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Qingqing Zhu, Minghui Zheng, Guorui Liu, Xian Zhang, Shujun Dong, Lirong Gao, Yong Liang
Size-fractionated samples of urban particulate matter (PM; ≤1.0, 1.0-2.5, 2.5-10, and >10 μm) and gaseous samples were simultaneously obtained to study the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the atmosphere in Beijing, China. Most recent investigations focused on the analysis of gaseous PCBs, and much less attention has been paid to the occurrence of PCBs among different PM fractions. In the present study, the gas-particle partitioning and size-specific distribution of PCBs in atmosphere were investigated...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Paulien Adamse, Stefanie Schoss, Rob M C Theelen, Ron L A P Hoogenboom
The aim of the study was to assess levels of dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs) in food of animal origin produced in the Netherlands, including potential trends in time. Test results from about 2500 samples of animal derived food products (beef, veal, lamb, chicken, pork, deer, milk and eggs), sampled for the National Residue Monitoring Plan from 2001-2011, were evaluated. Most samples were screened with a bioassay (DR CALUX®) and, if suspected, analysed by GC-HRMS...
October 26, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Norma Tombesi, Karla Pozo, Mónica Álvarez, Petra Přibylová, Petr Kukučka, Ondřej Audy, Jana Klánová
PCBs and PBDEs (7 and 10 congeners, respectively) were analyzed in four coastal surface sediments collected from the northern shore of Bahía Blanca estuary and in nine soils from different locations of Bahía Blanca city and the surrounding region (Southwest of Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). Sediment samples showed PCBs(Σ7) concentrations ranged from 0.61 to 17.6ngg(-1) (dry weight=dw) and PBDEs(Σ10) from 0.16 to 2.02ngg(-1) dw, whereas in soil samples ranged from 0.04 to 1.67ngg(-1) dw for PCBs(Σ7) and 0...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Kenneth Finkelstein, Nancy Beckvar, Tom Dillon
The study goal was to develop a sediment PCB dose-response model based on benthic invertebrate effects to PCBs. The authors used an equilibrium partitioning (EqP) approach to generate predicted PCB sediment effect concentrations (largely Aroclor 1254) associated with a gradient of toxic effects in benthic organisms from effects observed in the aquatic toxicity studies. This study differs from all other EqP collective sediment investigations in that the authors examined a common dose-response gradient of effects for PCBs rather than a single, protective value...
October 25, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Karell Martínez-Guijarro, Ashraf Ramadan, Bondi Gevao
A sampling campaign was carried out to assess the impact of the oil field activities on the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in ambient air at Umm Al-Aish oil field in northern Kuwait. Sixteen samples were collected from March 2014 to January 2015. The concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs were relatively high (33.6-586 fg I-TEQ/m(3); median: 94.7 fg I-TEQ/m(3); 31.2 to 516 fg WHO-TEQ2005/m(3); median: 83...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
Mohammad H Rahbar, Maureen Samms-Vaughan, Manouchehr Hessabi, Aisha S Dickerson, MinJae Lee, Jan Bressler, Sara E Tomechko, Emily K Moreno, Katherine A Loveland, Charlene Coore Desai, Sydonnie Shakespeare-Pellington, Jody-Ann Reece, Renee Morgan, Matthew J Geiger, Michael E O'Keefe, Megan L Grove, Eric Boerwinkle
To date much of the biomonitoring related to exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides is from middle to high income countries, including the U.S., Canada and Europe, but such data are lacking for the majority of low to middle income countries. Using data from 64 pregnant mothers who were enrolled in 2011, we aimed to assess the concentrations of the aforementioned toxins in umbilical cord blood serum of 67 Jamaican newborns. For 97 of the 100 PCB congeners and 16 of the 17 OC pesticides, all (100%) concentrations were below their respective limits of detection (LOD)...
October 21, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Alejandra R Maldonado, Miguel A Mora, José L Sericano
For many years, it has been hypothesized that Neotropical migrants breeding in the United States and Canada accumulate organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) while on their wintering grounds in Latin America. We investigated the seasonal accumulation of persistent organic pollutant (POPs) in migrant and resident passerines in Texas, Yucatán, and Costa Rica collected during the fall, winter, and spring from 2011 to 2013. A total of 153 birds were collected, and all contained detectable levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and OCPs with dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) being the most predominant pesticide...
October 22, 2016: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Martí Nadal, Joaquim Rovira, Jordi Díaz-Ferrero, Marta Schuhmacher, José L Domingo
In May 2016, a fire occurred in one of the largest landfills in Europe (Seseña, Toledo, Spain), where 70,000-90,000tons of tires had been illegally accumulated for >15years. Because of the proximity of population nuclei and the duration of the episode (>20days), we conducted a preliminary human health risk assessment study just after the tire fire. Samples of air and soil were collected in 3 areas surrounding the landfill (El Quiñón, at only 500m, and Seseña Nuevo and Seseña Viejo, both at 4km), as well as in background sites...
