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Persistent organic pollutants

Torsten C Schmidt
Water analysis has been an important area since the beginning of analytical chemistry. The focus though has shifted substantially: from minerals and the main constituents of water in the time of Carl Remigius Fresenius to a multitude of, in particular, organic compounds at concentrations down to the sub-nanogram per liter level nowadays. This was possible only because of numerous innovations in instrumentation in recent decades, drivers of which are briefly discussed. In addition to the high demands on sensitivity, high throughput by automation and short analysis times are major requirements...
March 21, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lesya Marushka, Xuefeng Hu, Malek Batal, Tonio Sadik, Harold Schwartz, Amy Ing, Karen Fediuk, Constantine Tikhonov, Hing Man Chan
We previously studied the association between fish consumption and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in Manitoba and Ontario First Nations (FNs), Canada and found different results. In this study, we used a difference in difference model to analyze the data. Dietary and health data from the First Nations Food Nutrition and Environment Study, a cross-sectional study of 706 Manitoba and 1429 Ontario FNs were analyzed. The consumption of fish was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Fish samples were analyzed for dichloro diphenyldichloro ethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) content...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Zeyan Liew, Houman Goudarzi, Youssef Oulhote
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed and summarized the epidemiological evidence for the influence that pre- and postnatal exposures to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may have on health outcomes in offspring, with a particular focus on birth outcomes and postnatal growth, immunomodulatory effects and neurodevelopment. RECENT FINDINGS: PFASs are persistent organic pollutants that have been widely produced and used in a range of commercial products since the 1950s. Human exposures to PFASs are nearly ubiquitous globally, but studies that addressed potential health effects of PFASs have only begun to accumulate in recent years...
March 19, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
Lei Wang, Pengju Bie, Jianbo Zhang
Although hexachlorobutadiene (HCBD) has been listed as a persistent organic pollutant (POP) under Annexes A and C of the Stockholm Convention, information about its unintentional production and emission is still very limited. We estimated the historical unintentional production and emission of HCBD during 1992-2016 in China based on aggregated activity data and emission functions. The unintentional production of HCBD increased from 60.8 (95% confidence interval, 38.2-88.5) MT/yr to 2871.5 (2234.2-3530.0) MT/yr during 1992-2016, representing an average annual growth rate of 17...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Michael S McLachlan, Emma Undeman, Fangyuan Zhao, Matthew MacLeod
Predicting human exposure to an environmental contaminant based on its emissions is one of the great challenges of environmental chemistry. It has been done successfully on a local or regional scale for some persistent organic pollutants. Here we assess whether it can be done at a global scale, using PCB 153 as a test chemical. The global multimedia fate model BETR Global and the human exposure model ACC-HUMAN were employed to predict the concentration of PCB 153 in human milk for 56 countries around the world from a global historical emissions scenario...
March 19, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
Raqueline C P Monteiro, Juliana A Ivar do Sul, Monica F Costa
Marine plastic pollution is present in all oceans, including remote oceanic islands. Despite the increasing number of articles on plastic pollution in the last years, there is still a lack of studies in islands, that are biodiversity hotspots when compared to the surrounding ocean, and even other recognized highly biodiverse marine environments. Articles published in the peer reviewed literature (N = 20) were analysed according to the presence of macro (>5 mm) and microplastics (<5 mm) on beaches and the marine habitats immediately adjacent to 31 islands of the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean Sea...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ruilong Li, Huadong Tan, Linlin Zhang, Shaopeng Wang, Yinghui Wang, Kefu Yu
Microplastics sorption of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) was the core processes that cause negative effects to biota, and their influencing factors and related mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we explored the impacts of water extractable organic matter (WEOM), an important source of endogenous dissolved organic matter in mangrove sediment, on the sorption coefficients of typical parent, alkyl and N/O/S-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by microplastics. The presence of L-WEOM (D) impeded the PAHs sorption as the coefficients (Kf ) decreased to 10...
March 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jose L Roscales, Juan Muñoz-Arnanz, María Ros, Alba Vicente, Laura Barrios, Begoña Jiménez
The Stockholm Convention (SC) on Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) calls for the Parties' effectiveness evaluation of those measures taken to meet the reduction and eventual elimination of POPs from the environment. With that goal, air concentrations of different POP families have been measured uninterruptedly since 2008 under the Spanish Monitoring Program (SMP) by means of passive air sampling. This work focuses on data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) determined in a total of 321 samples collected seasonally each year in 5 urban and 7 background sites...
March 14, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Luca Maria Chiesa, Sara Panseri, Maria Nobile, Federica Ceriani, Francesco Arioli
Demand for honey is increasing, especially if it is organic and if its nutritional properties are linked to untreated environments in order to guarantee quality for health. Sources of contamination of honey can be divided into environmental and apicultural Therefore, the distribution of POPs (persistent organic pollutants), pesticides and antibiotic residues from geographical areas with different contamination sources (high anthropic impact, intensive farming, husbandry and low anthropic impact) was investigated in order to confirm the potential transfer of xenobiotics into the supply chain and to give beekeepers tools for the selection of areas dedicated to organic production...
March 13, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Rosanne J Michielsen, Judy Shamoun-Baranes, John R Parsons, Michiel H S Kraak
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are present in almost all environments due to their high bioaccumulation potential. Especially species that adapted to human activities, like gulls, might be exposed to harmful concentrations of these chemicals. The nature and degree of the exposure to POPs greatly vary between individual gulls, due to their diverse foraging behavior and specialization in certain foraging tactics. Therefore, in order clarify the effect of POP-contaminated areas on gull populations, it is important to identify the sources of POP contamination in individual gulls...
