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Polychlorinated biphenyls

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915320/adipose-tissue-as-a-site-of-toxin-accumulation
#1
Erin Jackson, Robin Shoemaker, Nika Larian, Lisa Cassis
We examine the role of adipose tissue, typically considered an energy storage site, as a potential site of toxicant accumulation. Although the production of most persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was banned years ago, these toxicants persist in the environment due to their resistance to biodegradation and widespread distribution in various environmental forms (e.g., vapor, sediment, and water). As a result, human exposure to these toxicants is inevitable. Largely due to their lipophilicity, POPs bioaccumulate in adipose tissue, resulting in greater body burdens of these environmental toxicants with obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910963/placental-transfer-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-and-feasibility-using-the-placenta-as-a-non-invasive-biomonitoring-matrix
#2
Yunsun Jeong, Sunggyu Lee, Sunmi Kim, Jeongim Park, Hai-Joong Kim, Gyuyeon Choi, Sooran Choi, Sungjoo Kim, Su Young Kim, Sungkyoon Kim, Kyungho Choi, Hyo-Bang Moon
The placenta is a crucial organ for the supply of oxygen and nutritional elements from mother to fetus. Several studies have reported evidence of the placental transfer of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Despite the importance of prenatal exposure to POPs, the transport process of POPs via the human placenta is not well understood. To investigate the transport processes of these contaminants and to assess the feasibility of the placenta as a non-invasive biological matrix, we measured 19 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and 24 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in placenta tissues...
September 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910589/persistent-organic-pollutants-and-related-biological-responses-measured-in-coastal-fish-using-chemical-and-biological-screening-methods
#3
Zhanna Tairova, Jakob Strand, Rossana Bossi, Martin M Larsen, Lars Förlin, Anders Bignert, Jenny Hedman, Jens Gercken, Thomas Lang, Nicolai F Fricke, Gert Asmund, Manhai Long, Eva C Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The aim of this study was to investigate the spatial distribution, levels of dioxin-like compounds (DLC), and biological responses in two fish species. The viviparous eelpout (Zoarces viviparus) was collected from various locations in the Baltic Sea and in fjords of Kattegat and Skagerrak, while shorthorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus scorpius) was obtained at the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) polluted site in North West Greenland. Significant differences were detected both in contaminant levels and relative contributions from either polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) or polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF or furans) and mono-ortho- and non-ortho (coplanar) polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCB)...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910252/lifetime-excess-cancer-risk-due-to-carcinogens-in-food-and-beverages-urban-versus-rural-differences-in-canada
#4
Roslyn Cheasley, C Peter Keller, Eleanor Setton
OBJECTIVES: To explore differences in urban versus rural lifetime excess risk of cancer from five specific contaminants found in food and beverages. METHODS: Probable contaminant intake is estimated using Monte Carlo simulations of contaminant concentrations in combination with dietary patterns. Contaminant concentrations for arsenic, benzene, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and tetrachloroethylene (PERC) were derived from government dietary studies. The dietary patterns of 34 944 Canadians from 10 provinces were available from Health Canada's Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910084/changes-in-flame-retardant-and-legacy-contaminant-concentrations-in-indoor-air-during-building-construction-furnishing-and-use
#5
Simon Vojta, Lisa Melymuk, Jana Klánová
A newly constructed university building was selected for targeted assessment of changes in the levels of flame retardants and legacy contaminants during the installation of building equipment, furniture and electronics, and first year of building use. Indoor air samples were collected during several periods of intensive equipment installation to determine a relationship between newly-introduced equipment and changes in the concentrations and profiles of contaminants in indoor air. Samples were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) and new types of flame retardants - brominated (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs)...
September 14, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898957/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-krill-from-the-bellingshausen-south-scotia-and-weddell-seas
#6
Cristóbal J Galbán-Malagón, Gema Hernán, Esteban Abad, Jordi Dachs
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) reach Antarctica through atmospheric transport, oceanic currents, and to minor extent, by migratory animals. The Southern Ocean is a net sink for many POPs, with a key contribution of the settling fluxes of POPs bound to organic matter (biological pump). However, little is known about POP transfer through the food web in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic waters, where krill is an important ecological node. In this study, we assessed the occurrence of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) from the Bellingshausen, South Scotia and Weddell Seas around the Antarctic Peninsula...
September 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898812/formation-of-hydroxylated-and-methoxylated-polychlorinated-biphenyls-by-bacillus-subtilis-new-insights-into-microbial-metabolism
#7
Jianteng Sun, Lili Pan, Lizhong Zhu
The detoxification and degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied. However, little information is available about the biological mechanisms involved in the metabolism of hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) and methoxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (MeO-PCBs) by specific microorganism. In this study, the simultaneous formation of OH-PCB (major metabolite) and MeO-PCB (minor metabolite) was found in Bacillus subtilis after exposure to PCB. Interconversion between MeO-PCB and OH-PCB was also observed and the demethylation ratio of MeO-PCB was higher than the methylation ratio of OH-PCB...
