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Y Yan, Y Li, M Ma, W Ma, X Cheng, K Xu
Two prominent polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners have been included in the persistent organic pollutant list, 2,2',4,4',5-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99) and 2,2,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), which have been detected in treated municipal wastewater, river water, and sediments in China. A lab-scale column experiment was established to investigate the effects of the competitive sorption of BDE-47 on BDE-99 biodegradation and migration in two types of river-based aquifer soils during groundwater recharge with reclaimed water...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Pengjun Xu, Bu Tao, Zhiguang Zhou, Shuang Fan, Ting Zhang, Aimin Liu, Shuping Dong, Jingli Yuan, Hong Li, Jiping Chen, Yeru Huang
Guiyu, China, is well-known for the crude disposal of electronic waste (EW) and severe persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Therefore, in this study, the occurrence, composition, and source of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB153), some novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), Dechlorane Plus (DP) and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs) in farmland soils covering Guiyu were studied. In EW disposal area soils, PBDEs were the most abundant FRs, with concentrations of 13-1014 ng g(-1)...
May 13, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Alfred K Anim, Daniel S Drage, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Jochen F Mueller, Godwin A Ayoko
To date, very little or no data exist in literature for some brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and polychlorinated biphenyls in Queensland sediments. These pollutants were measured in the sediments along the Brisbane River estuary. The target compounds were regularly detected in measurable concentrations: PBDEs=33.3-97.8% (n=45), PCBs=94.1-100% (n=51) and HBCDs=79-98% (n=48). Consistently, >90% of the observed ∑8PBDE concentration was attributed to BDE-209. Mean PBDE levels (ng/g dry wt.) were: 4.4±3...
May 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Sara Romanelli, Francesca Bettazzi, Tania Martellini, Weilin L Shelver, Alessandra Cincinelli, Roberta Galarini, Ilaria Palchetti
A sample preparation method was evaluated for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussel samples, by using colorimetric and electrochemical immunoassay-based screening methods. Herein, a rapid procedure based on QuEChERS-like extraction approach followed by solid phase purification was optimized for PBDE extraction from mussel samples. The detection limits for colorimetric and electrochemical immunoassays, calculated as BDE-47 equivalent concentration, were 0.6ngg(-1) and 1.1ngg(-1), respectively...
August 1, 2017: Talanta
Kyla M Walter, Yan-Ping Lin, Philip H Kass, Birgit Puschner
BACKGROUND: Hyperthyroidism is the most common endocrine disorder observed in domestic felines; however, its etiology is largely unknown. Two classes of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are known to interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) signaling and regulation; thus, it is postulated that they contribute to the etiopathogenesis of feline hyperthyroidism and pose a risk to humans and other species. In this case-control study, the concentrations of 13 PBDE and 11 PCB congeners were measured by gas chromatography mass spectrometry in serum or plasma samples from 20 hyperthyroid and 31 control cats in order to investigate the association between concentration of PBDE and PCB congeners and feline hyperthyroidism...
May 3, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
Jessica Legradi, Marinda van Pomeren, Anna-Karin Dahlberg, Juliette Legler
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and wildlife. Using in vitro models, we recently showed that OH-PBDEs disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. The goal of the current study was to determine the in vivo effects of OH-PBDE reported in marine wildlife. To this end, we exposed zebrafish larvae to 17 OH-PBDEs from fertilisation to 6 days of age, and determined developmental toxicity as well as OXPHOS disruption potential with a newly developed assay of oxygen consumption in living embryos...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Shinji Takasu, Yuji Ishii, Yuh Yokoo, Takuma Tsuchiya, Aki Kijima, Yukio Kodama, Kumiko Ogawa, Takashi Umemura
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants, have been widely used as additive flame retardants. Recently, the use of brominated flame retardants has been restricted or prohibited under various legislative acts because of the persistence, bioaccumulation potential, and toxicity of these compounds. However, there are also additional concerns regarding environmental contamination and human exposure to PBDEs resulting from informal recycling technology. Decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), one type of PBDE, has carcinogenic potential in the livers of rodents...
April 2017: Mutation Research
Yun Zhu, Yan Qin Tan, Lai K Leung
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants generally employed in manufacturing household items. Surface water may remove and carry these chemicals to the drainage upon disposal of the items, and ultimately the chemicals enter our food chain. 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) is a PBDE congener commonly found in contaminated seafood. The placenta is the site of nutrient exchange and is responsible for reproductive hormone secretion during pregnancy. In the present study, pregnant ICR mice were given p...
