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Persistent organic pollutants

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341602/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-2-2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-1-1-dichloroethene-p-p-dde-in-7-and-9-year-old-children-and-their-mothers-in-the-chamacos-cohort
#1
Andreas Sjodin, Richard S Jones, Robert Gunier, Lee-Yang Wong, Nina T Holland, Brenda Eskenazi, Asa Bradman
We report longitudinal serum concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants in children at age seven and nine years and in their mothers prenatally and again when the children were nine years old. The participating families were enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study of low income Hispanic families residing in the Salinas Valley, California. We observed decreasing concentrations in the mothers with year of serum collection (2009 vs...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332276/variability-and-reliability-of-pop-concentrations-in-multiple-breast-milk-samples-collected-from-the-same-mothers
#2
Risa Kakimoto, Masayoshi Ichiba, Akiko Matsumoto, Kunihiko Nakai, Nozomi Tatsuta, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Momoko Ishiyama, Noriko Ryuda, Takashi Someya, Ieyasu Tokumoto, Daisuke Ueno
Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331773/impact-of-co-exposure-of-aldrin-and-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticles-at-biochemical-and-molecular-levels-in-zebrafish
#3
Reena C Jhamtani, Saurabh Shukla, P Sivaperumal, M S Dahiya, Rakhi Agarwal
Aldrin (ALD), a persistent-organic-pollutant (POP), an organochlorine-cyclodiene-pesticide is highly toxic in nature. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNP) are widely used for various industrial applications. Despite the remarkable research on pesticide toxicity, the work with impact of nanoparticles on POP has been dealt with marginally. Chemicals co-exist in the environment and exhibit interactive effects. An investigation was carried out to evaluate the individual and combined effects of ALD (6 ppm) and TNP (60 ppm) exposure at sub-lethal concentration for 24 h in zebrafish...
December 27, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329096/water-contamination-by-endocrine-disruptors-impacts-microbiological-aspects-and-trends-for-environmental-protection
#4
REVIEW
Caren Leite Spindola Vilela, João Paulo Bassin, Raquel Silva Peixoto
Hormone active agents constitute a dangerous class of pollutants. Among them, those agents that mimic the action of estrogens on target cells and are part of the group of endocrine-disruptor compounds (EDCs) are termed estrogenic EDCs, the main focus of this review. Exposure to these compounds causes a number of negative effects, including breast cancer, infertility and animal hermaphroditism. However, especially in underdeveloped countries, limited efforts have been made to warn people about this serious issue, explain the methods of minimizing exposure, and develop feasible and efficient mitigation strategies at different levels and in various environments...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328878/environmental-influences-on-the-epigenome-exposure-associated-dna-methylation-in-human-populations
#5
Elizabeth M Martin, Rebecca C Fry
DNA methylation is the most well studied of the epigenetic regulators in relation to environmental exposures. To date, numerous studies have detailed the manner by which DNA methylation is influenced by the environment, resulting in altered global and gene-specific DNA methylation. These studies have focused on prenatal, early-life, and adult exposure scenarios. The present review summarizes currently available literature that demonstrates a relationship between DNA methylation and environmental exposures. It includes studies on aflatoxin B1, air pollution, arsenic, bisphenol A, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, tobacco smoke, and nutritional factors...
January 12, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320169/short-medium-and-long-chain-chlorinated-paraffins-in-wildlife-from-paddy-fields-in-the-yangtze-river-delta
#6
Xinyu Du, Bo Yuan, Yihui Zhou, Jonathan P Benskin, Yanling Qiu, Ge Yin, Jianfu Zhao
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were added to Annex A of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in April, 2017. As a consequence of this regulation, increasing production and usage of alternatives, such as medium- and long-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs and LCCPs, respectively), is expected. Little is known about the environmental fate and behavior of MCCPs and LCCPs. In the present study, SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs were analyzed in nine wildlife species from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta, China, using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315818/enantioseparation-and-identification-for-the-rationalization-of-the-environmental-impact-of-4-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#7
Fangjie Guo, Qiaozhi Tang, Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Weiping Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC...
