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Andreas Sjodin, Richard S Jones, Robert Gunier, Lee-Yang Wong, Nina T Holland, Brenda Eskenazi, Asa Bradman
We report longitudinal serum concentrations of select persistent organic pollutants in children at age seven and nine years and in their mothers prenatally and again when the children were nine years old. The participating families were enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS), a longitudinal birth cohort study of low income Hispanic families residing in the Salinas Valley, California. We observed decreasing concentrations in the mothers with year of serum collection (2009 vs...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ami R Zota, Susanna D Mitro, Joshua F Robinson, Emily G Hamilton, June-Soo Park, Emily Parry, R Thomas Zoeller, Tracey J Woodruff
BACKGROUND: Human fetal exposures to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their metabolites (OH-PBDEs) are unique from adults, and in combination with a different metabolic profile, may make fetal development more sensitive to adverse health outcomes from these exposures. However, we lack data to characterize human fetal PBDE exposures and the metabolic factors that can influence these exposures. OBJECTIVE: We examined differences between 2nd trimester maternal and fetal exposures to PBDEs and OH-PBDEs...
January 6, 2018: Environment International
Yuko Arita, Corinne Yeh, Theodosia Thoma, Darios Getahun, Ramkumar Menon, Morgan R Peltier
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are pollutants that may increase the risk of preterm birth. In previous studies, we found that a mixture of PBDEs altered the expression of biomarkers for preterm birth by the placenta. However, there are 209 different PBDE congeners with different tissue distributions. How these different congeners may alter the production of immunomodulators by the placenta that help to maintain the survival of the fetal allograft is unclear. Therefore, we compared the effects 5 common congeners on basal and bacteria-stimulated cytokine production by the placenta...
December 21, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Michael J Adkesson, Jeffrey M Levengood, John W Scott, David J Schaeffer, Jennifer N Langan, Susana Cárdenas-Alayza, Santiago de la Puente, Patricia Majluf, Sandra Yi
Persistent organic pollutants were assessed in Humboldt Penguins ( Spheniscus humboldti) from the Punta San Juan Marine Protected Area, Peru, in the austral winter of 2009. Plasma samples from 29 penguins were evaluated for 31 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and 11 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by using gas chromatography coupled to an ion trap mass spectrometer and for 15 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners by using gas chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry. The detection rate for PCBs in the samples was 69%, with congeners 105, 118, 180, and 153 most commonly detected...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Emily Parry, Ami R Zota, June-Soo Park, Tracey J Woodruff
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are brominated flame retardants. Technical mixtures PentaBDE and OctaBDE were phased out in 2004 through voluntary and regulatory actions with DecaBDE remaining in limited use until 2013. Biomonitoring studies have shown widespread presence of PBDEs in the US and worldwide population. While some studies suggest that human serum concentrations are declining over time, it is unclear whether this trend will continue. Our objective was to examine temporal trends of PentaBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs) between 2008 and 2014 in populations of ethnically diverse, pregnant women residing in Northern California (n = 111)...
December 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Li Zhihua, S Panton, Lisa Marshall, A Fernandes, M Rose, F Smith, Mel Holmes
Some commonly consumed marine fish species are considered to display a higher risk of bio-accumulating organic environmental contaminants such as PBDEs. As part of a study to investigate the spatial distribution of these contaminants, data on polybrominated diphenlyethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were collected and analysed by introducing a web-based resource which enables efficient spatial, species and concentration level representations. Furthermore, hierarchical cluster analyses permits correlations within the data to be predicted...
December 27, 2017: Chemosphere
Annette Fliedner, Heinz Rüdel, Nina Lohmann, Georgia Buchmeier, Jan Koschorreck
The study addresses the topic of suitable matrices for chemical analysis in fish monitoring and discusses the effects of data normalization in the context of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Differences between species are considered by comparing three frequently monitored species of different trophic levels, i.e., chub (Squalius cephalus, n = 28), (bream, Abramis brama, n = 11), and perch (Perca fluviatilis, n = 19) sampled in the German Danube. The WFD priority substances dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCDD/F + dl-PCB), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), α-hexabromocyclododecane (α-HBCDD), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), mercury (Hg), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) as well as non-dioxin-like (ndl)-PCB were analyzed separately in fillet and carcass and whole body concentrations were calculated...
