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Persistent organic pollutants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821000/simultaneous-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-analysis-of-brominated-flame-retardants-tetrabromobisphenol-a-and-hexabromocyclododecane-diastereoisomers-in-french-breast-milk
#1
Chanthadary Inthavong, Frédéric Hommet, François Bordet, Virginie Rigourd, Thierry Guérin, Sylviane Dragacci
TBBPA and HBCDs are the two classes of flame retardants that are still allowed for use by the European Commission. In May 2013, HBCDs were listed as Persistent Organic Pollutants under the Stockholm Convention, and they were banned with an exemption on EPS/XPS for cavity wall insulation. This study describes the development and optimisation of a rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method using isotopic dilution quantification including a simplified extraction step using a mixture of solvents and sulphuric acid hydrolysis followed by the one-shot analysis of TBBPA and each of the α-, β- and γ-HBCD diastereoisomers...
August 8, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818814/exposure-to-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-and-perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-a-remote-population-of-alaska-natives
#2
Samuel Byrne, Samarys Seguinot-Medina, Pamela Miller, Vi Waghiyi, Frank A von Hippel, C Loren Buck, David O Carpenter
BACKGROUND: Many Alaska Native communities rely on a traditional marine diet that contains persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The indoor environment is also a source of POPs. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are present both in the traditional diet and the home indoor environment. OBJECTIVES: We assessed exposure to PBDEs and PFASs among residents of two remote Alaska Native villages on St. Lawrence Island. Ninespine stickleback (Pungitious pungitious) and Alaska blackfish (Dallia pectoralis) were used to detect accumulation of these compounds in the local environment...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812719/bioaccumulation-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-deepest-ocean-fauna
#3
Alan J Jamieson, Tamas Malkocs, Stuart B Piertney, Toyonobu Fujii, Zulin Zhang
The legacy and reach of anthropogenic influence is most clearly evidenced by its impact on the most remote and inaccessible habitats on Earth. Here we identify extraordinary levels of persistent organic pollutants in the endemic amphipod fauna from two of the deepest ocean trenches (>10,000 metres). Contaminant levels were considerably higher than documented for nearby regions of heavy industrialization, indicating bioaccumulation of anthropogenic contamination and inferring that these pollutants are pervasive across the world's oceans and to full ocean depth...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808349/dysregulation-of-photosynthetic-genes-in-oceanic-prochlorococcus-populations-exposed-to-organic-pollutants
#4
Maria-Carmen Fernández-Pinos, Maria Vila-Costa, Jesús M Arrieta, Laura Morales, Belén González-Gaya, Benjamin Piña, Jordi Dachs
The impact of organic pollutants on oceanic ecosystem functioning is largely unknown. Prochlorococcus, the most abundant known photosynthetic organism on Earth, has been suggested to be especially sensible to exposure to organic pollutants, but the sub-lethal effects of organic pollutants on its photosynthetic function at environmentally relevant concentrations and mixtures remain unexplored. Here we show the modulation of the expression of two photosynthetic genes, rbcL (RuBisCO large subunit) and psbA (PSII D1 protein), of oceanic populations of Prochlorococcus from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans when exposed to mixtures of organic pollutants consisting of the non-polar fraction of a seawater extract...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807763/effects-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-on-neurobehavior-and-memory-change-and-bcl-2-c-fos-grin1b-and-lingo1b-gene-expression-in-male-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#5
Shukai Zheng, Caixia Liu, Yanhong Huang, Mian Bao, Yuanni Huang, Kusheng Wu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants in various environmental matrices and organisms and pose a threat to neural systems of organisms. However, though quite a few studies have explored the effect of PBDEs on neural behaviors such as learning and memory abilities in animals, their mechanisms are less known. We used the zebrafish model to evaluate neurotoxicity of PBDEs and observe changes in behavior and related gene expression. In behavioral testing, 50 zebrafish were divided into five groups treated with different concentrations of BDE-47...
