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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344709/microbial-characterization-of-methanogenic-and-iron-reducing-consortium-in-reactors-with-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#1
Mara R de Lima E Silva, Regiane C Correa, Isabel K Sakamoto, Maria B A Varesche
Recent papers have confirmed current environmental pollution and the continuous release of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) despite the prohibition of its manufacture worldwide. As the dehalogenating microorganisms are able to remove halogens from various analogous compounds, the characterization of PCB metabolisms can improve the degradation of similar compounds. Thus, this study extensively evaluated the microbial community developed in methanogenic and iron-reducing reactors. The horizontal-flow anaerobic reactor (HAIB) with real waste of Aroclor (1 mL L-1) was fed with mineral medium, ethanol, and sodium formate...
January 17, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341602/polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-2-2-bis-4-chlorophenyl-1-1-dichloroethene-p-p-dde-in-7-and-9-year-old-children-and-their-mothers-in-the-chamacos-cohort
#2
Andreas Sjodin, Richard S Jones, Robert Gunier, Lee-Yang Wong, Nina T Holland, Brenda Eskenazi, Asa Bradman
We report longitudinal serum concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants in children at age seven and nine years and in their mothers prenatally and again when the children were nine years old. The participating families were enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study of low income Hispanic families residing in the Salinas Valley, California. We observed decreasing concentrations in the mothers with year of serum collection (2009 vs...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335165/dioxins-furans-and-dioxin-like-pcbs-in-sediment-samples-and-suspended-particulate-matter-from-the-scheldt-estuary-and-the-north-sea-coast-comparison-of-calux-concentration-levels-in-historical-and-recent-samples
#3
T Vandermarken, Y Gao, W Baeyens, M S Denison, K Croes
BACKGROUND: The Scheldt estuary is historically a highly polluted river system. While several studies have focused on contamination with metals, pesticides, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and marker PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), no data are available concerning past contamination by dioxin-like compounds. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to determine spatial and time trends of PolyChlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins and DibenzoFurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (dl-PCBs) in sediment samples and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) from the Scheldt River basin and the North Sea Coast...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333580/persistent-organochlorine-contaminant-residues-in-tissues-of-hedgehogs-from-turkey
#4
Kalender Arıkan, Zeynep Yaşar Arıkan, Salih Levent Turan
The residues of persistent organochlorinated pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) (HCHs, CHLs, HCCPs, DDTs, and dicofol congeners) were investigated in the hair and muscle of road-killed Erinaceus roumanicus and E. concolor in Turkey. Mean residue levels were as follows: in hair, PCBs = 7.43 ± 4.88 ng/g and OCPs = 9.21 ± 1.27 ng/g; in muscle, PCBs = 30.73 ± 2.51 ng/g and OCPs = 145.04 ± 16.59 ng/g. There was no significant difference between species and sex, while there was significant difference between habitats and regions in terms of either total PCB and OCP levels, or POP levels (p < 0...
January 15, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332276/variability-and-reliability-of-pop-concentrations-in-multiple-breast-milk-samples-collected-from-the-same-mothers
#5
Risa Kakimoto, Masayoshi Ichiba, Akiko Matsumoto, Kunihiko Nakai, Nozomi Tatsuta, Miyuki Iwai-Shimada, Momoko Ishiyama, Noriko Ryuda, Takashi Someya, Ieyasu Tokumoto, Daisuke Ueno
Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329451/epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-disruption-by-endocrine-and-metabolic-disrupting-chemicals
#6
Josiah E Hardesty, Laila Al-Eryani, Banrida Wahlang, K Cameron Falkner, Hongxue Shi, Jian Jin, Brad Vivace, Brian P Ceresa, Russell A Prough, Matthew C Cave
Background: The purpose of this study is to identify an environmentally relevant shared receptor target for endocrine and metabolism disrupting chemical pollutants. A feature of the tested chemicals was that they induced Cyp2b10 in vivo implicating activation of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Recent studies suggest that these compounds could be indirect CAR activators via epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition. Methods: Assays included a CAR activity reporter assay, EGF endocytosis assay, and EGFR phosphorylation assay...
January 10, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329084/sources-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-and-biphenyls-in-chinese-mitten-crabs
#7
Ying Han, Wenbin Liu, Wen Zhu, Kaifeng Rao, Ke Xiao, Lirong Gao, Guijin Su, Guorui Liu
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Chinese mitten crabs from several areas were determined. The toxic equivalents (TEQs) for the mean PCDD/F and total PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCBs were 2.9 ± 2.7 and 5.7 ± 4.0 pg TEQ g-1, respectively. The mean concentrations of PCBs and dl-PCBs were 282 and 59 times the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, respectively. PCDD/F and PCB sources in the crab food web were assessed. The total TEQ of PCDD/F and PCB supplied by crab compound feed was 2...