March 13, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Quan Zhang, Ximing Wang, Jianqiang Zhu, Zhe Li, Ye Wang
The Grand Canal is one of the most important waterways and sources of drinking water in China. The security of this water environment has a strong influence on national economic development and public health. However, data on the pollution status and potential risks due to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in this area is insufficient. In this study, we selected a branch of the Grand Canal in Hangzhou as the study subject from which 16 surface water samples were collected in the summer of 2016. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (including 4 hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and 6 dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs)), 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 35 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the water samples were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
L A Mendes, V L Maria, J J Scott-Fordsmand, M J B Amorim
Effects of pollutants are mostly assessed using standard testing procedures, which cover a fraction of the animals' life cycle. Although, in nature species are exposed during multiple generations of sub-lethal doses of persistent chemicals. In the present study, we focused on the multigenerational (MG) effects of silver in Folsomia candida during 6 generations using the EC50 for reproduction as exposure concentration. We tested 9 different exposure scenarios, going from continuous 6 generations Ag exposure over pulse exposure (i...
March 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Xiaoxu Chen, Xiaoke Nie, Jiamin Mao, Yan Zhang, Kaizhi Yin, Shengyang Jiang
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS)-containing compounds are widely used in all aspects of industrial and consumer products. Recent studies indicated that PFOS is ubiquitous in environments and is considered to be a new type of persistent organic pollutant (POP). This has raised concerns regarding its adverse effects on human health. The nervous system is regarded as a sensitive target of environmental contaminants, including PFOS. Previous findings showed that PFOS can induce neurobehavioral deficits. However, the molecular mechanism underlying PFOS neurotoxicity remains obscure...
March 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Kelsey Craig
Sulfur dioxide (SO2 ) is an atmospheric pollutant that is moderately persistent in the atmosphere and highly water soluble. When applied as a pesticide, SO2 may be transported, deposited, or transformed in various chemical reactions. SO2 participates in the sulfur biogeochemical cycle, which involves complex reactions of sulfur-containing compounds between abiotic and biotic components of ecosystems. The main degradation route of SO2 is atmospheric oxidation, and sulfur oxides may undergo long-distance transport prior to removal from the atmosphere by wet or dry deposition...
March 11, 2018: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
A Goutte, A Meillère, C Barbraud, H Budzinski, P Labadie, L Peluhet, H Weimerskirch, K Delord, O Chastel
Population consequences of chronic exposure to multiple pollutants at low environmental doses remain speculative, because of the lack of appropriate long-term monitoring surveys. This study integrates proximate and ultimate aspects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) burden in free-living vertebrates, by coupling hormonal and behavioral endpoints, life-history traits, and population dynamics. Blood samples (N=70) were collected in South polar skuas during two breeding periods, in 2003 and 2005, and individuals were annually monitored until 2011...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Ana Paula Moreno Barbosa, Paula Méndez-Fernandez, Patrick Simões Dias, Marcos César Oliveira Santos, Satie Taniguchi, Rosalinda Carmela Montone
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulate in the fat tissue of living organisms and are found in relatively high concentrations in animals at the top of the food chain, such as dolphins. The ability of these compounds to interact with the endocrine system of marine mammals constitutes a risk for the reproduction and conservation of species. The La Plata dolphin, Pontoporia blainvillei, is exclusive to the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified on the IUCN red list as a vulnerable species. Blubber, liver, kidney and muscle samples from four P...
March 7, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Tobias Daugaard-Petersen, Rikke Langebæk, Frank F Rigét, Markus Dyck, Robert J Letcher, Lars Hyldstrup, Jens-Erik Bech Jensen, Rune Dietz, Christian Sonne
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are long-range transported to the Arctic via atmospheric and oceanic currents, where they biomagnify to high concentrations in the tissues of apex predators such as polar bears (Ursus maritimus). A major concern of POP exposure is their physiological effects on vital organ-tissues posing a threat to the health and survival of polar bears. Here we examined the relationship between selected POPs and baculum bone mineral density (BMD) in the East Greenland and seven Canadian subpopulations of polar bears...
March 6, 2018: Environment International
Jordan Stubleski, Petr Kukucka, Samira Salihovic, P Monica Lind, Lars Lind, Anna Kärrman
The objective of this study was to develop and validate a 96-well plate solid phase extraction method for analysis of 23 lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in low-volume plasma and serum samples which is applicable for biomonitoring and epidemiological studies. The analysis of selected markers for internal exposure: 16 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 5 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD), and polybrominated diphenylether 47 (BDE 47) was evaluated by comparing two SPE sorbents and GC-HRMS or GC-MS/MS detection...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Maria Wielsøe, Hans Eiberg, Mandana Ghisari, Peder Kern, Ole Lind, Eva Cecilie Bonefeld-Jørgensen
The present study investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in xenobiotic and steroid hormone-metabolizing genes in relation to breast cancer risk and explored possible effect modifications on persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and breast cancer associations. The study also assessed effects of Greenlandic BRCA1 founder mutations. Greenlandic Inuit women (77 cases and 84 controls) were included. We determined two founder mutations in BRCA1: Cys39Gly (rs80357164) and 4684delCC, and five SNPs in xenobiotic and oestrogen-metabolizing genes: CYP17A1 -34T>C (rs743572), CYP19A1 *19C>T (rs10046), CYP1A1 Ile462Val (rs1048943), CYP1B Leu432Val (rs1056836) and COMT Val158Met (rs4680)...
March 6, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
John P Buchweitz, Keri Carson, Sarah Rebolloso, Andreas Lehner
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
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