December 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Youda Huang, Dainan Zhang, Yu Yang, Xiangying Zeng, Yong Ran
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated by GC-NCI-MS in sediments collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD) and Guiyu town, South China. The concentrations of ∑39PBDEs and BDE 209 were in the ranges of 0.31-38.9 ng g-1 and 12.2-488 ng g-1 in the PRD, and 2.57-21,207 ng g-1 and 7.02-66,573 ng g-1 in Guiyu, respectively. The levels of PBDEs in Dongjiang River (DJ), Zhujiang River (ZJ), and Beijiang River (BJ), and Guiyu (GY) followed the order: GY > DJ > ZJ > BJ...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Pollution
F Bjurlid, M Dam, K Hoydal, J Hagberg
Blubber from Faroese pilot whales (Globicephala melas) was analysed for brominated dioxins PBDD/Fs, with a subset also analysed for chlorinated dioxins, PCDD/Fs. The studied individuals were restricted to juvenile male whales sampled in the Faroe Islands during the period 1997-2013. Among the PBDD/Fs, the furans were predominant, although the relative abundance of various congeners differed between samples. Furans accounted for, on average, 79% of the ∑PBDD/Fs in the samples, with 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpBDF the most abundant congener, found in half of the analysed pilot whales...
December 11, 2017: Chemosphere
Beverly Shen, Todd P Whitehead, Ranjit Gill, Joginder Dhaliwal, F Reber Brown, Myrto Petreas, Sharyle Patton, S Katharine Hammond
Firefighters are exposed to chemicals during fire events and we previously demonstrated that fire station dust has high levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In conducting the Fire Station Dust Study, we sought to further characterize the chemicals to which firefighters could be exposed - measuring the emerging class of phosphorous-containing flame retardants (PFRs) in fire stations, for the first time, as well as PBDEs. Dust samples from 26 fire stations in five states were collected from vacuum-cleaner bags and analyzed for PFRs and PBDEs...
December 13, 2017: Environment International
Connie Ka Yan Ng, James Chung Wah Lam, Xiao Hua Zhang, He Xiang Gu, Tsung Hsien Li, Min Bin Ye, Zhong Rong Xia, Fei Yan Zhang, Jin Xia Duan, Wen Xiong Wang, Isaac Kam Sum Lam, George H Balazs, Paul K S Lam, Margaret B Murphy
Sea turtles are globally endangered and face daily anthropogenic threats, including pollution. However, there is a lack of ecotoxicological information on sea turtles, especially in the Asia-Pacific region. This study aims to determine pollutant levels of foraging green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in South China, including Hong Kong, Guangdong and Taiwan, as a basis for their conservation. Scute, liver and muscle tissues of stranded green turtles were analysed for levels of 17 trace elements and methylmercury (MeHg) (n = 86 for scute and n = 14 for liver) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) (n = 11 for muscle and n = 13 for liver)...
December 12, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Frank Neugebauer, Annekatrin Dreyer, Nina Lohmann, Jan Koschorreck
The extensive application of halogenated flame retardants has led to their widespread distribution in the environment. Recently, concerns emerged regarding their potential persistence, (bio)accumulation, and/or toxicity. Particularly halogenated flame retardants based on norbornene structures, like Dechlorane Plus as well as other brominated PBDE replacements, generically called emerging, novel, or alternative flame retardants, are in the focus of interest. A comprehensive analytical method for the determination of 21 halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) of different substance classes (dechloranes, brominated aromates, brominated ethers, cyclic BFR) in a broad variety of matrices (tree leaves, fish fillet, birds eggs, suspended particles) was developed in order to assess their environmental levels as well as temporal trends, especially for the use within environmental specimen banks (ESBs)...
December 13, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Xiaomin Li, Shujun Dong, Wei Zhang, Xia Fan, Yang Li, Ruiguo Wang, Xiaoou Su
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and their hydroxylated (OH) and methoxylated (MeO) structural analogues have been found widely distributed in aquatic ecosystems, and may exhibit potential adverse effects to humans due to their bioaccumulative behavior through food chain. Fishmeal is an important animal feed applied around the world and is generally of marine origin. However, the levels and sources of PBDEs in fishmeal have not been thoroughly evaluated and their structural analogues have not been reported to date...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
D Zacs, J Rjabova, L E Ikkere, K Bavrins, V Bartkevics
In order to evaluate the contamination status of terrestrial biota in Latvia, muscle and liver tissues of red deer (Cervus elaphus), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and moose (Alces alces) were analyzed for the content of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), as well as cadmium and lead. The highest mean concentrations of PBDEs (46.6pgg-1 wet weight (w.w.)), cadmium (0.95mgkg-1 w.w.), and lead (0.22mgkg-1 w.w.) were observed in the tissues of moose, while the wild boar samples contained the highest levels of HBCD, with the mean concentration equal to 264pgg-1 w...