January 8, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306661/combined-effects-of-microplastics-and-chemical-contaminants-on-the-organ-toxicity-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#8
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Bodil K Larsen, Kit Granby, Alejandro Barranco
Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303683/assessment-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-blood-of-humboldt-penguins-spheniscus-humboldti-from-the-punta-san-juan-marine-protected-area-peru
#9
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301181/childhood-obesity-and-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals
#10
REVIEW
Jin Taek Kim, Hong Kyu Lee
The prevalence of obesity around the world has increased sharply. Strong evidence has emerged over the last decades that human exposure to numerous endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is the cause of obesity and obesity-related metabolic diseases. Many EDCs are manmade chemicals that are released into the environment. EDCs are exogenous compounds that interfere with hormonal regulation and normal endocrine systems, thereby affecting the health of animals and humans. The number of chemicals belonging to EDCs is increasing and some of them are very stable; they persist in the environment (persistent organic pollutants)...
December 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298861/hypersensitive-assessment-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-transcriptional-activity-using-a-novel-truncated-cyp1a-promoter-in-zebrafish
#11
Juan-Juan Luo, Dong-Sheng Su, Shao-Lin Xie, Yi Liu, Pei Liu, Xiao-Jun Yang, De-Sheng Pei
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a persistent organic pollutant (POP), an unintentional byproduct of various industrial processes, and a human carcinogen. The expression of the cytochrome P450 1A (cyp1a) gene is upregulated in the presence of TCDD through activating the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway in a dose-dependent manner. Several essential response elements, including the 8 potential xenobiotic response elements in the cyp1a promoter region, have been identified to be the main functional parts for the response to TCDD...
January 3, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289912/-fe-ox-3-3-complex-as-a-photodegradation-agent-at-neutral-ph-advances-and-limitations
#12
Ivan Pozdnyakov, Peter Sherin, Nikolai Bazhin, Victor Plyusnin
In the present work advances and limitations in the application of Fe(III)-oxalate complexes (namely, [Fe(Ox)3]3-) to the photodegradation of a model persistent organic contaminant - 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutanoic acid (2,4-DB) in neutral aqueous solutions were systematically investigated for the first time. It has been shown that the efficiency of [Fe(Ox)3]3- system greatly depends on the initial concentrations of oxalate ion due to the fast consumption of the ligand during photodegradation process leading to the formation of photochemically less active Fe(III) species...
December 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289294/intrinsic-chemiluminescence-production-from-the-degradation-of-haloaromatic-pollutants-during-environmentally-friendly-advanced-oxidation-processes-mechanism-structure-activity-relationship-and-potential-applications
#13
REVIEW
Benzhan Zhu, Chen Shen, Huiying Gao, Liya Zhu, Jie Shao, Li Mao
The ubiquitous distribution of halogenated aromatic compounds (XAr) coupled with their carcinogenicity has raised public concerns on their potential risks to both human health and the ecosystem. Recently, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have been considered as an "environmentally-friendly" technology for the remediation and destruction of such recalcitrant and highly toxic XAr. During our study on the mechanism of metal-independent production of hydroxyl radicals (OH) by halogenated quinones and H2O2, we found, unexpectedly, that an unprecedented OH-dependent two-step intrinsic chemiluminescene (CL) can be produced by H2O2 and tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone, the major carcinogenic metabolite of the widely used wood preservative pentachlorophenol...
December 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288298/persistent-organochlorine-pesticides-in-aquatic-environments-and-fishes-in-taiwan-and-their-risk-assessment
#14
Geng-Ruei Chang
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous contaminants with high bioaccumulation and persistence in the environment; they can have adverse effects in humans and animals. This study examined residual concentrations in water, sediments, and fishes as well as the association between the health risks of OCPs and fish consumption in the Taiwanese population. Various water and sediment samples from Taiwanese aquaculture and fish samples from different sources were collected and analyzed through gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to determine the concentrations of 20 OCPs, namely, aldrin; cis-chlordane; trans-chlordane; dieldrin; endrin; alpha-endosulfan; beta-endosulfan; heptachlor; hexachlorobenzene; alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane; beta-hexachlorocyclohexane; lindane; mirex; pentachlorobenzene; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT); p,p'-DDT; and DDT metabolites (o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD]; p,p'-DDD; o,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE]; and p,p'-DDE)...
