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Sexual maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905874/are-sexually-selected-traits-affected-by-a-poor-environment-early-in-life
#1
Regina Vega-Trejo, Michael D Jennions, Megan L Head
BACKGROUND: Challenging conditions experienced early in life, such as a restricted diet, can detrimentally affect key life-history traits. Individuals can reduce these costs by delaying their sexual maturation, albeit at the price of the later onset of breeding, to eventually reach the same adult size as individuals that grow up in a benevolent environment. Delayed maturation can, however, still lead to other detrimental morphological and physiological changes that become apparent later in adulthood (e...
December 1, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903701/can-multi-generational-exposure-to-ocean-warming-and-acidification-lead-to-the-adaptation-of-life-history-and-physiology-in-a-marine-metazoan
#2
Emma M Gibbin, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Felix Christen, Vincent Turpin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Pierre U Blier, Piero Calosi
Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; (iii) whether observed phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902778/an-insecticide-further-enhances-experience-dependent-increased-behavioural-responses-to-sex-pheromone-in-a-pest-insect
#3
Antoine Abrieux, Amel Mhamdi, Kaouther K Rabhi, Julie Egon, Stéphane Debernard, Line Duportets, Hélène Tricoire-Leignel, Sylvia Anton, Christophe Gadenne
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used to protect plants against pest insects, and insecticide residues remaining in the environment affect both target and non-target organisms. Whereas low doses of neonicotinoids have been shown to disturb the behaviour of pollinating insects, recent studies have revealed that a low dose of the neonicotinoid clothianidin can improve behavioural and neuronal sex pheromone responses in a pest insect, the male moth Agrotis ipsilon, and thus potentially improve reproduction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899902/aggressive-antisocial-behaviors-are-related-to-character-maturity-in-young-swedish-violent-offenders-independent-of-adhd
#4
Thomas Nilsson, Örjan Falk, Eva Billstedt, Nóra Kerekes, Henrik Anckarsäter, Märta Wallinius, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Antisocial personality and psychopathic traits have constantly been found to accompany criminal and aggressive behaviors, but little attention has been given to aspects of character maturity and its relation to such behaviors. The present study investigated (1) whether level of character maturity (low, medium, and high) is associated with amount of aggressive antisocial behaviors (AABs) and psychopathic traits in young men imprisoned for violent criminality, and (2) whether such an association is independent of coexisting attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899472/autopedophilia-erotic-target-identity-inversions-in-men-sexually-attracted-to-children
#5
Kevin J Hsu, J Michael Bailey
The most salient dimension of men's sexual orientation is gender: attraction to males versus females. A second dimension is sexual maturity: attraction to children versus adults. A less appreciated dimension is location: attraction to other individuals versus the sexual fantasy of being one of those individuals. Men sexually aroused by the idea or fantasy of being the kinds of individuals to whom they are sexually attracted have an erotic-target identity inversion (ETII). We conducted an online survey to investigate the prevalence and phenomenology of ETIIs among 475 men sexually attracted to children...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898651/prevalence-and-correlates-of-vaginal-estrogenization-in-postmenopausal-women-in-the-united-states
#6
Stacy Tessler Lindau, Annie Dude, Natalia Gavrilova, Joscelyn N Hoffmann, L Philip Schumm, Martha K McClintock
OBJECTIVE: This work aims to establish current population-based vaginal estrogenization norms for postmenopausal US women. METHODS: Using a US national probability sample of 868 postmenopausal women ages 57 to 85 years (mean age 67.6 ± 0.3 y, 21.6 ± 0.5 y since menopause), we calculated the epithelial maturation value (MV) generated from self-collected vaginal specimens and compared findings with historical clinical data. Linear and logistic regressions were used to describe the relationship between vaginal estrogenization and sociodemographic, physical, gynecologic, and sexual characteristics...
November 28, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892879/cytokine-activation-during-embryonic-development-and-in-hen-ovary-and-vagina-during-reproductive-age-and-salmonella-infection
#7
M Anastasiadou, G Michailidis
Salmonellosis is one of the most important zoonotic diseases and is usually associated with consumption of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) contaminated poultry meat or eggs. Contamination with SE is usually the result of infection of the digestive tract, or reproductive organs, especially the ovary and vagina. Thus, knowledge of endogenous innate immune mechanisms operating in the ovary and vagina of hen is an emerging aspect of reproductive physiology. Cytokines are key factors for triggering the immune response and inflammation in chicken to Salmonella infection...