December 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jingqiu Jiang, Hongxia Zhao, Shibin Sun, Yuntao Wang, Sisi Liu, Qing Xie, Xiangkun Li
Halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs), as ubiquitous environment contaminants, have attracted increasing concerns due to the potential adverse health impacts on organisms and even humans. Waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) are one source of HOPs to the environment through their discharge of treated effluent. In this study, the presence and profiles of 6 halogenated phenols (HP), 17 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and 11 hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDE) were investigated in 12 WWTP effluent samples collected near Huang-Bo Sea in Dalian, China...
November 30, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Qiqing Chen, Julia Reisser, Serena Cunsolo, Christiaan Kwadijk, Michiel Kotterman, Maira Proietti, Boyan Slat, Francesco Ferrari, Anna Schwarz, Aurore Levivier, Daqiang Yin, Henner Hollert, Albert A Koelmans
Here we report concentrations of pollutants in floating plastics from the North Pacific accumulation zone (NPAC). We compared chemical concentrations in plastics of different types and sizes, assessed ocean plastic potential risks using sediment quality criteria, and discussed the implications of our findings for bioaccumulation. Our results suggest that at least a fraction of the NPAC plastics is not in equilibrium with the surrounding seawater. For instance, 'hard plastic' samples had significantly higher PBDE concentrations than 'nets and ropes' samples, and 29% of them had PBDE composition similar to a widely used flame-retardant mixture...
November 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Katerina Kademoglou, Adrian C Williams, Chris D Collins
Human uptake of flame retardants (FRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) via indoor dust ingestion is commonly considered as 100% bioaccessible, leading to potential risk overestimation. Here, we present a novel in vitro colon-extended physiologically-based extraction test (CE-PBET) with Tenax TA® as an absorptive "sink" capable to enhance PBDE gut bioaccessibility. A cellulose-based dialysis membrane (MW cut-off 3.5kDa) with high pH and temperature tolerance was used to encapsulate Tenax TA®, facilitating efficient physical separation between the absorbent and the dust, while minimizing re-absorption of the ingested PBDEs to the dust particles...
November 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Minghui Li, Xia Huo, Yukui Pan, Haoxing Cai, Yifeng Dai, Xijin Xu
Parental exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) is associated with adverse birth outcomes. This study aims to examine differentially-expressed protein profiles in umbilical cord tissue, derived from mothers exposed to PBDEs, and investigate candidate biomarkers to reveal the underlying molecular mechanisms. Umbilical cord samples were obtained from women residing in an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area (Guiyu) and reference area (Haojiang) in China. The concentration of PBDEs in umbilical cord tissue was determined by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC/MS)...
November 20, 2017: Environment International
Bentuo Xu, Minghong Wu, Mingnan Wang, Chenyuan Pan, Wenhui Qiu, Liang Tang, Gang Xu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are becoming a public health concern because of their potential toxicity, from endocrine disruption system to neurodevelopmental impairments. Nonetheless, information on their levels in human blood is scarce. In this study, human serum samples collected in Shanghai, China, were analyzed for the concentrations of PBDEs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PBDEs). Eight PBDE congeners and six OH-PBDE congeners were quantified in serum samples by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS)...
November 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Corey A Clatterbuck, Rebecca L Lewison, Nathan G Dodder, Catherine Zeeman, Kenneth Schiff
Seabirds are often cited as sentinels of the marine environment, but are rarely used in traditional ocean and coastal contaminant monitoring. Four classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs, n=68) and three trace elements (mercury, selenium, and arsenic) were measured in the eggs of California least terns (Sterna antillarum browni), caspian terns (Hydroprogne caspia), double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus), and western gulls (Larus occidentalis) that nest in the Southern California Bight. Building on a periodic five year regional monitoring program, we measured contaminant exposure and assessed the utility of seabirds as regional contaminant biomonitors...
November 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
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