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Sexual maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452173/energy-intake-functions-and-energy-budgets-of-ectotherms-and-endotherms-derived-from-their-ontogenetic-growth-in-body-mass-and-timing-of-sexual-maturation
#1
Jan Werner, Nikolaos Sfakianakis, Alan D Rendall, Eva Maria Griebeler
Ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates differ not only in their source of body temperature (environment vs. metabolism), but also in growth patterns, in timing of sexual maturation within life, and energy intake functions. Here, we present a mathematical model applicable to ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates. It is designed to test whether differences in the timing of sexual maturation within an animal's life (age at which sexual maturity is reached vs. longevity) together with its ontogenetic gain in body mass (growth curve) can predict the energy intake throughout the animal's life (food intake curve) and can explain differences in energy partitioning (between growth, reproduction, heat production and maintenance, with the latter subsuming any other additional task requiring energy) between ectothermic and endothermic vertebrates...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447755/maturation-is-prolonged-and-variable-in-female-chimpanzees
#2
Kara K Walker, Christopher S Walker, Jane Goodall, Anne E Pusey
Chimpanzees are important referential models for the study of life history in hominin evolution. Age at sexual maturity and first reproduction are key life history milestones that mark the diversion of energy from growth to reproduction and are essential in comparing life history trajectories between chimpanzees and humans. Yet, accurate information on ages at these milestones in wild chimpanzees is difficult to obtain because most females transfer before breeding. Precise age at first birth is only known from a relatively small number of non-dispersing individuals...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447294/evidence-of-sex-bias-in-gene-expression-in-the-brain-transcriptome-of-two-populations-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-with-divergent-life-histories
#3
Matthew C Hale, Garrett J McKinney, Frank P Thrower, Krista M Nichols
Sex-bias in gene expression is a mechanism that can generate phenotypic variance between the sexes, however, relatively little is known about how patterns of sex-bias vary during development, and how variable sex-bias is between different populations. To that end, we measured sex-bias in gene expression in the brain transcriptome of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the first two years of development. Our sampling included from the fry stage through to when O. mykiss either migrate to the ocean or remain resident and undergo sexual maturation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444633/talaromycosis-penicilliosis-in-a-cynomolgus-macaque
#4
William O Iverson, Subramanya Karanth, Angela Wilcox, Cau D Pham, Shawn R Lockhart, Simone M Nicholson
A sexually mature Chinese-origin female Macaca fascicularis assigned to the high-dose group in a 26-week toxicology study with an experimental immunomodulatory therapeutic antibody (a CD40 L antagonist fusion protein) was euthanized at the scheduled terminal sacrifice on study day 192. The animal was healthy at study initiation and remained clinically normal throughout the study. On study day 141, abnormal clinical pathology changes were found during a scheduled evaluation; splenomegaly was detected on study day 149 and supported by ultrasound examination...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441363/structure-function-covariation-with-nonfeeding-ecological-variables-influences-evolution-of-feeding-specialization-in-carnivora
#5
Z Jack Tseng, John J Flynn
Skull shape convergence is pervasive among vertebrates. Although this is frequently inferred to indicate similar functional underpinnings, neither the specific structure-function linkages nor the selective environments in which the supposed functional adaptations arose are commonly identified and tested. We demonstrate that nonfeeding factors relating to sexual maturity and precipitation-related arboreality also can generate structure-function relationships in the skulls of carnivorans (dogs, cats, seals, and relatives) through covariation with masticatory performance...
February 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441042/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-thymic-adrenergic-networks-sex-steroid-dependent-plasticity
#6
REVIEW
Gordana Momčilo Leposavić, Ivan M Pilipović
The thymus is sexually differentiated organ providing microenvironment for T-cell precursor differentiation/maturation in the major histocompatibility complex-restricted self-tolerant T cells. With increasing age, the thymus undergoes involution leading to the decline in efficacy of thymopoiesis. Noradrenaline from thymic nerve fibers and "(nor)adrenergic" cells is involved in the regulation of thymopoiesis. In rodents, noradrenaline concentration in thymus and adrenoceptor (AR) expression on thymic cells depend on sex and age...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438723/discovery-and-development-of-odm-204-a-novel-nonsteroidal-compound-for-the-treatment-of-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-by-blocking-the-androgen-receptor-and-inhibiting-cyp17a1
#7
REVIEW
Riikka Oksala, Anu Moilanen, Reetta Riikonen, Petteri Rummakko, Arja Karjalainen, Mikko Passiniemi, Gerd Wohlfahrt, Päivi Taavitsainen, Chira Malmström, Meri Ramela, Hanna-Maija Metsänkylä, Riikka Huhtaniemi, Pekka J Kallio, Mika Vj Mustonen
We report the discovery of a novel nonsteroidal dual-action compound, ODM-204, that holds promise for treating patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), an advanced form of prostate cancer characterised by high androgen receptor (AR) expression and persistent activation of the AR signaling axis by residual tissue androgens. For ODM-204, has a dual mechanism of action. The compound is anticipated to efficiently dampen androgenic stimuli in the body by inhibiting CYP17A1, the prerequisite enzyme for the formation of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and testosterone (T), and by blocking AR with high affinity and specificity...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438444/systems-genomics-study-reveals-expression-quantitative-trait-loci-regulator-genes-and-pathways-associated-with-boar-taint-in-pigs