September 28, 2016: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885042/evidence-for-partial-overlap-of-male-olfactory-cues-in-lampreys
#8
Tyler J Buchinger, Ke Li, Mar Huertas, Cindy F Baker, Liang Jia, Michael C Hayes, Weiming Li, Nicholas S Johnson
Animals rely on a mosaic of complex information to find and evaluate mates. Pheromones, often comprised of multiple components, are considered to be particularly important for species-recognition in many species. While the evolution of species-specific pheromone blends is well-described in many insects, very few vertebrate pheromones have been studied in a macro-evolutionary context. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparison of multi-component male odours that guide reproduction in lampreys. Chemical profiling of sexually mature males from eleven species of lamprey, representing six of ten genera and two of three families, indicated the chemical profiles of sexually mature male odours are partially shared among species...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883363/sexual-selection-shapes-development-and-maturation-rates-in-drosophila
#9
Brian Hollis, Laurent Keller, Tadeusz J Kawecki
Explanations for the evolution of delayed maturity usually invoke trade-offs mediated by growth, but processes of reproductive maturation continue long after growth has ceased. Here, we tested whether sexual selection shapes the rate of posteclosion maturation in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that populations maintained for more than 100 generations under a short generation time and polygamous mating system evolved faster posteclosion maturation and faster egg-to-adult development of males, when compared to populations kept under short generations and randomized monogamy that eliminated sexual selection...
November 7, 2016: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881036/comparative-proteomics-analysis-of-spermary-and-ovary-in-hyriopsis-schlegelii
#10
Jianwu Shi, Dexia Wang, Yan Zhou, Yiran Gu, Di Wu, Junhua Wang, Yijiang Hong
We provide the first large-scale quantitative proteomics analysis in Hyriopsis schlegelii. To investigate the proteins expressed in the gonads, a quantitative proteomics approach has been utilized to analyze differentially expressed proteins between the spermary and ovary. In this study, we identified and quantified 2416 proteins in the gonads of Hyriopsis schlegelii. Of these, 559 proteins showed significantly different expression between the spermary and ovary. Some specific proteins expressed in either the spermary or ovary were identified in Hyriopsis schlegelii...
November 24, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880925/developmental-bisphenol-a-exposure-impairs-sperm-function-and-reproduction-in-zebrafish
#11
Jiangfei Chen, Katerine S Saili, Yueqin Liu, Lelin Li, Yuxin Zhao, Yinhang Jia, Chenglian Bai, Robert L Tanguay, Qiaoxiang Dong, Changjiang Huang
The developmental and reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) has been demonstrated in a variety of model systems. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were waterborne-exposed to BPA during three different developmental stages: embryonic period:6 h post fertilization (hpf) to 5 months post fertilization (mpf); larval period: 6 days post fertilization (dpf) to 5 mpf; and sexually mature period: 3 mpf to 5 mpf. Evaluations included F0 adult growth, reproduction parameters, and F1 offspring development. BPA exposure did not affect zebrafish growth in any of exposure groups...
November 20, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876113/rosmarinic-acid-reverses-the-effects-of-metronidazole-induced-infertility-in-male-albino-rats
#12
Zina M Al-Alami, Ziad A Shraideh, Mutasem O Taha
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural antioxidant that has many biological activities. In the present study we investigated the potential of RA to reverse the negative effects of the widely used antibiotic and antiprotozoal agent metronidazole (MTZ), which is known to induce reversible male infertility. Two doses of RA (5 and 15mg kg-1) were studied in sexually mature rats with and without MTZ-induced infertility. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with 5mg kg-1 RA or 15mg kg-1 RA (in distilled water) and, 45min later, they were intraperitoneally injected with 40mg kg-1 MTZ (in distilled water)...
