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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809549/mesocosm-studies-on-the-efficacy-of-bioamended-activated-carbon-for-treating-pcb-impacted-sediment
#1
Rayford B Payne, Upal Ghosh, Harold Douglas May, Christopher W Marshall, Kevin R Sowers
This report describes results of a bench-scale treatability study to evaluate the efficacy of bioaugmentation with bioamended activated carbon (AC) for in-situ treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) impacted sediments. To this end, the ability of PCB transforming microorganisms to degrade and reduce the overall concentration of PCBs in sediment was determined in 2 L recirculating mesocosms designed to simulate conditions in Abraham's Creek in Quantico, Virginia. Ten sediment mesocosms were tested for the effects of AC alone, AC with slow release electron donor (cellulose) and different concentrations and combinations of PCB dehalogenating and degrading microorganisms added as bioamendments...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806676/occurrence-and-air-soil-exchange-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-at-a-cawnet-background-site-in-central-china-implications-for-influencing-factors-and-fate
#2
Lingxi Zhan, Tian Lin, Zuwu Wang, Zhineng Cheng, Gan Zhang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng
Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m(3) in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806565/implications-of-biological-factors-on-accumulation-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-antarctic-notothenioid-fish
#3
J M Ríos, N B Lana, N F Ciocco, A Covaci, E Barrera-Oro, E Moreira, J C Altamirano
In the present study, the possible associations between selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and biological factors were assessed in different tissues of two Antarctic notothenioid fish: Notothenia rossii (NOR) and Trematomus newnesi (TRN) collected at Potter Cove, King George Island/Isla 25 de Mayo, South Shetland Islands. Specifically, association patterns between biological factors (body size, lipid content, body condition) and POP concentrations (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and metabolites, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), chlordanes (CHLs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs)), were explored by using two approaches: multivariate analyses (principal component analysis: PCA) and intraspecific correlations...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806556/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-fat-of-three-species-of-pacific-pelagic-longline-caught-sea-turtles-accumulation-in-relation-to-ingested-plastic-marine-debris
#4
Katharine E Clukey, Christopher A Lepczyk, George H Balazs, Thierry M Work, Qing X Li, Melannie J Bachman, Jennifer M Lynch
In addition to eating contaminated prey, sea turtles may be exposed to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from ingesting plastic debris that has absorbed these chemicals. Given the limited knowledge about POPs in pelagic sea turtles and how plastic ingestion influences POP exposure, our objectives were to: 1) provide baseline contaminant levels of three species of pelagic Pacific sea turtles; and 2) assess trends of contaminant levels in relation to species, sex, length, body condition and capture location...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803433/distribution-of-serum-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-heterocyclic-aromatic-amine-theoretical-intake-and-nutritional-cofactors-in-a-semi-rural-island-population
#5
Daniel Carrizo, Sarah F Brennan, Olivier P Chevallier, Jayne Woodside, Kevin M Cooper, Marie M Cantwell, Geraldine Cuskelly, Christopher T Elliott
Persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure is strongly associated with negative health effects in humans. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed during high temperature cooking of foods (i.e. meat and fish). Human exposure to HAA is through food consumption and from similar food groups to POPs. A study of serum samples for POPs in a non-occupational exposed population (n = 149, age range 18-80 years, recruited in 2012) and comparison with estimated HAA daily intake calculations based on food diaries were undertaken...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803405/pcb-dechlorination-hotspots-and-reductive-dehalogenase-genes-in-sediments-from-a-contaminated-wastewater-lagoon
#6
Timothy E Mattes, Jessica M Ewald, Yi Liang, Andres Martinez, Andrew Awad, Patrick Richards, Keri C Hornbuckle, Jerald L Schnoor
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of persistent organic pollutants that are distributed worldwide. Although industrial PCB production has stopped, legacy contamination can be traced to several different commercial mixtures (e.g., Aroclors in the USA). Despite their persistence, PCBs are subject to naturally occurring biodegradation processes, although the microbes and enzymes involved are poorly understood. The biodegradation potential of PCB-contaminated sediments in a wastewater lagoon located in Virginia (USA) was studied...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803151/sex-specific-differences-in-effect-of-prenatal-exposure-to-dioxin-like-compounds-on-neurodevelopment-in-japanese-children-sapporo-cohort-study
