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Sexual maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720488/hormonal-correlates-of-natal-dispersal-and-rank-attainment-in-wild-male-baboons
#1
Mercy Y Akinyi, Laurence R Gesquiere, Mathias Franz, Patrick O Onyango, Jeanne Altmann, Susan C Alberts
In many mammals, maturational milestones such as dispersal and the attainment of adult dominance rank mark stages in the onset of reproductive activity and depend on a coordinated set of hormonal and socio-behavioral changes. Studies that focus on the link between hormones and maturational milestones are uncommon in wild mammals because of the challenges of obtaining adequate sample sizes of maturing animals and of tracking the movements of dispersing animals. We examined two maturational milestones in wild male baboons-adult dominance rank attainment and natal dispersal-and measured their association with variation in glucocorticoids (fGC) and fecal testosterone (fT)...
July 15, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710978/relationships-between-pops-biometrics-and-circulating-steroids-in-male-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-svalbard
#2
Tomasz M Ciesielski, Ingunn Tjelta Hansen, Jenny Bytingsvik, Martin Hansen, Elisabeth Lie, Jon Aars, Bjørn M Jenssen, Bjarne Styrishave
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biometric variables on circulating levels of steroid hormones (androgens, estrogens and progestagens) in male polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from Svalbard, Norway (n = 23). Levels of pregnenolone (PRE), progesterone (PRO), androstenedione (AN), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), testosterone (TS), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone (E1), 17α-estradiol (αE2) and 17β-estradiol (βE2) were quantified in polar bear serum by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), while POPs were measured in plasma...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709042/perinatal-exposure-of-pregnant-rats-to-cypermethrin-delays-testicular-descent-impairs-fertility-in-f1-male-progeny-leading-to-developmental-defects-in-f2-generation
#3
Dipty Singh, Sharad Bhagat, Paula Raijiwala, Vikas Dighe, Geeta Vanage
Cypermethrin (CYP) is a widely used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide and regarded as a potential endocrine disruptor. CYP exposure may pose a great risk to human health including adverse effect on their reproductive functions. This study aimed to delineate the effects of perinatal exposure of rats to CYP on the sexual maturation and fertility of F1 male progeny. Pregnant rats (F0) were gavaged daily with CYP (0, 1, 10, 25 mg/kg BW/day) and Diethylestilbestrol (DES, 10 μg/kg BW/day), as positive control from gestation day 6 to postnatal day 21...
July 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707221/modelling-the-evolution-of-traits-in-a-two-sex-population-with-an-application-to-grandmothering
#4
Matthew H Chan, Kristen Hawkes, Peter S Kim
We present a mathematical simplification for the evolutionary dynamics of a heritable trait within a two-sex population. This trait is assumed to control the timing of sex-specific life-history events, such as the age of sexual maturity and end of female fertility, and each sex has a distinct fitness trade-off associated with the trait. We provide a formula for the fitness landscape of the population and show a natural extension of the result to an arbitrary number of heritable traits. Our method can be viewed as a dynamical systems generalisation of the Price equation to include two sexes, age structure and multiple traits...
July 13, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701997/early-intranasal-vasopressin-administration-impairs-partner-preference-in-adult-male-prairie-voles-microtus-ochrogaster
#5
Trenton C Simmons, Jessica F Balland, Janeet Dhauna, Sang Yun Yang, Jason L Traina, Jessica Vazquez, Karen L Bales
Research supports a modulatory role for arginine vasopressin (AVP) in the expression of socially motivated behaviors in mammals. The acute effects of AVP administration are demonstrably pro-social across species, providing the justification for an ever-increasing measure of clinical interest over the last decade. Combining these results with non-invasive intranasal delivery results in an attractive system for offering intranasal AVP (IN-AVP) as a therapeutic for the social impairments of children with autism spectrum disorder...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701755/microbiota-composition-of-the-koala-phascolarctos-cinereus-ocular-and-urogenital-sites-and-their-association-with-chlamydia-infection-and-disease
#6
Miranda E Vidgen, Jonathan Hanger, Peter Timms
Disease caused by Chlamydia pecorum is characterised by ocular and urogenital infections that can lead to blindness and infertility in koalas. However, koalas that are infected with C. pecorum do not always progress to disease. In other host systems, the influence of the microbiota has been implicated in either accelerating or preventing infections progressing to disease. This study investigates the contribution of koala urogenital and ocular microbiota to Chlamydia infection and disease in a free ranging koala population...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701734/long-noncoding-rna-expression-profile-changes-associated-with-dietary-energy-in-the-sheep-testis-during-sexual-maturation
#7
Yanli Zhang, Hua Yang, Le Han, Fengzhe Li, Tingting Zhang, Jing Pang, Xu Feng, Caifang Ren, Shengyong Mao, Feng Wang
