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Kei Nomiyama, Kohki Takaguchi, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yasuko Nagano, Tomoko Oshihoi, Susumu Nakatsu, Tatsuya Kunisue, Shinsuke Tanabe
The adverse effects of elevated polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) levels, reported in the blood of domestic dogs and cats, are considered to be of great concern. However, the tissue distribution of PBDEs and their derivatives in these animals is poorly understood. This study determined the concentrations and profiles of PBDEs, hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and 2,4,6-tri-bromophenol (2,4,6-tri-BPh) in the blood, livers, bile, and brains of dogs and cats in Japan. Higher tissue concentrations of PBDEs were found in cats, with the dominant congener being BDE209...
April 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xichao Xia, Shipeng Xue, Xiying Wang, Qingyuan Zhang, Chuanfeng Huang, Lianghong Guo, Lunguang Yao
Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in adaption of environmental stress by protein folding, membrane translocation, degradation of misfolded proteins and other regulatory processes. Our previous study showed oxidative stress generated from polybrominated diphenyl ether-47 (PBDE-47) could cause an acute toxicity on freshwater bivalve Anodonta Woodiana, but the effect of chronic toxicity need to be elucidated. In order to further investigate the chronic effect of PBDE-47, clams A. Woodiana were randomly divided into the PBDE-47 treated group administrated with PBDE-47 at a concentration 3...
April 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yi-Ping Chen, Ying-Juan Zheng, Qiang Liu, Aaron M Ellison, Yan Zhao, Qing-Yi Ma
The Qinling subspecies of giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis), is highly endangered; fewer than 350 individuals still inhabit Qinling Mountains. Previous research revealed captive pandas were exposed to bromine, so we hypothesized that captive pandas were exposed to and affected by polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). To test this hypothesis, we tested blood and feces of captive and wild pandas, their drinking water, food (bamboo leaves) from SWARC (Shaanxi Wild Animal Research Center)and FNNR (Foping National Nature Reserve) and supplemental feedstuff given to captive panda at SWARC...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
S Sethi, X Chen, P H Kass, B Puschner
It has been previously been shown by our lab and others that persistent organic pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), are contaminants in milk produced for human consumption. To further this research we determined the concentration of 21 PCB and 14 PBDE congeners in livestock serum, mainly bovine, across California. Congeners were extracted from serum using solid phase extraction (SPE), cleaned up by silica cartridge and quantified using gas chromatography-triple quadruple mass spectrometry...
April 14, 2017: Chemosphere
Antoine E Simond, Magali Houde, Véronique Lesage, Jonathan Verreault
An exponential level increase of the ubiquitous halogenated flame retardant (HFR) class polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) has been documented during the 1990s in endangered belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) from the St. Lawrence Estuary (SLE), Eastern Canada. The recent worldwide bans and regulations of PBDE mixtures led to their replacement by alternative HFRs (so-called emerging HFRs) that are increasingly being reported in various environmental compartments. There are, however, limited knowledge on the spatial and temporal trends of PBDEs and emerging HFRs in cetaceans, especially after restrictions on PBDE usage...
April 15, 2017: Environmental Research
Zhenxing Chi, Songwen Tan, Weiguo Li, Zhengzhong Wen, Xuemei Song, Mingjing Wang
This work presents the effect of decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-209) on the anti-oxidative defense capacity, and ATPase activity (structure and function) of human red blood cells (hRBCs). The results show that the PBDE-209 influences the activity and content of typical biomolecules (SOD, CAT, GSH-Px, GSH and MDA) in hRBCs, causing a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system. The PBDE-209 with a concentration of 10 μmol/L resulted in the cytoplasmic projections and structure deformation of the hRBCs...
April 8, 2017: Chemosphere
Rui Wang, Huafeng Li, Xueqin Tao, Ting Tang, Haozhong Lin, Kaibo Huang, Zhiyi Zhong, Xingjian Yang, Zhi Dang, Hua Yin, Guining Lu
This study investigated the photodebromination behaviors of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in methanol or methanol/water systems. The kinetics of three sets of bromated diphenyl ether (BDE) isomers were compared in the same reactors, and the results showed that the PBDE isomers with lower energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital and higher energy of highest occupied molecular orbital will be degraded faster by ultraviolet (UV) light than other BDE isomers. The overall debromination pathways of 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) were elucidated, and we found that the bromine substituents with higher Mulliken charges were preferentially removed...