January 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322390/authentication-of-synthetic-environmental-contaminants-and-their-bio-transformation-products-in-toxicology-polychlorinated-biphenyls-as-an-example
#8
Xueshu Li, Erika B Holland, Wei Feng, Jing Zheng, Yao Dong, Isaac N Pessah, Michael W Duffel, Larry W Robertson, Hans-Joachim Lehmler
Toxicological studies use "specialty chemicals" and, thus, should assess and report both identity and degree of purity (homogeneity) of the chemicals (or toxicants) under investigation to ensure that other scientists can replicate experimental results. Although detailed reporting criteria for the synthesis and characterization of organic compounds have been established by organic chemistry journals, such criteria are inconsistently applied to the chemicals used in toxicological studies. Biologically active trace impurities may lead to incorrect conclusions about the chemical entity responsible for a biological response, which in turn may confound risk assessment...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318322/persistent-organochlorine-pollutants-in-placentas-sampled-from-women-in-croatia-and-an-evaluation-of-their-dna-damaging-potential-in-vitro
#9
Davor Želježić, Snježana Herceg Romanić, Darija Klinčić, Marijana Matek Sarić, Judita Grzunov Letinić
This study investigated the levels and distribution of 17 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (HCB, α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and p,p'-DDT) in placenta samples from women living in the coastal area of Croatia. During November 2012 to February 2013, 51 placenta samples were collected from healthy mothers. This study presents the first report about Croatian placenta samples. Each of the analysed compounds were found in all of the samples; all of the maximum values were < 1 ng g-1 w...
January 9, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316220/interactive-effects-of-hypoxia-and-pcb-co-exposure-on-expression-of-cyp1a-and-its-potential-regulators-in-atlantic-croaker-liver
#10
Md Saydur Rahman, Peter Thomas
Although marine and coastal environments which are contaminated with xenobiotic organic compounds often become hypoxic during the summer, the interactive effects of hypoxia and xenobiotic exposure on marine species such as teleost fishes remain poorly understood. The expression and activity of monooxygenase enzyme cytochrome P450-1A (CYP1A) in fishes are upregulated by exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), whereas they are down-regulated during hypoxia exposure. We investigated the interactive effects of hypoxia and PCB co-exposure on hepatic CYP1A expression in Atlantic croaker and on potential regulators of CYP1A...
January 8, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315818/enantioseparation-and-identification-for-the-rationalization-of-the-environmental-impact-of-4-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#11
Fangjie Guo, Qiaozhi Tang, Jingqian Xie, Lu Zhao, Kai Liu, Weiping Liu
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are harmful and persistent organic pollutants that have long been used in industrial manufacturing. Their persistence leads to accumulation in the food chain causing potential toxic effects. As 19 out of 78 of the chiral congeners have stable atropisomers at ambient temperature, we studied some typical enantiomers: PCB45, PCB95, PCB136, and PCB149. The chiral stationary phases OD-H and OJ-H were used for separation in analytic high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), as well as for collection in semi-preparative HPLC...
January 8, 2018: Chirality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315752/effects-of-type-and-quantity-of-organic-carbon-on-the-bioaccessibility-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-contaminated-sediments
#12
Federico L Sinche, Sam A Nutile, Kara E Huff Hartz, Peter F Landrum, Michael J Lydy
Organic carbon (OC) principally controls sorption and desorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in sediments. We investigated the effects of OC type and quantity on compound bioaccessibility. The desorption of 21 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in spiked sediments amended with black carbon (BC), humic acid (HA) and sawdust (SD) at either 3 or 6% OC. Desorption parameters were determined using Tenax sequential extractions, and then modeled as operationally-defined rapid, slow, and very slow fractions and rate constants...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314156/simultaneous-quantification-of-t4-t3-rt3-3-5-t2-and-3-3-t2-in-larval-zebrafish-danio-rerio-as-a-model-to-study-exposure-to-polychlorinated-biphenyls
#13
Xiaopeng Chen, Kyla M Walter, Galen W Miller, Pamela J Lein, Birgit Puschner
Environmental toxicants that interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling can impact growth and development in animals and humans. Zebrafish represent a model to study chemically-induced TH disruption, prompting the need for sensitive detection of THs. Simultaneous quantification of 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), 3,3',5'-triiodo-L-thyronine (rT3), 3,5-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,5-T2), and 3,3'-diiodo-L-thyronine (3,3'-T2) in zebrafish larvae was achieved by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode...
