIV-1 vaccines warrants new approaches. We discuss feasibility and potential benefits of early life HIV-1 immunization followed by vaccine boosts during childhood that may enable maturation of vaccine-induced broad anti-HIV-1 immunity over several years. By initiating this immunization approach in the very young, well before sexual debut, such a strategy may dramatically reduce the risk of HIV-1 infection.
June 2, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
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