April 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Robin E Dodson, Kathryn M Rodgers, Gale Carey, Jose Guillermo Cedeno Laurent, Adrian Covaci, Giulia Poma, Govindan Malarvannan, John D Spengler, Ruthann A Rudel, Joseph G Allen
Furniture flammability standards are typically met with chemical flame retardants (FRs). FRs can migrate out of products into dust and are linked to cancer, neurological impairment, and endocrine disruption. We collected 95 dust samples from dormitory common areas and student rooms on two U.S. college campuses adhering to two different furniture flammability standards: Technical Bulletin 117 (TB117) and Technical Bulletin 133 (TB133). Because TB133 requires furniture to withstand a much-more-demanding test flame than TB117, we hypothesized that spaces with TB133 furniture would have higher levels of FRs in dust...
April 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xin Liu, Haijian Bing, Yanzhi Chen, Jun Li, Yanhong Wu, Gan Zhang
We investigated the occurrence of halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), six novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) and dechlorane plus in air and soils on the eastern slope of Mt. Gongga on the eastern Tibetan Plateau. We detected all of the NBFR except bis(2-ethylhexyl)-tetrabromophthalate and pentabromoethyl benzene. NBFRs constituted the most prevalent group. BDE-28 and BDE-47 dominated among the PBDE congeners. Decabromodiphenyl ethane was detected at relatively high levels up to 171 pg/m(3) and 1450 pg/g dry weight in air and soils, respectively; however, it appeared to be easily degraded in the environment...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Liangyuan Zhao, Jinhui Jiang, Chuanhong Chen, Shuie Zhan, Jiaoyan Yang, Shao Yang
Phytoremediation is an economic and promising technique for removing toxic pollutants from the environment. Freshwater sediments are regarded as the ultimate sink of the widely used PBDE congener decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) in the environment. In the study, the aquatic macrophyte Scirpus validus was selected to remove BDE-209 from three types of sediments (silt, clay, and sand) at an environmentally relevant concentration. After 18 months of phytoremediation experiment, S. validus significantly enhanced the dissipation rates of BDE-209 in all the sediments compared to the controls...
April 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Esmarie Boyles, Clayton K Nielsen
Raccoons (Procyon lotor) are one of the most widespread and abundant mammals in North America. To evaluate the suitability of using raccoons as bioindicator species, we analyzed liver tissues (n = 32) collected from 2013 to 2015 for the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and Dechloranes. ∑PBDE concentrations ranged from 19.1 to 2125 ng/g lw (median = 98.0 ng/g lw) and did not differ between gender or age of raccoon. Dechloranes were detected in 38% of raccoons and ranged from 0...
April 3, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Shelagh K Genuis, Detlef Birkholz, Stephen J Genuis
Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs...
2017: BioMed Research International
Rosemary Castorina, Craig Butt, Heather M Stapleton, Dylan Avery, Kim G Harley, Nina Holland, Brenda Eskenazi, Asa Bradman
Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs), used in consumer products since the 1970s, persist in the environment. Restrictions on penta-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants resulted in increased use of Firemaster(®) 550 (FM(®) 550), and the organophosphate triesters: tris(1,3- dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP); tris(chloropropyl) phosphate (TCIPP); tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP); and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP). The objectives of this study were to (1) identify determinants of flame retardants (4 PFRs, PentaBDEs and FM(®) 550) in house dust, (2) measure urinary PFR metabolites in pregnant women, and (3) estimate health risks from PFR exposure...
July 2017: Chemosphere
Zhiguo Cao, Leicheng Zhao, Jiangmeng Kuang, Qiaoying Chen, Guifen Zhu, Kunlun Zhang, Shihua Wang, Peipei Wu, Xin Zhang, Xuefeng Wang, Stuart Harrad, Jianhui Sun
The distribution of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including ∑8PBDEs, DBDPE, BTBPE, EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PBEB in road dust (RD) collected in Xinxiang, China was characterized. Analysis of RD samples indicated that the BFR abundance declined as traffic density decreased, with total mean levels of 292, 184, 163, 104 and 70 ng g(-1) dust at sites from traffic intersections, main roads, collector streets, bypasses and parks, respectively. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is that the majority of BFRs may be emitted from the interior of vehicles via their ventilation systems...