January 3, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313860/do-environmental-dynamics-matter-in-fate-models-exploring-scenario-dynamics-for-a-terrestrial-and-an-aquatic-system
#14
Melissa Morselli, Elisa Terzaghi, Antonio Di Guardo
Nowadays, there is growing interest in inserting more ecological realism into risk assessment of chemicals. On the exposure evaluation side, this can be done by studying the complexity of exposure in the ecosystem, niche partitioning, e.g. variation of the exposure scenario. Current regulatory predictive approaches, to ensure simplicity and predictive ability, generally keep the scenario as static as possible. This could lead to under or overprediction of chemical exposure depending on the chemical and scenario simulated...
January 9, 2018: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306661/combined-effects-of-microplastics-and-chemical-contaminants-on-the-organ-toxicity-of-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#15
Sandra Rainieri, Nadia Conlledo, Bodil K Larsen, Kit Granby, Alejandro Barranco
Microplastics contamination of the aquatic environment is considered a growing problem. The ingestion of microplastics has been documented for a variety of aquatic animals. Studies have shown the potential of microplastics to affect the bioavailability and uptake route of sorbed co-contaminants of different nature in living organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and metals have been the co-contaminants majorly investigated in this field. The combined effect of microplastics and sorbed co-contaminants in aquatic organisms still needs to be properly understood...
January 4, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306412/automated-and-simultaneous-determination-of-priority-substances-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-wastewater-using-headspace-solid-phase-microextraction-and-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#16
Irene Domínguez, Francisco Javier Arrebola, Rafael Gavara, José Luis Martínez Vidal, Antonia Garrido Frenich
The re-use of wastewater has been in growing demand but a possible negative feature is the possibility of organic pollutants being present after its treatment. In order to control the presence of contaminants in wastewater, a completely automated methodology capable of determining a total of 55 organic pollutants including pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at ultra-trace levels has been developed. The proposed method is based on an on-line combination of headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography coupled to double-focusing magnetic sector high resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS)...
March 9, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306215/treatment-characteristics-of-various-sediment-components-spiked-with-2-chlorobiphenyl-using-reactive-activated-carbon
#17
Hyeok Choi
Previously, the concept of reactive activated carbon (RAC), where the porous structure of activated carbon (AC) is impregnated with palladized zerovalent iron, has been proposed to be effective to adsorb and dechlorinate polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). To explain the low dechlorination of PCBs bound to actual aquatic sediments under remediation with RAC, this study investigated the role of various solid organic and inorganic sediment components in adsorbing and desorbing PCBs. Detailed fate and transport mechanism of 2-chlorinated biphenyl (2-ClBP) spiked to sediment components, including kaolin, montmorillonite (MMT), coal, graphite, AC, and their mixture, was revealed...
December 17, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303683/assessment-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-blood-of-humboldt-penguins-spheniscus-humboldti-from-the-punta-san-juan-marine-protected-area-peru
#18
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290385/hepatic-phase-i-and-ii-biotransformation-responses-and-contaminant-exposure-in-long-finned-pilot-whales-from-the-northeastern-atlantic
#19
Katrin S Hoydal, Bjørn M Jenssen, Robert J Letcher, Maria Dam, Augustine Arukwe
Faroe Island pilot whales have been documented to have high body burdens of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs), including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), but low burdens of their respective hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs). The present study investigated the hepatic expression and/or catalytic activities of phase I and II biotransformation enzymes in relation to hepatic concentrations of target OHCs, including OH-PCBs and OH-PBDEs, in long-finned pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Northeastern Atlantic...
December 19, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289779/screening-of-organic-pollutants-in-pet-hair-samples-and-the-significance-of-environmental-factors
#20
Xiana González-Gómez, Noelia Cambeiro-Pérez, Elena Martínez-Carballo, Jesús Simal-Gándara
Organic pollutants (OPs) represent a wide range of chemicals that are potentially harmful for human and wildlife health. Many of these pollutants have been identified as endocrine disruptors that can alter hormonal balance producing adverse biological effects such as neurotoxicity, reproductive disorders, carcinogenicity and hepatotoxicity. For years, hair has been selected as a non-invasive source to assess levels of animal contamination. In the present study, a multiclass screening method for determining about 60 organic pollutants in pet hair was designed and validated for qualitative and quantitative purposes...
December 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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