#7
Sonomi Nakajima, Yasuaki Saijo, Chihiro Miyashita, Tamiko Ikeno, Seiko Sasaki, Junboku Kajiwara, Reiko Kishi
BACKGROUND: Consistent reports are not available on the effects of dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD)/ polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) (dioxin-like compounds [DLCs]) on child neurodevelopment. Further, the effect of background-level exposure to individual DLC isomers is not known. OBJECTIVES: We carried out the Sapporo cohort study to evaluate the effect of prenatal exposure to each DLC isomer on child neurodevelopment at 6 and 18 months of age, and assessed sex-specific differences in these effects...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802131/food-contamination-by-pcbs-and-waste-disposal-crisis-evidence-from-goat-milk-in-campania-italy
#8
M C Ferrante, G Fusco, A Monnolo, F Saggiomo, J Guccione, R Mercogliano, M T Clausi
AIM: The study aims at investigating whether, and if so, to what extent the strong presence of urban and industrial waste in a territory may cause PCB contamination in goat milk produced therein. METHODS: We compared PCB concentrations in goat milk from three different locations in the Campania region (Italy). One of the three locations, together with its surrounding area, has long suffered from illegal waste disposal and burning mainly by the so-called Ecomafia...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802104/results-of-the-second-national-forest-soil-inventory-in-germany-interpretation-of-level-and-stock-profiles-for-pcdd-f-and-pcb-in-terms-of-vegetation-and-humus-type
#9
Marchela Pandelova, Bernhard Henkelmann, Bernd M Bussian, Karl-Werner Schramm
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in 86 humic topsoil layers and in a subset of 11 randomly selected top mineral forest soils at the depths of 0-5cm and 5-10cm collected from different federal states of Germany. The distribution of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in humic topsoils with respect to vegetation cover (coniferous vs. deciduous vs. mixed), total organic carbon (TOC), altitude and latitude data was investigated...
August 9, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801106/comparison-of-caged-and-native-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-spp-for-environmental-monitoring-of-pah-pcb-and-trace-metals
#10
Merete Schøyen, Ian J Allan, Anders Ruus, Jarle Håvardstun, Dag Ø Hjermann, Jonny Beyer
Contaminant bioaccumulation was studied in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis spp.) using the harbor waters of Kristiansand (Norway) as a case study. A suite of chemical contaminants (trace metals, PAHs and PCBs) was analyzed in caged and native mussels as well as in passive samplers (Diffusive Gradients in Thin films (DGT)-devices and silicone rubbers) placed alongside the mussels for estimation of contaminant concentrations in water and uptake rates and bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in mussels during a six-months deployment period...
August 2, 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796943/forensic-analysis-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxin-and-furan-fingerprints-to-elucidate-dechlorination-pathways
#11
Lisa A Rodenburg, Yashika Dewani, Max M Haggblom, Lee Kerkhof, Donna E Fennell
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) are persistent organic pollutants whose main removal process in the environment is due to biodegradation, and particularly anaerobic reductive dechlorination. Since PCDD/F congeners that are substituted in the lateral 2, 3, 7, and 8 positions are the most toxic, removal of these chlorines is advantageous, but previous studies have only demonstrated their removal under laboratory conditions. We evaluated a concentration data set of PCDD/F congeners with four or more chlorines along with all 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners in surface water, treated and untreated wastewater, landfill leachate, and biosolids (NY CARP dataset) to determine whether peri and peri/lateral dechlorination of PCDD/Fs occurs in these environments...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795866/dioxins-and-pcbs-in-ostrich-meat-and-eggs-levels-and-implications
#12
Jadwiga Piskorska-Pliszczynska, Paweł Struciński, Szczepan Mikołajczyk, Marek Pajurek, Sebastian Maszewski, Wojciech Jerzy Pietron
Although consumption of eggs is an essential part of our diet, limited information is available for table eggs other than those laid by hens. The aim of our study was to determine concentrations of PCDD/Fs, DL- and NDL-PCBs in ostrich eggs and meat available on the Polish market in order to obtain baseline information on the current status of these pollutants in comparison to poultry products. Obtained data were compared to the binding EU limits set for chicken eggs and meat. The levels of individual PCDD/Fs and PCBs congeners varied considerably...