#8
Markus Drag, Mathias B Hansen, Haja N Kadarmideen
Boar taint is an offensive odour and/or taste from a proportion of non-castrated male pigs caused by skatole and androstenone accumulation during sexual maturity. Castration is widely used to avoid boar taint but is currently under debate because of animal welfare concerns. This study aimed to identify expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) with potential effects on boar taint compounds to improve breeding possibilities for reduced boar taint. Danish Landrace male boars with low, medium and high genetic merit for skatole and human nose score (HNS) were slaughtered at ~100 kg...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438418/bile-acid-detoxifying-enzymes-limit-susceptibility-to-liver-fibrosis-in-female-shrsp5-dmcr-rats-fed-with-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet
#9
Husna Yetti, Hisao Naito, Yuan Yuan, Xiaofang Jia, Yumi Hayashi, Hazuki Tamada, Kazuya Kitamori, Katsumi Ikeda, Yukio Yamori, Tamie Nakajima
During middle age, women are less susceptible to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) than men. Thus, we investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms behind these sexual differences using an established rat model of NASH. Mature female and male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive 5/Dmcr rats were fed control or high-fat-cholesterol (HFC) diets for 2, 8, and 14 weeks. Although HFC-induced hepatic fibrosis was markedly less severe in females than in males, only minor gender differences were observed in expression levels of cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP)7A1, CYP8B1 CYP27A1, and CYP7B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein 3, and bile salt export pump, which are involved in fibrosis-related bile acid (BA) kinetics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432228/growth-and-pubertal-development-in-hiv-infected-adolescents
#10
Paige L Williams, Julie Jesson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We present an overview of recent research in the inter-related areas of growth and pubertal development among adolescents with HIV. Growth deficits early in childhood can lead to delayed puberty, with subsequent effects on pubertal growth spurts and bone health. RECENT FINDINGS: Impaired growth remains a critical concern, particularly in low-resource settings, where stunting, wasting and underweight remain pervasive. Antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation results in improved growth, with greatest growth recovery in the first years and more improvement in weight than in height...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429615/sexually-dimorphic-unc-6-netrin-expression-controls-sex-specific-maintenance-of-synaptic-connectivity
#11
Peter Weinberg, Matthew Berkseth, David Zarkower, Oliver Hobert
Nervous systems display intriguing patterns of sexual dimorphisms across the animal kingdom, but the mechanisms that generate such dimorphisms remain poorly characterized. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a number of neurons present in both sexes are synaptically connected to one another in a sexually dimorphic manner as a result of sex-specific synaptic pruning and maintenance [1-3]. We define here a mechanism for the male-specific maintenance of the synaptic connections of the phasmid sensory neuron PHB and its male-specific target, the sex-shared AVG interneuron...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429281/-physiological-characteristics-of-echinococcus-and-their-association-with-interventions-against-echinococcosis
#12
J Li, G Guo, Z Z Zhang, W B Zhang
Alveolar and cystic echinococcosis are important zoonotic diseases caused by the dog/fox tapeworms of Echinococcus granulosus and E. multilocularis, which are distributed in almost whole the world. The diseases remarkably impact on the people's health and economic development of communities. Echinococcus tapeworms need two mammalian animals to complete their lifecycle. The worms undergo different developmental stages (adult, egg/oncosphere, cyst, and protoscolex). Each stage has its own distinct physiological characteristics...
February 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426844/the-impact-of-reconstructed-soils-following-oil-sands-exploitation-on-aspen-and-its-associated-belowground-microbiome
#13
Franck Stefani, Nathalie Isabel, Marie-Josée Morency, Manuel Lamothe, Simon Nadeau, Denis Lachance, Edith H Y Li, Charles Greer, Étienne Yergeau, Bradley D Pinno, Armand Séguin
The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of different soil covers used to reclaim decommissioned oil sands mining sites on the genetic diversity of aspen and their associated belowground microbiota. Aspen genotyping showed that trees mostly originated from sexual reproduction on sites reclaimed with soil covers made of upland forest floor-mineral mix (FFMM) and lowland peat-mineral mix (PMM). In contrast, most individuals in mature and burned stands sampled as benchmarks for natural disturbances originated from vegetative reproduction...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421137/mercury-concentrations-in-three-ray-species-from-the-pacific-coast-of-baja-california-sur-mexico-variations-by-tissue-type-sex-and-length
#14
Daniela A Murillo-Cisneros, Todd M O'Hara, J Margaret Castellini, Alberto Sánchez-González, Fernando R Elorriaga-Verplancken, Ana J Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Emigdio Marín-Enríquez, Felipe Galván-Magaña
Total mercury concentrations ([THg]) were determined in muscle and liver of the bat ray (Myliobatis californica), shovelnose guitarfish (Pseudobatos productus) and banded guitarfish (Zapteryx exasperata). Generalized linear models (GLM) were used to determine the effects of size and sex in [THg] and showed that both are determinants of [THg] in these species. The [THg] in both tissues significantly increased with length especially in sexually mature organisms with a steeper slope for mature male than mature female...