August 12, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806690/occurrence-and-distribution-of-halogenated-flame-retardants-in-an-urban-watershed-comparison-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-organochlorine-pesticides
#6
Qian Wang, Barry C Kelly
Due to restrictions on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), market demand for alternative flame retardants is projected to increase, worldwide. Information regarding the environmental behavior of these compounds is limited. The present study involved field measurements of several alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs), along with PBDEs and legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in surface water, bottom sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) within a highly urbanized watershed in Singapore...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806565/implications-of-biological-factors-on-accumulation-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-antarctic-notothenioid-fish
#7
J M Ríos, N B Lana, N F Ciocco, A Covaci, E Barrera-Oro, E Moreira, J C Altamirano
In the present study, the possible associations between selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biological factors were assessed in different tissues of two Antarctic notothenioid fish: Notothenia rossii (NOR) and Trematomus newnesi (TRN) collected at Potter Cove, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands. Specifically, association patterns between biological factors (body size, lipid content, body condition) and POP concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs)), were explored by using two approaches: multivariate analyses (principal component analysis: PCA) and intraspecific correlations...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806556/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-fat-of-three-species-of-pacific-pelagic-longline-caught-sea-turtles-accumulation-in-relation-to-ingested-plastic-marine-debris
#8
Katharine E Clukey, Christopher A Lepczyk, George H Balazs, Thierry M Work, Qing X Li, Melannie J Bachman, Jennifer M Lynch
In addition to eating contaminated prey, sea turtles may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from ingesting plastic debris that has absorbed these chemicals. Given the limited knowledge about POPs in pelagic sea turtles and how plastic ingestion influences POP exposure, our objectives were to: 1) provide baseline contaminant levels of three species of pelagic Pacific sea turtles; and 2) assess trends of contaminant levels in relation to species, sex, length, body condition and capture location...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803433/distribution-of-serum-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-heterocyclic-aromatic-amine-theoretical-intake-and-nutritional-cofactors-in-a-semi-rural-island-population
#9
Daniel Carrizo, Sarah F Brennan, Olivier P Chevallier, Jayne Woodside, Kevin M Cooper, Marie M Cantwell, Geraldine Cuskelly, Christopher T Elliott
Persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure is strongly associated with negative health effects in humans. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed during high temperature cooking of foods (i.e. meat and fish). Human exposure to HAA is through food consumption and from similar food groups to POPs. A study of serum samples for POPs in a non-occupational exposed population (n = 149, age range 18-80 years, recruited in 2012) and comparison with estimated HAA daily intake calculations based on food diaries were undertaken...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803405/pcb-dechlorination-hotspots-and-reductive-dehalogenase-genes-in-sediments-from-a-contaminated-wastewater-lagoon
#10
Timothy E Mattes, Jessica M Ewald, Yi Liang, Andres Martinez, Andrew Awad, Patrick Richards, Keri C Hornbuckle, Jerald L Schnoor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are distributed worldwide. Although industrial PCB production has stopped, legacy contamination can be traced to several different commercial mixtures (e.g., Aroclors in the USA). Despite their persistence, PCBs are subject to naturally occurring biodegradation processes, although the microbes and enzymes involved are poorly understood. The biodegradation potential of PCB-contaminated sediments in a wastewater lagoon located in Virginia (USA) was studied...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803190/legacy-and-new-halogenated-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-polar-bears-from-a-contamination-hotspot-in-the-arctic-hudson-bay-canada
#11
R J Letcher, A D Morris, M Dyck, E Sverko, E J Reiner, D A D Blair, S G Chu, L Shen
A large and complex suite of 295 legacy and new halogenated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were investigated in fat or liver tissue samples of polar bears collected in 2013-2014 from Southern (SHB) and Western (WHB) subpopulations of the Canadian Arctic contaminants hotspot of Hudson Bay. A total of 210 POPs were detected and/or quantifiable with some frequency in all fat or liver samples. POP profile and concentration differences were investigated both within (e.g. age and sex) and between the two subpopulations...
August 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802104/results-of-the-second-national-forest-soil-inventory-in-germany-interpretation-of-level-and-stock-profiles-for-pcdd-f-and-pcb-in-terms-of-vegetation-and-humus-type
#12
Marchela Pandelova, Bernhard Henkelmann, Bernd M Bussian, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 86 humic topsoil layers and in a subset of 11 randomly selected top mineral forest soils at the depths of 0-5cm and 5-10cm collected from different federal states of Germany. The distribution of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humic topsoils with respect to vegetation cover (coniferous vs. deciduous vs. mixed), total organic carbon (TOC), altitude and latitude data was investigated...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799930/screening-of-organic-pollutants-in-urban-wastewater-treatment-plants-and-corresponding-receiving-waters
#13
Ann-Kathrin Wluka, Laura Coenen, Jan Schwarzbauer