December 29, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287182/persistent-organic-pollutants-skull-size-and-bone-density-of-polar-bears-ursus-maritimus-from-east-greenland-1892-2015-and-svalbard-1964-2004
#15
Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F Rigét, Robert J Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Thea Bechshoft, Øystein Wiig, Bjørn Munro Jenssen, Cino Pertoldi, Eline D Lorenzen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
We investigated skull size (condylobasal length; CBL) and bone mineral density (BMD) in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland (n = 307) and Svalbard (n = 173) sampled during the period 1892-2015 in East Greenland and 1964-2004 at Svalbard. Adult males from East Greenland showed a continuous decrease in BMD from 1892 to 2015 (linear regression: p < 0.01) indicating that adult male skulls collected in the early pre-pollution period had the highest BMD. A similar decrease in BMD over time was not found for the East Greenland adult females...
December 26, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285590/in-silico-screening-level-prioritization-of-8468-chemicals-produced-in-oecd-countries-to-identify-potential-planetary-boundary-threats
#16
Efstathios Reppas-Chrysovitsinos, Anna Sobek, Matthew MacLeod
Legislation such as the Stockholm Convention and REACH aim to identify and regulate the production and use of chemicals that qualify as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) chemicals, respectively. Recently, a series of studies on planetary boundary threats proposed seven chemical hazard profiles that are distinct from the POP and vPvB profiles. We previously defined two exposure-based hazard profiles; airborne persistent contaminants (APCs) and waterborne persistent contaminants (WPCs) that correspond to two profiles of chemicals that are planetary boundary threats...
December 28, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277905/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-based-bioassays-for-dioxin-detection-thinking-outside-the-box
#17
REVIEW
Gaston Otarola, Hector Castillo, Sylvain Marcellini
Despite intensive media coverage and international regulations, man-made persistent organic pollutants such as dioxins represent a serious environmental and health threat. Their detection by sophisticated chromatography technologies is highly complex, impeding the constant monitoring of food or environmental samples. This limitation has fostered the development of generations of bioassays exploiting the molecular function of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), which binds toxic compounds and directly activates the transcription of target genes...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277037/environmental-pollutant-hexachlorobenzene-induces-hypertension-in-a-rat-model
#18
Rocío Castilla, Agustín Asuaje, Stéphanie Rivière, Caimi Giselle Romero, Pedro Martín, Gabriel Cao, Diana Kleiman de Pisarev, Verónica Milesi, Laura Alvarez
Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a dioxin-like environmental pollutant, widely distributed in the environment. New research links exposure to high levels of persistent organic environmental toxicants to cardiovascular disease, however little is known about the effect of HCB on vascular function and on blood pressure. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate biochemical and cardiovascular changes resulting from subchronic HCB exposure. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with vehicle or HCB (5 or 500 mg/kg b...
November 22, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274995/spatial-variation-of-pcdd-f-and-pcb-emissions-and-their-composition-profiles-in-stack-flue-gas-from-the-typical-cement-plants-in-china
#19
Lili Zou, Yuwen Ni, Yuan Gao, Fengmei Tang, Jing Jin, Jiping Chen
Cement production processes are important sources of unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The emissions of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the stack flue gases from eight typical cement plants in China were investigated in this study, including one wet process rotary kiln, three dry process rotary kilns and four vertical shaft kilns. PCBs exhibited relatively higher mass concentrations with the dioxin-like (dl) and indicator PCBs of 0...
December 19, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274607/growth-parameters-influencing-uptake-of-chlordecone-by-miscanthus-species
#20
Yohan Liber, Clarisse Létondor, Sophie Pascal-Lorber, François Laurent
Because of its high persistence in soils, t1/2=30years, chlordecone (CLD) was classified as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) by the Stockholm Convention in 2009.The distribution of CLD over time has been heterogeneous, ranging from banana plantations to watersheds, and contaminating all environmental compartments. The aims of this study were to (i) evaluate the potential of Miscanthus species to extract chlordecone from contaminated soils, (ii) identify the growth parameters that influence the transfer of CLD from the soil to aboveground plant parts...
December 20, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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