October 20, 2016: Environment International
Johanna M Kraus, Polly P Gibson, David M Walters, Marc A Mills
Riparian spiders are being used increasingly to track spatial patterns of contaminants in and fluxing from aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the circumstances under which spiders are effective sentinels of aquatic pollution is limited. Here we test the hypothesis that riparian spiders may be effectively used to track spatial patterns of sediment pollution by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in aquatic ecosystems with high habitat heterogeneity. We found that spatial pattern of ΣPCB concentrations in two common families of riparian spiders sampled in 2011-2013 generally tracked spatial variation in sediment ΣPCBs across all sites within the Manistique River Great Lakes Area of Concern (AOC), a rivermouth ecosystem located on the south shore of the Upper Peninsula, Manistique, MI, that includes harbor, river, backwater, and lake habitats...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Li Ju, Zhiwen Zhou, Bo Jiang, Yue Lou, Zhiqun Zhang
Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure increases the incidence and severity of skeletal diseases, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relationship. We exposed zebrafish embryos to PCB1254 and assessed the changes in bone morphology protein receptor II (BMPRII), which is involved in bone formation and embryonic development, miRNA-21, for which BMPRII is a known target, and calcium metabolism. PCB1254 upregulated the expression of miR-21 and suppressed BMPRII expression. The inhibition of miR-21 reversed the downregulation of BMPRII and alleviated the PCB1254-induced loss of calcium...
October 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yanping Cheng, Masahiko Shibuya, Jenn McGregor, Gerard B Conditt, Geng-Hua Yi, Greg L Kaluza, William Gray, Manish Doshi, Prakash Sojitra, Juan F Granada
AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological efficacy of a novel lower-dose (2.5 µg/mm2) encapsulated paclitaxel nanocrystal-coated balloon (Nano-PCB) in the familial hypercholesterolaemic swine (FHS) model of iliofemoral in-stent restenosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nano-PCB pharmacokinetics were assessed in 20 femoral arteries (domestic swine). Biological efficacy was evaluated in ten FHS: 14 days following bare metal stent implantation each stent segment was randomised to a clinically available PCB (IN...
October 20, 2016: EuroIntervention
Ulrich Förstner, Henner Hollert, Markus Brinkmann, Kathrin Eichbaum, Roland Weber, Wim Salomons
A critical review of the last 25 years of dioxin policy in the Elbe river catchment is presented along seven main theses of the River Basin Community (RBC)-Elbe background document "Pollutants" for the Management Plan 2016-2021. In this period, polychlorinated dibenzodioxins/-furans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) will play a major role: (i) as new priority substances for which environmental quality standards (EQSs) need to be derived (Directive 2013/39/EC); (ii) in the search for innovative solutions in sediment remediation (i...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
A Holma-Suutari, P Ruokojärvi, A A Komarov, D A Makarov, V V Ovcharenko, A N Panin, H Kiviranta, S Laaksonen, M Nieminen, M Viluksela, A Hallikainen
BACKGROUND: The Finnish and Russian animal species (semi-domesticated reindeer, Finnish wild moose, Baltic grey seal and Baltic herring) samples were biomonitored in terrestrial and aquatic environments for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs). RESULTS: Grey seal (Halichoerus grypus) was clearly the most contaminated species. The mean PBDE concentration in grey seal was 115 ng/g fat, and the highest WHO-PCDD/F-PCB-TEQ (toxic equivalent set by WHO) was 327 pg/g fat...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Alfred E Pinkney, Mark S Myers, Michael A Rutter
From the 1940s through 1977, at least 590,000kg of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were released into the Hudson River from General Electric manufacturing plants located in Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, New York. In 1984, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency designated a nearly 322km reach as the Hudson River PCBs Superfund Site. Here we describe a Fish Health Assessment study, part of a Natural Resource Damage Assessment, that evaluated the prevalence of toxicopathic lesions in adult brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens)...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jiao Ren, Xiaoping Wang, Chuanfei Wang, Ping Gong, Xiruo Wang, Tandong Yao
Biomagnification of some persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been found in marine and freshwater food chains; however, due to the relatively short food chains in high-altitude alpine lakes, whether trophic transfer would result in the biomagnification of POPs is not clear. The transfer of various POPs, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), along the aquatic food chain in Nam Co Lake (4700 m), in the central Tibetan Plateau, was studied. The POPs levels in the water, sediment and biota [plankton, invertebrates and fish (Gymnocypris namensis)] of Nam Co were generally low, with concentrations comparable to those reported for the remote Arctic...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Paolo Boffetta, Simona Catalani, Cesare Tomasi, Enrico Pira, Pietro Apostoli
The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis of studies on exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the risk of malignant melanoma (MM). We searched Scopus, PubMed, and reference lists; among 807 potentially relevant articles, we selected those based on 12 populations. Data were extracted according to a standardized form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Meta-analyses were carried out according to fixed-effect and random-effects models. The fixed-effect summary relative risk (RR) for MM was 0...
October 5, 2016: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Filiz Karakas, Ipek Imamoglu, Kadir Gedik
Receptor models were typically used in air pollution studies and few publications are available for Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) that consider the details of parameters and procedures in evaluating the trace organic pollutants in sediments. In this study, environmental fate and source composition of Lake Eymir sediments contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were explored by applying two PMF models, Paatero's PMF2 and United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) EPA-PMF3. PMF2 and EPA-PMF3 rely on different algorithms; Paatero's algorithm and multilinear engine algorithm, respectively...
October 12, 2016: Environmental Pollution
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
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