January 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417893/post-embryonic-development-and-genital-complex-formation-in-three-species-of-polyclad-flatworms
#15
Nozomi Morita, Kazuo Inaba, Yasunori Saito
Without the establishment of effective culturing systems, little can be known about the late developmental stages of polyclad flatworms. Here, we report a laboratory culturing system for three polyclad species: Comoplana pusilla, Notocomplana koreana, and Pseudostylochus obscurus, and we describe changes in their morphology from hatching to reproductive maturity. These species hatch out as lobe-less larvae with four eyespots, but the number of eyespots increases in later development. Cross-like and triangularly shaped larvae are observed in N...
February 2018: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417047/a-computed-microtomography-method-for-understanding-epiphyseal-growth-plate-fusion
#16
Katherine A Staines, Kamel Madi, Behzad Javaheri, Peter D Lee, Andrew A Pitsillides
The epiphyseal growth plate is a developmental region responsible for linear bone growth, in which chondrocytes undertake a tightly regulated series of biological processes. Concomitant with the cessation of growth and sexual maturation, the human growth plate undergoes progressive narrowing, and ultimately disappears. Despite the crucial role of this growth plate fusion "bridging" event, the precise mechanisms by which it is governed are complex and yet to be established. Progress is hindered by the current methods for growth plate visualization; these are invasive and largely rely on histological procedures...
January 23, 2018: Frontiers in Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409886/changes-in-the-morphology-and-gene-expression-of-developing-zebrafish-gonads
#17
REVIEW
Chen-Wei Hsu, You-Jiun Pan, Yan-Wei Wang, Sok-Keng Tong, Bon-Chu Chung
Zebrafish gonadal sexual differentiation is an important but poorly understood subject. The difficulty in investigating zebrafish sexual development lies in its sex determination plasticity, the lack of morphological tools to distinguish juvenile females from males, and the lack of sex chromosomes in laboratory strains. Zebrafish sexual differentiation starts at around 8 days post-fertilization when germ cells start to proliferate. The number of germ cells determines the future sex of the gonad. Gonads with more germ cells differentiate into ovaries, whereas a reduced germ cell number leads to male-biased sexual differentiation...
January 30, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408759/changes-in-intermediate-metabolism-and-oxidative-balance-parameters-in-sexually-matured-three-barbeled-catfishes-exposed-to-herbicides-from-rice-crops-roundup%C3%A2-primoleo%C3%A2-and-facet%C3%A2
#18
Tanilene Sotero Pinto Persch, Patrícia Rodrigues da Silva, Sarah Helen Dias Dos Santos, Betânia Souza de Freitas, Guendalina Turcato Oliveira
This study analyzed the effect of different concentrations of herbicides (Facet®, Primoleo®, and Roundup®) on metabolism and oxidative balance (superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, lipid peroxidation) in the gills, liver, kidneys, and tail muscle of adult catfish. All herbicides caused protein depletion in gills, increased glycogen and triacylglycerol consumption in the liver, and changes in muscle glycogen. Roundup® and Primoleo® stimulated lipid deposition in the liver, while Roundup® and Facet® stimulated lipid consumption in gills...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407458/mechanistic-substrates-of-a-life-history-transition-in-male-prairie-voles-developmental-plasticity-in-affiliation-and-aggression-corresponds-to-nonapeptide-neuronal-function
#19
Aubrey M Kelly, Alexander G Saunders, Alexander G Ophir
Although prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster) social behavior is well-characterized in adults, surprisingly little is known about the development of social behavior in voles. Further, the overwhelming majority of studies in prairie voles examine social behavior in a reproductive context. Here, we examine developmental plasticity in affiliation and aggression and their underlying neural correlates. Using sexually naïve males, we characterized interactions with an age-matched, novel, same-sex conspecific in four different age groups that span pre-weaning to adulthood...
February 3, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397166/plane-of-nutrition-before-and-after-6-months-of-age-in-holstein-friesian-bulls-ii-effects-on-metabolic-and-reproductive-endocrinology-and-identification-of-physiological-markers-of-puberty-and-sexual-maturation
#20
C J Byrne, S Fair, A M English, C Urh, H Sauerwein, M A Crowe, P Lonergan, D A Kenny
The aim of this study was (1) to examine the effect of plane of nutrition during the first and second 6 mo of life on systemic concentrations of reproductive hormones and metabolites in Holstein-Friesian dairy bulls, and (2) to establish relationships with age at puberty and postpubertal semen production potential. Holstein-Friesian bull calves (n = 83) with a mean (standard deviation) age and body weight of 17 (4.4) d and 52 (6.2) kg, respectively, were assigned to a high or low plane of nutrition for the first 6 mo of life...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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