August 10, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794337/determination-of-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-fish-tissues-from-shanghai-seafood-markets-using-a-modified-quechers-method
#13
Yunyun Cui, Zhengquan Wang, Jian Cong, Liping Wang, Yuan Liu, Xichang Wang, Jing Xie
Optimized Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) pretreatment methods for determination of six polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) residues in fish and aquatic invertebrates samples were investigated. Large volume injection (LVI) coupled gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with selected reaction monitoring (SRM) was used to provide a very sensitive and selective means of analyzing PCBs via internal calibration. Three analytical processes were validated and compared, and the florisil Celite(®)545 pretreatment method was selected...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790991/bacteria-associated-to-plants-naturally-selected-in-a-historical-pcb-polluted-soil-show-potential-to-sustain-natural-attenuation
#14
Lorenzo Vergani, Francesca Mapelli, Ramona Marasco, Elena Crotti, Marco Fusi, Antonio Di Guardo, Stefano Armiraglio, Daniele Daffonchio, Sara Borin
The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore the selection of root-associated bacterial communities driven by different plant species spontaneously established in abandoned agricultural soils within a historical polluted site in north Italy. The site is highly contaminated by chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, mainly constituted by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), together with heavy metals and metalloids, in variable concentrations and uneven distribution...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782362/emission-factors-for-selected-semivolatile-organic-chemicals-from-burning-of-tropical-biomass-fuels-and-estimation-of-annual-australian-emissions
#15
Xianyu Wang, Carl P Meyer, Fabienne Reisen, Melita Keywood, Phong K Thai, Darryl W Hawker, Jennifer Claire Powell, Jochen F Mueller
This study reveals that open-field biomass burning can be an important source of various semivolatile organic chemicals (SVOCs) to the atmosphere including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and a range of pesticides. Emission factors (EFs) for 39 individual SVOCs are determined from burning of various fuel types that are common in tropical Australia. Emissions of PAHs are found to be sensitive to differences in combustion efficiencies rather than fuel types reflecting a formation mechanism...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28778014/emissions-of-brominated-compounds-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-during-pyrolysis-of-e-waste-debrominated-in-subcritical-water
#16
Aurora Soler, Juan A Conesa, Nuria Ortuño
Degradation of brominated flame retardants present in printed circuit boards (PCBs) was tested using subcritical water in a high pressure reactor. Debromination experiments were carried out in a batch stirred reactor at three different temperatures (225 °C, 250 °C and 275 °C) keeping a solid to liquid (S/L) ratio of PCB:water = 1:5 during 180 min. Results indicated that debromination efficiency was increased with temperature (18.5-63.6% of bromine present in the original PCB was removed). Thermal decomposition of the debrominated materials was studied and compared with that of the original PCB...
July 30, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776190/human-health-risks-assessment-associated-with-polychlorinated-biphenyls-pcbs-in-soil-from-different-contaminated-areas-of-mexico
#17
Iván N Pérez-Maldonado, Ángeles C Ochoa Martínez, Tania Ruíz-Vera, Sandra T Orta-García, José A Varela-Silva
Recent studies have documented environmental contamination by PCBs in soil from different areas in Mexico (industrial, mining, and urban sites). However, the real significance of that soil contamination has not been established. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform a human health risk assessment (Monte Carlos simulation) to evaluate the probable toxic effects of soils contaminated with PCBs on children in four sites in Mexico. A high non-carcinogenic risk (total nHQ = 1.1E+01; if nHQ ≥1, hazardous health effects cannot be ruled out) was found in Alpuyeca, Morelos, Mexico...
August 3, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774553/polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-its-potential-role-in-endometriosis
#18
REVIEW
Mengyun Yao, Tingting Hu, Yinfeng Wang, Yongjiang Du, Changchang Hu, Ruijin Wu
With the progress of global industrialization and environmental deterioration, the relationship between human health and the living environment has become an increasing focus of attention. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, including dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls), as part of the organic chlorine contaminants, have been suspected as playing a role in the etiopathogenesis of endometriosis. Several population-based studies have proposed that exposure to PCBs may increase the risk of developing endometriosis, while some epidemiological studies have failed to find any association between PCBs and endometriosis...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772179/artificial-neural-networks-to-evaluate-organic-and-inorganic-contamination-in-agricultural-soils
#19
Maria Grazia Bonelli, Mauro Ferrini, Andrea Manni
The assessment of organic and inorganic contaminants in agricultural soils is a difficult challenge due to the large-scale dimensions of the areas under investigation and the great number of samples needed for analysis. On-site screening techniques, such as Field Portable X-ray Fluorescence (FPXRF) spectrometry, can be used for inorganic compounds, such as heavy metals. This method is not destructive and allows a rapid qualitative characterization, identifying hot spots from where to collect soil samples for analysis by traditional laboratory techniques...
July 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772152/long-term-time-trends-in-human-intake-of-pops-in-the-czech-republic-indicate-a-need-for-continuous-monitoring
#20
Katarína Bányiová, Milena Černá, Ondřej Mikeš, Klára Komprdová, Anežka Sharma, Tenzing Gyalpo, Pavel Čupr, Martin Scheringer
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) from the group of persistent organic pollutants are detected in human tissues years or even decades after their ban. Exposure to PCBs and OCPs can pose risks to human health. In the present study, we calculated the daily intakes of PCBs and OCPs in the Czech population and investigated the long-term trends of human exposure to POPs. Data on POP concentrations from a 16-year period of breast-milk monitoring were used. A toxicokinetic model with consideration of compound-specific elimination half-lives was used to calculate the mothers' daily intake of PCBs and OCPs representing the intake of POPs by all exposure routes...
July 31, 2017: Environment International
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