July 2017: Chemosphere
Wojciech Jerzy Pietroń, Paweł Małagocki
The polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), are food contaminants of animal origin. Interest in food matrices analysis is growing due to the toxicity of PBDEs and European Commission (EC) recommendation (118/2014/EU). Here we review papers concerning methods of PBDEs analysis while focusing on extraction, clean up, chromatographic separation and detection techniques. The emphasis is put on EC recommendation, the congeners and the efficiency of different detection systems...
May 15, 2017: Talanta
Fuchao Xu, Joo-Hui Tay, Adrian Covaci, Juan Antonio Padilla-Sánchez, Eleni Papadopoulou, Line Småstuen Haug, Hugo Neels, Ulla Sellström, Cynthia A de Wit
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), emerging halogenated flame retardants (EHFRs) and organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) were detected in 24h duplicate diet samples from a Norwegian cohort (n=61), with concentrations ranging from <method limit of quantification (MLQ)-0.64ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.70ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.93ng/g ww, <MLQ-0.14ng/g ww, and <MLQ-150ng/g ww, respectively. All studied contaminants were detected in the duplicate diet samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 1...
March 20, 2017: Environment International
Vinayak Agarwal, Jessica M Blanton, Sheila Podell, Arnaud Taton, Michelle A Schorn, Julia Busch, Zhenjian Lin, Eric W Schmidt, Paul R Jensen, Valerie J Paul, Jason S Biggs, James W Golden, Eric E Allen, Bradley S Moore
Naturally produced polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) pervade the marine environment and structurally resemble toxic man-made brominated flame retardants. PBDEs bioaccumulate in marine animals and are likely transferred to the human food chain. However, the biogenic basis for PBDE production in one of their most prolific sources, marine sponges of the order Dysideidae, remains unidentified. Here, we report the discovery of PBDE biosynthetic gene clusters within sponge-microbiome-associated cyanobacterial endosymbionts through the use of an unbiased metagenome-mining approach...
May 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Lisbeth E Knudsen, Pernille Winton Hansen, Seher Mizrak, Heidi K Hansen, Thit A Mørck, Flemming Nielsen, Volkert Siersma, Line Mathiesen
BACKGROUND: The Danish part of the large European Human biomonitoring pilot project Demonstration of a study to Coordinate and Perform Human biomonitoring on a European Scale (DEMOCOPHES) investigated the urine, hair and blood concentrations of 66 different environmental chemicals in a group of 145 Danish school children aged 6-11 years and their mothers from rural and urban areas in autumn 2011. Some - but not all - results were published; however, the concurrence of the chemicals has not been assessed...
March 17, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
Susan Hurley, Debbie Goldberg, David O Nelson, Weihong Guo, Yunzhu Wang, Hyoung-Gee Baek, June-Soo Park, Myrto Petreas, Leslie Bernstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Peggy Reynolds
In response to health concerns and widespread human exposures, two widely used commercial formulations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were banned in the United States in 2005. Initial biomonitoring data have provided early indications of reduced human exposures since these bans took effect. Our objective was to evaluate temporal trends in PBDE serum levels among a population of older California women during a four-year period, beginning approximately five years after these formulations were banned...
March 29, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Kana Matsubara, Naoki Nakamura, Seigo Sanoh, Shigeru Ohta, Shigeyuki Kitamura, Naoto Uramaru, Shinichi Miyagawa, Taisen Iguchi, Nariaki Fujimoto
Many concerns have been expressed regarding the possible adverse effects of thyroid hormone-disrupting chemicals in the environment. The disruption of thyroid hormones in the neonatal period may lead to permanent effects on thyroid hormone homeostasis as well as related developmental disorders, as thyroid hormones are essential for regulating the growth and differentiation of many tissues. To understand the long-term alteration in gene expressions by neonatal administration of thyroid hormone-like chemicals in general, we identified genes whose expression was altered in the liver, an important component of the thyroid hormone axis, by neonatal exposure to triiodothyronine (T3)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
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