November 23, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876080/effect-of-testosterone-on-the-connexin37-of-sexual-mature-mouse-cumulus-oocyte-complex
#13
Yangyang Zhang, Yang Xu, Yanrong Kuai, Sheng Wang, Qing Xue, Jing Shang
BACKGROUND: Recent researches demonstrate that pre-treatment with androgen could increase retrieved oocytes number and clinical pregnancy rate in poor ovarian response (POR) patients. In view of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) is important for follicular growth, and androgen plays an important role in improving prognosis of POR patients, we speculate that androgen can increase the expression of connexin in follicle cells, and improve ovarian microenvironment, thus can promote ovarian response...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873056/individual-pheromone-signature-in-males-prerequisite-for-pheromone-mediated-mate-assessment-in-the-central-american-locust-schistocerca-piceifrons
#14
Christiane Stahr, Karsten Seidelmann
Living in high-density groups of animals has advantages and disadvantages for mating. The advantage of facilitated mate finding is compromised by difficulties in protecting a suitable partner from competitors. Thus, males regularly are faced with increased competition for sperm, and females with harassment by males at high population densities. To cope with these problems, mating tactics and mate choice mechanisms have to be adjusted. An adaptation to gregarious condition observed in locusts includes the use of male-emitted pheromones...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872768/hip-replacement-surgery-in-14-year-old-girl-with-factor-v-deficiency-haemostatic-treatment-and-thromboprophylaxis
#15
María Eva Mingot-Castellano, Josefina Pérez-Núñez, Lourdes Baeza-Montañez
Factor V (FV) is a pivotal coagulation factor present in plasma and platelets. It plays an essential role in secondary haemostasis acting as a cofactor in the prothrombinase complex, catalysing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. There is little evidence on the management of mayor orthopaedic surgery in paediatric or adolescents subjects with this coagulopathy and almost no information about thromboprophylaxis in these situations. We report a case of a hip replacement in a 14-year-old girl with moderate FV deficiency (0...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870426/sex-dependent-effects-of-nicotine-on-the-developing-brain
#16
REVIEW
Sarah J Cross, Kay E Linker, Frances M Leslie
The use of tobacco products represents a major public health concern, especially among women. Epidemiological data have consistently demonstrated that women have less success quitting tobacco use and a higher risk for developing tobacco-related diseases. The deleterious effects of nicotine are not restricted to adulthood, as nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate critical aspects of neural development. However, the exact mechanisms underlying the particular sensitivity of women to develop tobacco dependence have not been well elucidated...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867879/relationship-of-lean-mass-and-obesity-in-indian-urban-children-and-adolescents
#17
M K Garg, Raman K Marwaha, Namita Mahalle, Nikhil Tandon
BACKGROUND: The association of obesity and lean mass (LM) has not been examined well in children and adolescents, and it remains controversial. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI) categories and regional obesity with total and regional LM in children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 1408 children and adolescents (boys 58.9%; girls 41.1%) divided according to BMI (normal weight 79...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867763/sexual-reproduction-in-the-caribbean-coral-genus-isophyllia-scleractinia-mussidae
#18
Derek Soto, Ernesto Weil
The sexual pattern, reproductive mode, and timing of reproduction of Isophyllia sinuosa and Isophyllia rigida, two Caribbean Mussids, were assessed by histological analysis of specimens collected monthly during 2000-2001. Both species are simultaneous hermaphroditic brooders characterized by a single annual gametogenetic cycle. Spermatocytes and oocytes of different stages were found to develop within the same mesentery indicating sequential maturation for extended planulation. Oogenesis took place during May through April in I...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864358/effects-of-the-histone-deacetylase-inhibitor-scriptaid-on-the-developmental-competence-of-mouse-embryos-generated-through-round-spermatid-injection
#19
Pengcheng Kong, Mingru Yin, Dongbao Chen, Shangang Li, Yao Li, Fengying Xing, Manxi Jiang, Zhenfu Fang, Qifeng Lyu, Xuejin Chen
STUDY QUESTION: Can the histone deacetylase inhibitor Scriptaid improve the efficiency of the development of round spermatid injection (ROSI)-fertilized embryos in a mouse model? SUMMARY ANSWER: Treatment of ROSI mouse zygotes with Scriptaid increased the expression levels of several development-related genes at the blastocyst stage, resulting in more efficient in vitro development of the blastocyst and an increased birth rate of ROSI-derived embryos. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The full-term development of embryos derived through ROSI is significantly lower than that following ICSI in humans and other species...
November 17, 2016: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862638/thorns-and-dermal-denticles-of-skates-atlantoraja-cyclophora-and-a-castelnaui-microscopic-features-and-functional-implications
#20
Bianca de Sousa Rangel, Natascha Wosnick, Rafael Magdanelo Leandro, Alberto Ferreira de Amorim, José Roberto Kfoury Junior, Rose Eli Grassi Rici
Some batoid species are covered with dermal denticles (or placoid scales) that occasionally develop into thorns. In sexually mature males, sharp teeth and alar thorns found on the apex of the lateral disc are used to hold the female during copulation. This study set out to analyze microscopic features of modified dermal denticles and thorns and to investigate sexual dimorphism in Atlantoraja cyclophora and A. castelnaui species. Skin samples collected from areas covered with thorns were fixed in 10% formaldehyde, processed and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy...
December 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
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