There is a lack of knowledge in environmental pollution of the anthropogenic contaminants in wastewater and surface water. Several organic compounds merit special attention, because of their potential risk to the aquatic environment. Therefore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based screening analyses were performed in order to identify anthropogenic organic contaminants and to reveal information on the structural diversity of individual compounds and to characterize their environmental behavior. Wastewater samples from wastewater treatment plants in Germany, representing various capacities, and surface water samples from corresponding receiving waters were analyzed...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796943/forensic-analysis-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxin-and-furan-fingerprints-to-elucidate-dechlorination-pathways
#14
Lisa A Rodenburg, Yashika Dewani, Max M Haggblom, Lee Kerkhof, Donna E Fennell
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP dataset) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791578/protective-role-of-antioxidants-capacity-of-hyrtios-aff-erectus-sponge-extract-against-mixture-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-induced-hepatic-toxicity-in-mice-liver-biomarkers-and-ultrastructural-study
#15
Nehad M Abd El-Moneam, Mohamed A Shreadah, Samy A El-Assar, Asmaa Nabil-Adam
The current study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract against POPs intoxication on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in mice liver tissue. In the present study, the mice BALB/C were assigned into four groups: group I: received saline subcutaneously for 7 days and served as negative control; group II: received subcutaneously for 7 days, 130.6 mg/100 g/b. w/day POPs mixture(mixture of PCB 28, PCB 52,, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180, alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-Hexachloro-cyclohexane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, Aldrin, O,P'-DDE, Dieldrin, P,p DDE, O,P DDD, Endrin, P,p DDD and P,pDDT were extracted from sediments collected from Lake Mariout), and served as induced group; group III: pretreated with Hyrtios aff...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790991/bacteria-associated-to-plants-naturally-selected-in-a-historical-pcb-polluted-soil-show-potential-to-sustain-natural-attenuation
#16
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Ramona Marasco, Elena Crotti, Marco Fusi, Antonio Di Guardo, Stefano Armiraglio, Daniele Daffonchio, Sara Borin
The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore the selection of root-associated bacterial communities driven by different plant species spontaneously established in abandoned agricultural soils within a historical polluted site in north Italy. The site is highly contaminated by chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, mainly constituted by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), together with heavy metals and metalloids, in variable concentrations and uneven distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781186/response-of-photosynthesis-and-the-antioxidant-defense-system-of-two-microalgal-species-alexandrium-minutum-and-dunaliella-salina-to-the-toxicity-of-bde-47
#17
Yan Zhao, You Wang, Yijun Li, Peter H Santschi, Antonietta Quigg
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a persistent organic pollutant are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, which are causing serious environmental concerns. In this study, we chose BDE-47 as a representative PBDEs, to investigate its toxic effects on two microalgal species and the response of their antioxidant system. The results indicated Alexandrium minutum (a dinoflagellate) was more sensitive to BDE-47 than Dunaliella salina (a chlorophyte), as determined by growth rates, cellular structure and photosynthetic parameters...
August 3, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780123/molecular-insights-into-the-role-of-a-distal-f240a-mutation-that-alters-cyp1a1-activity-towards-persistent-organic-pollutants
#18
Veronika Navrátilová, Markéta Paloncýová, Karel Berka, Shintaro Mise, Yuki Haga, Chisato Matsumura, Toshiyuki Sakaki, Hideyuki Inui, Michal Otyepka
BACKGROUND: Cytochromes P450 are major drug-metabolizing enzymes involved in the biotransformation of diverse xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are toxic hydrophobic compounds that cause serious environmental problems because of their poor degradability. This calls for rational design of enzymes capable of catalyzing their biotransformation. Cytochrome P450 1A1 isoforms catalyze the biotransformation of some POPs, and constitute good starting points for the design of biocatalysts with tailored substrate specificity...
August 2, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778017/biochar-based-remediation-of-water-and-soil-contaminated-by-phenanthrene-and-pentachlorophenol
#19
Maria A Rao, Giuseppe Di Rauso Simeone, Rosalia Scelza, Pellegrino Conte
Phenanthrene (Phe) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) are classified as persistent organic pollutants and represent serious concern for the environment as they are toxic and ubiquitous. Biochar based remediation is an emerging technology used in water and soil contamination. In this study we used poplar (BP) and conifer (BC) biochars to remediate water and soil contaminated by Phe and PCP. BP and BC were able to remove completely either Phe or PCP from contaminated water within one to three days. When biochar was confined in a porous membrane, BC and BP maintained their sorption efficiency for several remediation cycles...
July 26, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774668/chronic-exposure-of-2-3-7-8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-tcdd-induces-an-obesogenic-effect-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Axelle Brulport, Ludovic Le Corre, Marie-Christine Chagnon
Contaminant involvement in the pathophysiology of obesity is widely recognized. It has been shown that low dose and chronic exposure to endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs) potentiated diet- induced obesity. High and acute exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a persistent organic pollutant (POP) and an EDC with anti-estrogenic property, causes wasting syndrome . However at lower doses, the TCDD metabolic effects remain poorly understood. We investigated the obesogenic effect during chronic exposure of TCDD at 1μg/kg body weight (bw)/week in adult C57BL/6J mice fed with a high fat diet (HFD) and exposed from 10 to 42 weeks old to TCDD or equal volume of vehicle by intragastric gavage...
July 31, 2017: Toxicology
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