September 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892854/tissue-distribution-and-maternal-transfer-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-kentish-plovers-charadrius-alexandrines-from-cangzhou-wetland-bohai-bay-china
#8
Shucheng Zheng, Pu Wang, Huizhong Sun, Julius Matsiko, Yanfen Hao, Derong Meng, Yingming Li, Guogang Zhang, Qinghua Zhang, Guibin Jiang
Several persistent organic pollutants, including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), were comprehensively investigated in the egg, muscle and liver samples of Kentish Plover (Charadrius alexandrines) collected from Cangzhou Wetland in western Bohai Bay, China. DDTs were the most abundant contaminants (35.4-9853ngg(-1) lipid weight, lw), followed by HCHs, PCBs, PBDEs and HCB...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889025/industrial-pollution-and-cancer-in-spain-an-important-public-health-issue
#9
Pablo Fernández-Navarro, Javier García-Pérez, Rebeca Ramis, Elena Boldo, Gonzalo López-Abente
Cancer can be caused by exposure to air pollution released by industrial facilities. The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) has made it possible to study exposure to industrial pollution. This study seeks to describe the industrial emissions in the vicinity of Spanish towns and their temporal changes, and review our experience studying industrial pollution and cancer. Data on industrial pollutant sources (2007-2010) were obtained from the E-PRTR registries. Population exposure was estimated by the distance from towns to industrial facilities...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886414/serum-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-leukocyte-telomere-length-in-a-highly-exposed-population-the-anniston-community-health-survey
#10
Catherine L Callahan, Marian Pavuk, Linda S Birnbaum, Xuefeng Ren, James R Olson, Matthew R Bonner
BACKGROUND: Serum polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have previously been associated with longer leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in most, but not all, of the few previous studies. PCBs were produced in Anniston, Alabama from 1929 to 1971 and participants of the Anniston Community Health Survey (ACHS) were highly exposed. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated serum levels of 35 PCBs and relative telomere length in 559 ACHS participants. METHODS: Relative LTL was measured in DNA extracted from blood clots...
September 5, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885748/extensive-study-on-physicochemical-properties-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-a-commercial-ion-trap-mass-spectrometer-relevance-in-analytical-and-environmental-chemistry
#11
R Narizzano, F Risso, A Magherini, G Cordone, M Ottonelli, E Smirnova, S Nadotti, L Rivara, R La Rocca, E Magi, S Lottici, S Maggiolo, C E Pepe, M Garbarino
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exist as 209 congeners, consisting of biphenyl molecules, where the number and substitution positions of halogen atoms are known to affect industrial uses, environmental transport mechanisms, distribution, fate, and toxicity. The complexity of the problem requires accurate physicochemical studies of an increasing number of congeners in order to understand the environmental and biological processes at play. This work presents a systematic study on the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of PCBs by quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881326/remediation-of-electronic-waste-polluted-soil-using-a-combination-of-persulfate-oxidation-and-chemical-washing
#12
Fu Chen, Zhanbin Luo, Gangjun Liu, Yongjun Yang, Shaoliang Zhang, Jing Ma
Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the efficiency of a simultaneous chemical extraction and oxidation for removing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and toxic metals from an actual soil polluted by the recycling activity of electronic waste. Various chemicals, including hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), citric acid (CA) and sodium persulfate (SP) were applied synchronously with Fe(2+) activated oxidation to enhance the co-removal of both types of pollutants. It is found that the addition of HPCD can enhance POPs removal through solubilization of POPs and iron chelation; while the CA-chelated Fe(2+) activation process is effective for extracting metals and degrading residual POPs...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881309/in-situ-benthic-flow-through-chambers-to-determine-sediment-to-water-fluxes-of-legacy-hydrophobic-organic-contaminants
#13
Lukas Mustajärvi, Espen Eek, Gerard Cornelissen, Ann-Kristin Eriksson-Wiklund, Emma Undeman, Anna Sobek
Contaminated sediment can release hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) and thereby act as a secondary source of primarily legacy hazardous substances to the water column. There is therefore a need for assessments of the release of HOCs from contaminated sediment for prioritization of management actions. In situ assessment of HOC sediment-to-water flux is currently done with (closed) benthic flux chambers, which have a sampling time exceeding one month. During this time, the water inside the chamber is depleted of oxygen and the effect of bioturbation on the sediment-to-water release of HOCs is largely ignored...
