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Polychlorinated biphenyls

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333580/persistent-organochlorine-contaminant-residues-in-tissues-of-hedgehogs-from-turkey
#1
Kalender Arıkan, Zeynep Yaşar Arıkan, Salih Levent Turan
The residues of persistent organochlorinated pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (HCHs, CHLs, HCCPs, DDTs, and dicofol congeners) were investigated in the hair and muscle of road-killed Erinaceus roumanicus and E. concolor in Turkey. Mean residue levels were as follows: in hair, PCBs = 7.43 ± 4.88 ng/g and OCPs = 9.21 ± 1.27 ng/g; in muscle, PCBs = 30.73 ± 2.51 ng/g and OCPs = 145.04 ± 16.59 ng/g. There was no significant difference between species and sex, while there was significant difference between habitats and regions in terms of either total PCB and OCP levels, or POP levels (p < 0...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329084/sources-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-and-biphenyls-in-chinese-mitten-crabs
#2
Ying Han, Wenbin Liu, Wen Zhu, Kaifeng Rao, Ke Xiao, Lirong Gao, Guijin Su, Guorui Liu
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chinese mitten crabs from several areas were determined. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) for the mean PCDD/F and total PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs were 2.9 ± 2.7 and 5.7 ± 4.0 pg TEQ g-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of PCBs and dl-PCBs were 282 and 59 times the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, respectively. PCDD/F and PCB sources in the crab food web were assessed. The total TEQ of PCDD/F and PCB supplied by crab compound feed was 2...
January 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#3
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318322/persistent-organochlorine-pollutants-in-placentas-sampled-from-women-in-croatia-and-an-evaluation-of-their-dna-damaging-potential-in-vitro
#4
Davor Želježić, Snježana Herceg Romanić, Darija Klinčić, Marijana Matek Sarić, Judita Grzunov Letinić
This study investigated the levels and distribution of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (HCB, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) in placenta samples from women living in the coastal area of Croatia. During November 2012 to February 2013, 51 placenta samples were collected from healthy mothers. This study presents the first report about Croatian placenta samples. Each of the analysed compounds were found in all of the samples; all of the maximum values were < 1 ng g-1 w...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316220/interactive-effects-of-hypoxia-and-pcb-co-exposure-on-expression-of-cyp1a-and-its-potential-regulators-in-atlantic-croaker-liver
#5
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315818/enantioseparation-and-identification-for-the-rationalization-of-the-environmental-impact-of-4-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#6
Fangjie Guo, Qiaozhi Tang, Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Weiping Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC...
January 8, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315752/effects-of-type-and-quantity-of-organic-carbon-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-contaminated-sediments
#7
Federico L Sinche, Sam A Nutile, Kara E Huff Hartz, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
Organic carbon (OC) principally controls sorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments. We investigated the effects of OC type and quantity on compound bioaccessibility. The desorption of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in spiked sediments amended with black carbon (BC), humic acid (HA) and sawdust (SD) at either 3 or 6% OC. Desorption parameters were determined using Tenax sequential extractions, and then modeled as operationally-defined rapid, slow, and very slow fractions and rate constants...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314156/simultaneous-quantification-of-t4-t3-rt3-3-5-t2-and-3-3-t2-in-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio-as-a-model-to-study-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#8
Xiaopeng Chen, Kyla M Walter, Galen W Miller, Pamela J Lein, Birgit Puschner
Environmental toxicants that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling can impact growth and development in animals and humans. Zebrafish represent a model to study chemically-induced TH disruption, prompting the need for sensitive detection of THs. Simultaneous quantification of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2), and 3,3'-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3'-T2) in zebrafish larvae was achieved by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode...
January 3, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313860/do-environmental-dynamics-matter-in-fate-models-exploring-scenario-dynamics-for-a-terrestrial-and-an-aquatic-system
#9
Melissa Morselli, Elisa Terzaghi, Antonio Di Guardo
Nowadays, there is growing interest in inserting more ecological realism into risk assessment of chemicals. On the exposure evaluation side, this can be done by studying the complexity of exposure in the ecosystem, niche partitioning, e.g. variation of the exposure scenario. Current regulatory predictive approaches, to ensure simplicity and predictive ability, generally keep the scenario as static as possible. This could lead to under or overprediction of chemical exposure depending on the chemical and scenario simulated...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306412/automated-and-simultaneous-determination-of-priority-substances-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-wastewater-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#10
Irene Domínguez, Francisco Javier Arrebola, Rafael Gavara, José Luis Martínez Vidal, Antonia Garrido Frenich
The re-use of wastewater has been in growing demand but a possible negative feature is the possibility of organic pollutants being present after its treatment. In order to control the presence of contaminants in wastewater, a completely automated methodology capable of determining a total of 55 organic pollutants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at ultra-trace levels has been developed. The proposed method is based on an on-line combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to double-focusing magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS)...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306215/treatment-characteristics-of-various-sediment-components-spiked-with-2-chlorobiphenyl-using-reactive-activated-carbon
#11
Hyeok Choi
Previously, the concept of reactive activated carbon (RAC), where the porous structure of activated carbon (AC) is impregnated with palladized zerovalent iron, has been proposed to be effective to adsorb and dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To explain the low dechlorination of PCBs bound to actual aquatic sediments under remediation with RAC, this study investigated the role of various solid organic and inorganic sediment components in adsorbing and desorbing PCBs. Detailed fate and transport mechanism of 2-chlorinated biphenyl (2-ClBP) spiked to sediment components, including kaolin, montmorillonite (MMT), coal, graphite, AC, and their mixture, was revealed...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304501/effects-of-characteristics-of-waste-incinerator-on-emission-rate-of-halogenated-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon-into-environments
#12
Qi Wang, Yuichi Miyake, Masahiro Tokumura, Takashi Amagai, Yuichi Horii, Kiyoshi Nojiri, Nobutoshi Ohtsuka
We determined the concentrations of halogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (XPAHs), some of which are carcinogenic and/or mutagenic compounds, in fly and bottom ashes and stack gas collected from waste incinerators in Japan. The dominant XPAHs in stack gas were consistent with those in the urban atmosphere. The dioxin-like toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration ranges of the XPAHs in stack gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 0.00497-20.5ng-TEQm-3, 0.0541-101ng-TEQg-1, and 0.000914-2.00ng-TEQg-1, respectively...