April 22, 2017: Chemosphere
Kei Nomiyama, Kohki Takaguchi, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yasuko Nagano, Tomoko Oshihoi, Susumu Nakatsu, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe
The adverse effects of elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels, reported in the blood of domestic dogs and cats, are considered to be of great concern. However, the tissue distribution of PBDEs and their derivatives in these animals is poorly understood. This study determined the concentrations and profiles of PBDEs, hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-tri-BPh) in the blood, livers, bile, and brains of dogs and cats in Japan. Higher tissue concentrations of PBDEs were found in cats, with the dominant congener being BDE209...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xichao Xia, Shipeng Xue, Xiying Wang, Qingyuan Zhang, Chuanfeng Huang, Lianghong Guo, Lunguang Yao
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in adaption of environmental stress by protein folding, membrane translocation, degradation of misfolded proteins and other regulatory processes. Our previous study showed oxidative stress generated from polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 (PBDE-47) could cause an acute toxicity on freshwater bivalve Anodonta Woodiana, but the effect of chronic toxicity need to be elucidated. In order to further investigate the chronic effect of PBDE-47, clams A. Woodiana were randomly divided into the PBDE-47 treated group administrated with PBDE-47 at a concentration 3...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Antoine E Simond, Magali Houde, Véronique Lesage, Jonathan Verreault
An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. The recent worldwide bans and regulations of PBDE mixtures led to their replacement by alternative HFRs (so-called emerging HFRs) that are increasingly being reported in various environmental compartments. There are, however, limited knowledge on the spatial and temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging HFRs in cetaceans, especially after restrictions on PBDE usage...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Research
Zhenxing Chi, Songwen Tan, Weiguo Li, Zhengzhong Wen, Xuemei Song, Mingjing Wang
This work presents the effect of decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-209) on the anti-oxidative defense capacity, and ATPase activity (structure and function) of human red blood cells (hRBCs). The results show that the PBDE-209 influences the activity and content of typical biomolecules (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH and MDA) in hRBCs, causing a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system. The PBDE-209 with a concentration of 10 μmol/L resulted in the cytoplasmic projections and structure deformation of the hRBCs...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Rui Wang, Huafeng Li, Xueqin Tao, Ting Tang, Haozhong Lin, Kaibo Huang, Zhiyi Zhong, Xingjian Yang, Zhi Dang, Hua Yin, Guining Lu
This study investigated the photodebromination behaviors of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in methanol or methanol/water systems. The kinetics of three sets of bromated diphenyl ether (BDE) isomers were compared in the same reactors, and the results showed that the PBDE isomers with lower energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and higher energy of highest occupied molecular orbital will be degraded faster by ultraviolet (UV) light than other BDE isomers. The overall debromination pathways of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) were elucidated, and we found that the bromine substituents with higher Mulliken charges were preferentially removed...
October 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Robin E Dodson, Kathryn M Rodgers, Gale Carey, Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent, Adrian Covaci, Giulia Poma, Govindan Malarvannan, John D Spengler, Ruthann A Rudel, Joseph G Allen
Furniture flammability standards are typically met with chemical flame retardants (FRs). FRs can migrate out of products into dust and are linked to cancer, neurological impairment, and endocrine disruption. We collected 95 dust samples from dormitory common areas and student rooms on two U.S. college campuses adhering to two different furniture flammability standards: Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117) and Technical Bulletin 133 (TB133). Because TB133 requires furniture to withstand a much-more-demanding test flame than TB117, we hypothesized that spaces with TB133 furniture would have higher levels of FRs in dust...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xin Liu, Haijian Bing, Yanzhi Chen, Jun Li, Yanhong Wu, Gan Zhang
We investigated the occurrence of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), six novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus in air and soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We detected all of the NBFR except bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate and pentabromoethyl benzene. NBFRs constituted the most prevalent group. BDE-28 and BDE-47 dominated among the PBDE congeners. Decabromodiphenyl ethane was detected at relatively high levels up to 171 pg/m(3) and 1450 pg/g dry weight in air and soils, respectively; however, it appeared to be easily degraded in the environment...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Liangyuan Zhao, Jinhui Jiang, Chuanhong Chen, Shuie Zhan, Jiaoyan Yang, Shao Yang
Phytoremediation is an economic and promising technique for removing toxic pollutants from the environment. Freshwater sediments are regarded as the ultimate sink of the widely used PBDE congener decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the environment. In the study, the aquatic macrophyte Scirpus validus was selected to remove BDE-209 from three types of sediments (silt, clay, and sand) at an environmentally relevant concentration. After 18 months of phytoremediation experiment, S. validus significantly enhanced the dissipation rates of BDE-209 in all the sediments compared to the controls...
May 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are one of the most widespread and abundant mammals in North America. To evaluate the suitability of using raccoons as bioindicator species, we analyzed liver tissues (n = 32) collected from 2013 to 2015 for the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Dechloranes. ∑PBDE concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 2125 ng/g lw (median = 98.0 ng/g lw) and did not differ between gender or age of raccoon. Dechloranes were detected in 38% of raccoons and ranged from 0...
June 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shelagh K Genuis, Detlef Birkholz, Stephen J Genuis
Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs...
2017: BioMed Research International
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