Spermatogenesis can be affected by nutrition, which operates through normal physiological processes by changing the testicular mass and hormone levels profoundly. However, little is known regarding how testis development is regulated by long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). In this study, we investigated the effects of high-grain (HG) feeding on testis development during sexual maturation mediated by lncRNA. The HG diet group showed an increase in growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and testosterone (T) levels, and in the number of sperm in the seminiferous tubules compared with the hay-fed group (p  < 0...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699385/intravaginal-practices-among-young-hiv-infected-women-in-lusaka-zambia
#8
Maureen Chisembele, Violeta J Rodriguez, Megan R Brown, Deborah L Jones, Maria L Alcaide
Intravaginal practices (IVP) are linked to bacterial vaginosis (BV), obstetric/gynecological complications, and HIV. Late adolescent and young adult (LAYA) women in Zambia have high rates of HIV. Adult and mature (AM) HIV-infected women in Zambia engage in IVP for hygiene, health, and sexuality reasons; however, to our knowledge, IVP use among LAYA women has not been examined. This study compares IVP use between LAYA and AM women to identify age-specific factors to target when developing IVP reduction interventions for LAYA women...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699207/supplemental-effect-of-different-levels-of-taurine-in-modena-on-boar-semen-quality-during-liquid-preservation-at-17%C3%A2-c
#9
Hao Li, Xiao-Gang Zhang, Qian Fang, Qi Liu, Ren-Rang Du, Gong-She Yang, Li-Qiang Wang, Jian-Hong Hu
Peroxidation damage induces sublethal injury to boar sperm during the storage process. Taurine has already been demonstrated to protect cells effectively from oxidant-induced injury. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of taurine (0.5, 1, 5 and 10 mmol/L) in Modena diluent on boar sperm quality during liquid storage at 17°C. Ejaculates from sexually mature Duroc pigs were collected, pooled and preserved in the Modena containing different concentrations of taurine. Sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, acrosome integrity, total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) activity and malondialdehyde content (MDA) were examined every 24 h...
July 12, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698790/sequential-stamen-maturation-and-movement-in-a-protandrous-herb-mechanisms-increasing-pollination-efficiency-and-reducing-sexual-interference
#10
Chang-Long Xiao, Hui Deng, Gan-Ju Xiang, Kadiori Edwin Luguba, You-Hao Guo, Chun-Feng Yang
Successive stamen movement directly controls pollen presentation schedules through sequential stamen maturation and changes the extent of herkogamy by altering the positions of sexual organs. However, the implications of such movements in terms of pollination are not well understood. Pollen presentation theory predicts that staggered pollen presentation should be favoured when plants are subject to diminishing returns on pollen transfer. Herkogamy on the other hand, has been interpreted as an adaptive trait that reduces sexual interference in hermaphrodite flowers...
May 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697943/ultrasonographic-characteristics-of-accessory-sex-glands-and-spectral-doppler-indices-of-the-internal-iliac-arteries-in-peri-and-post-pubertal-dorper-rams-raised-in-a-subtropical-climate
#11
E S C Camela, R P Nociti, V J C Santos, B I Macente, G S Maciel, M A R Feliciano, W R R Vicente, I Gill, P M Bartlewski, M E F Oliveira
The aim of the present study was to determine and compare ultrasonographic characteristics of accessory sex glands and spectral Doppler indices of the internal iliac arteries in peri- and post-pubertal rams raised in a subtropical climate. Forty-five Dorper rams were examined (24 rams aged 8-11 months and 21 rams aged 12-24 months). Digital images of all accessory sex glands were subjected to morphometric and echotextural analyses, the latter using commercially available image analytical software Image ProPlus(®)...
June 23, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697876/pharmacokinetics-of-the-anti-androgenic-drug-flutamide-in-healthy-stallions
#12
Francisco Javier Mendoza, Juan Manuel Serrano-Rodriguez, Antonio Buzon-Cuevas, Alejandro Perez-Ecija
Alternatives to surgical castration are necessary for controlling the sexual behaviour of stallions with breeding potential in training and competition. Flutamide is a potent selective non-steroidal androgen receptor competitive antagonist that has been used in human beings as an anti-androgenic drug. In this study, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of flutamide and its main active metabolite, 2-hydroflutamide, were determined in seven healthy mature stallions. Single doses of flutamide (1mg/kg intravenously, 1mg/kg orally in fasted horses, 5mg/kg orally in fasted horses and 5mg/kg orally in fed horses) were administered randomly at intervals of 2 weeks...
June 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695635/taurine-does-not-improve-the-quality-of-short-term-stored-rabbit-spermatozoa-in-vitro
#13
D Paál, F Strejček, E Tvrdá, J Vašíček, A Baláži, P Chrenek, P Massányi
This study examines the impact of taurine on the viability, morphology and acrosome integrity of rabbit spermatozoa in vitro. Semen samples, obtained from four to five sexually mature and healthy New Zealand White rabbits, were pooled in heterospermic semen sample. This was divided and treated with taurine in a concentration of 0 (control), 1.5, 7, 12.5, 50 mM to a final concentration of 10(8)  spermatozoa/ml. The samples were then incubated at 37°C for 4 hr. A combination of fluorescent probes SYBR-14/propidium iodide/PNA-Alexa Fluor 647 was used to assess spermatozoa viability and acrosome integrity on a flow cytometer...