September 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876910/dynamic-transgenerational-fate-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-dioxins-furans-in-lactating-cows-and-their-offspring
#14
Christian Bogdal, Selina Züst, Peter Schmid, Tenzing Gyalpo, Anicia Zeberli, Konrad Hungerbühler, Markus Zennegg
We report on two farms in Switzerland heavily contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins (PCDD/Fs), occurring in the first case from diffuse sources and in the second case from PCB-containing wall paint. Extensive measurements of PCBs and PCDD/Fs on site (soil, forage, and paint) and in cattle (blood, fat, and milk) allowed validation of our novel dynamic toxicokinetic model, which includes the transfer of contaminants from the mother cows to their suckling calf and the uptake of soil by grazing cattle...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876166/photo-assisted-electrochemical-degradation-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-with-boron-doped-diamond-electrodes
#15
Rubén F Gutiérrez-Hernández, Ricardo Bello-Mendoza, Juan M Peralta-Hernández, Aracely Ramírez-Hernández, Edi A Malo, Hugo A Nájera-Aguilar
The capacity of the photo electro-Fenton (PEF) process to degrade a mixture of seven polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCB28, PCB52, PCB101, PCB138, PCB153, PCB180 and PCB209), each at an initial concentration of 50 µg L(-1), was studied. Boron-doped diamond (BDD) sheets were used as anode and cathode in the experimental electrolytic cell that contained Na2SO4 0.05 M at pH 3 as supporting electrolyte for the electro generation of H2O2 at the cathode. The effects of UV light intensity (254 and 365 nm), current density (8, 16 and 24 mA cm(-2)) and the initial concentration of the ferrous ion (0...
September 6, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875239/spatial-variance-of-pops-and-heavy-metals-in-transformer-oil-contaminated-soil-around-tamil-nadu
#16
Karuvelan Murugan, Namasivayam Vasudevan
The persistent organic pollutants in the environment are one of the global issues to their unregulated disposal and informal recycling. This study investigates the contamination of soil with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phenolic compounds and heavy metals via spillage of transformer oil (TO). Fresh TO (FTO), used TO (UTO) and soil samples were analysed using GC-MS to confirm the presence of 8 PCB congeners, 16 PAHs and 24 types of phenolic compounds and using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry to confirm the presence of 7 heavy metals...
September 5, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870506/pcb-in-the-environment-bio-based-processes-for-soil-decontamination-and-management-of-waste-from-the-industrial-production-of-pleurotus-ostreatus
#17
Giovanna Siracusa, Simone Becarelli, Roberto Lorenzi, Alessandro Gentini, Simona Di Gregorio
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are hazardous soil contaminants for which a bio-based technology for their recovery is essential. The objective of this study was to validate the exploitation of spent mushroom substrate (SMS), a low or null cost organic waste derived from the industrial production of P. ostreatus, as bulking agent in a dynamic biopile pilot plant. The SMS shows potential oxidative capacity towards recalcitrant compounds. The aim was consistent with the design of a process of oxidation of highly chlorinated PCBs, which is independent from their reductive dehalogenation...
September 1, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869886/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-red-crowned-cranes-grus-japonensis-from-hokkaido-japan
#18
Kensaku Kakimoto, Kazuhiko Akutsu, Haruna Nagayoshi, Yoshimasa Konishi, Keiji Kajimura, Naomi Tsukue, Tomoo Yoshino, Fumio Matsumoto, Takeshi Nakano, Ning Tang, Kazuichi Hayakawa, Akira Toriba
The red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) from eastern Hokkaido is classified as a Special Natural Monument in Japan. In this study, we determined the concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in red-crowned crane muscle tissues (n = 47). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) had the highest median concentration (240ng/g lipid weight), followed by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) (150ng/g lipid weight), chlordane-related compounds (CHLs) (36ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) (16ng/g lipid weight), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) (4...
September 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866251/comprehensive-two-dimensional-gas-chromatography-coupled-to-high-resolution-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry-for-screening-of-organohalogenated-compounds-in-cat-hair
#19
Martin Brits, Peter Gorst-Allman, Egmont R Rohwer, Jayne De Vos, Jacob de Boer, Jana M Weiss
The coupling of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry offers the best separation efficiency combined with accurate mass measurements over a wide mass range. The tremendous power of this screening tool is illustrated by trace qualitative screening analysis of organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) in pet cat hair. Tentative identification was supported by mass spectral database searches and elemental formula prediction from the experimentally determined accurate mass data...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865728/gender-specific-association-of-exposure-to-non-dioxin-like-polychlorinated-biphenyls-during-pregnancy-with-methylation-levels-of-h19-and-long-interspersed-nuclear-element-1-in-cord-blood-in-the-hokkaido-study
#20
Sumitaka Kobayashi, Fumihiro Sata, Chihiro Miyashita, Ryu Miura, Kaoru Azumi, Sachiko Kobayashi, Houman Goudarzi, Atsuko Araki, Mayumi Ishizuka, Takashi Todaka, Jumboku Kajiwara, Tsuguhide Hori, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Associations between prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and reduced birth-size, and between DNA methylation of insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), H19 locus, and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) and reduced birth-size are well established. To date, however, studies on the associations between prenatal exposure to PCBs and alterations in methylation of IGF-2, H19, and LINE-1 are lacking. Thus, in this study, we examined these associations with infant-gender stratification...
August 30, 2017: Toxicology
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