January 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304458/transformation-of-tetrabromobisphenol-a-by-rhodococcus-jostii-rha1-effects-of-heavy-metals
#13
Shen Xu, Yong-Feng Wang, Liu-Yan Yang, Rong Ji, Ai-Jun Miao
Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) is one of the most widely used brominated flame retardants in the world but it is also a pollutant of global concern. In the present study, we studied the transformation of 14C-labeled TBBPA by a polychlorinated-biphenyl-degrading bacterium, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1 (RHA1), under oxic conditions. During the 5-day incubation, TBBPA was biotransformed rapidly first to its monomethyl ether MeO-TBBPA and then to its more hydrophobic but less toxic dimethyl ether diMeO-TBBPA. The biotransformation followed pseudo-first-order decay kinetics, with a half-life of TBBPA of 0...
December 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303683/assessment-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-blood-of-humboldt-penguins-spheniscus-humboldti-from-the-punta-san-juan-marine-protected-area-peru
#14
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290385/hepatic-phase-i-and-ii-biotransformation-responses-and-contaminant-exposure-in-long-finned-pilot-whales-from-the-northeastern-atlantic
#15
Katrin S Hoydal, Bjørn M Jenssen, Robert J Letcher, Maria Dam, Augustine Arukwe
Faroe Island pilot whales have been documented to have high body burdens of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but low burdens of their respective hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs). The present study investigated the hepatic expression and/or catalytic activities of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in relation to hepatic concentrations of target OHCs, including OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs, in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Northeastern Atlantic...
December 19, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289779/screening-of-organic-pollutants-in-pet-hair-samples-and-the-significance-of-environmental-factors
#16
Xiana González-Gómez, Noelia Cambeiro-Pérez, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289296/identification-of-differentially-expressed-genes-response-to-tcdd-in-rat-brain-after-long-term-low-dose-exposure
#17
Yangsheng Chen, Li Xu, Heidi Q H Xie, Tuan Xu, Hualing Fu, Songyan Zhang, Rui Sha, Yingjie Xia, Bin Zhao
Several cohort studies have reported that dioxin and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls might impair the nervous system and lead to neurological or neurodegenerative diseases in the elder people, but there is limited research on the involved mechanism. By using microarray analysis, we figured out the differentially expressed genes between brain samples from SD rats after low-dose (0.1μg/(kg▪bw)) dioxin exposure for six months and controls. To investigate the function changes in the course of dioxin exposure, Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed on the differentially expressed genes...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288536/mono-di-and-trichlorinated-biphenyls-pcb-1-pcb-39-in-the-indoor-air-of-office-rooms-and-their-relevance-on-human-blood-burden
#18
M Kraft, S Sievering, L Grün, K Rauchfuss
Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from indoor air can lead to a significant increase in lower chlorinated congeners in human blood. Lower chlorinated congeners with short biological half-lives can exhibit an indirect genotoxic potential via their highly reactive metabolites. However, little is known about their occurrence in indoor air and, therefore, about the effects of possible exposure to these congeners. We analyzed all mono-, di- and trichlorinated biphenyls in the indoor air of 35 contaminated offices, as well as in the blood of the 35 individuals worked in these offices for a minimum of 2 years...
December 29, 2017: Indoor Air
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288297/biomonitoring-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-bavaria-germany-long-term-observations-and-standardization
#19
Roland Weber, Stefan Gonser, Jutta Köhler, Wolfgang Körner, Christine Herold, Roland Haag, Margit Krapp, Ludwig Peichl
In the 1980s, it was demonstrated that semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) accumulate in plant leaves. Plants are at the base of the food chain, and therefore a starting point for transfer of PCBs to animals and related human exposure. For two decades, the Environment Agency of the German federal state of Bavaria (LfU) has been operating long-term monitoring stations to measure the impact of organic air pollutants. Standardized ryegrass, curly kale, and spruce needles are used as bioindicators for the atmospheric entries of PCBs into vegetation...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287182/persistent-organic-pollutants-skull-size-and-bone-density-of-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-east-greenland-1892-2015-and-svalbard-1964-2004
#20
Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F Rigét, Robert J Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Thea Bechshoft, Øystein Wiig, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Cino Pertoldi, Eline D Lorenzen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p < 0.01) indicating that adult male skulls collected in the early pre-pollution period had the highest BMD. A similar decrease in BMD over time was not found for the East Greenland adult females...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
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