July 10, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693114/comparison-of-tanner-staging-of-hiv-infected-and-uninfected-girls-at-the-university-of-nigeria-teaching-hospital-ituku-ozalla-enugu-nigeria
#14
Ogochukwu N Iloh, Kenechukwu K Iloh, Agozie C Ubesie, Ifeoma J Emodi, Anthony N Ikefuna, Ngozi S Ibeziako
BACKGROUND: A number of factors influence sexual maturation in adolescents, including chronic illnesses like HIV. Marshall and Tanner devised a method of classifying the adolescent based on the level of sexual maturation into five stages. This study compared the Tanner staging of HIV-infected and uninfected girls. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 100 HIV-infected girls aged 8-18 years and 100 uninfected counterparts matched for age and social class. Using standard photographs as a guide, stages of sexual maturation were determined according to the method proposed by Marshall and Tanner...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691222/the-morphology-of-the-male-reproductive-system-spermatogenesis-and-the-spermatozoon-of-daphnia-magna-crustacea-branchiopoda
#15
Maggie Wuerz, Erwin Huebner, Judith Huebner
This study analyses the histological and cellular morphology of the testis and sperm development in the male Daphnia magna Straus 1820. Due to the rarity of males and predominately parthenogenetic lifecycle of Daphnia, there has been limited detailed information on males in contrast to the well-studied female. Using light and electron microscopy approaches, we describe the morphology of the testis during the progression from an immature to mature testis. The testis has an encasing muscular mesh sheath outside the basal lamina, beneath which is a thin somatic epithelial cell layer...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690826/demographics-reproduction-growth-and-abundance-of-jollyville-plateau-salamanders-eurycea-tonkawae
#16
Nathan F Bendik
Insights into the ecology and natural history of the neotenic salamander, Eurycea tonkawae, are provided from eight years of capture-recapture data from 10,041 captures of 7,315 individuals at 16 sites. Eurycea tonkawae exhibits seasonal reproduction, with peak gravidity occurring in the fall and winter. Size frequency data indicated recruitment occurred in the spring and summer. Open-population capture-recapture models revealed a similar seasonal pattern at two of three sites, while recruitment was dependent on flow at the third site...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685833/reproductive-biology-of-psammobatis-rutrum-chondrichthyes-arhynchobatidae-in-south-brazil-south-west-atlantic
#17
M F Martins, M C Oddone
This study presents information on the reproductive biology of Psammobatis rutrum based on 55 males and 53 females obtained as by-catch from bottom trawlers off southern Brazil during July 2013 and September 2014 and includes a detailed description of the egg capsule. Total lengths (LT ) ranged from 22·3 to 31·6 cm and most of the sample comprised larger individuals, although there were no sexual differences in length-frequency distributions. Significant sexual differences were found for total length-disc width, LT -body mass and LT -eviscerated body mass relationships, with females being heavier and larger...
July 6, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683952/identification-and-profile-of-micrornas-in-xiang-pig-testes-in-four-different-ages-detected-by-solexa-sequencing
#18
Zhi-Yu Luo, Xin-Lan Dai, Xue-Qin Ran, Yong-Xiu Cen, Xi Niu, Shi-Hui Huang, Jia-Fu Wang
To further understand the role of microRNA (miRNA) during testicular development, we constructed four small RNA libraries from the testes of the Chinese indigenous Xiang pig at four different ages, which were sequenced using high-throughput Solexa deep sequencing methods. It yielded over 23 million high-quality reads and 1,342,579 unique sequences. At two and three months of age, the proportion which represented miRNAs was the most abundant class of small RNAs, but it was gradually replaced by the category that represented piRNAs in adult testes...
June 28, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682782/pubertal-assessment-a-national-survey-of-attitudes-knowledge-and-practices-of-the-us-pediatric-trainees
#19
Aditi Khokhar, Yagnaram Ravichandran, Dimitre G Stefanov, Sheila Perez-Colon
Background and objective Sex maturity rating (SMR), defines different levels of sexual maturity, based on the development of secondary sexual characteristics. Periodic assessment of pubertal maturation by physicians is crucial for timely identification of puberty-related disorders. With this pilot study, we aimed to assess the attitudes, knowledge and practices of pubertal assessment by current US pediatric trainees. Methods An anonymous online survey questionnaire was sent to categorical pediatric residents at different levels of training and pediatric chief residents across the US...
July 6, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679591/greater-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-in-adult-female-shr-is-dependent-on-blood-pressure-but-does-not-account-for-sex-differences-in-renal-t-regulatory-cells
#20
Ashlee J Tipton, Jacqueline B Musall, G Ryan Crislip, Jennifer C Sullivan
Female spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) have more renal regulatory T cells (Tregs) than males, and greater levels of Tregs in female SHR is dependent on blood pressure (BP). However, the molecular mechanism responsible for greater Tregs in female SHR is unknown. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β is a pleiotropic cytokine critical in the differentiation of naïve T cells into Tregs, and female SHR have higher TGF-β excretion than male SHR. The goals of the current study were to test the hypotheses that 1) female SHR have greater renal TGF-β expression than male SHR which is dependent on BP and 2) neutralizing TGF-β will decrease renal Tregs in female SHR...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
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