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Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Nathalie Lambrechts, Eva Govarts, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Isabelle Sioen, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Francis Boonen, Daniëlla Ooms, Mai Wevers, Griet Jacobs, Adrian Covaci, Thomas Schettgen, Greet Schoeters
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Research
Kees Booij, Foppe Smedes, Steven Crum
Two laboratory performance studies with 21 and 11 participants were carried out for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water, using silicone samplers that were deployed for 7 and 13 weeks at 2 river sites in the Netherlands. Target analytes were polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and a number of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Calculation of aqueous concentrations based on prescribed input values and a prescribed uptake model was also included...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
Yumi Katayama, Mitsuru Aoyagi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Harada, Alina M Simion, Naoyoshi Egashira, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Cristian Simion
Both hexachlorobenzene and hexabromobenzene were successfully hydrodehalogenated to the monohalogenated derivative and ultimately to benzene (which was subsequently reduced to cyclohexane) using a mixture of metallic Ca, ethanol, and Rh/C, by simple stirring in diethyl ether, at room or mild temperature (60 °C). Various experiments were performed in order to assess the role of the solvent and Rh/C catalyst, as well as for elucidating the reaction pathway.
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Mário Paz, Luísa Correia-Sá, Carla B Vidal, Helena Becker, Elisane Longhinotti, Valentina F Domingues, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Anna Carita Callan, Andrea Lee Hinwood, Jane Heyworth, Duong Trong Phi, Jon Ø Odland
Prenatal exposure to persistent pollutants has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, although few studies have investigated the influence of the sex of the infant. Sex specific differences have been associated with neurobehavioural impacts from environmental exposures with limited and contrary findings in relation to persistent pollutants. This study investigated the relationships between maternal exposure to a range of metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides measured in biological samples and birth outcomes with a specific focus on the sex of the infant...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Yingjie Li, Qingnan Liu, Wenfeng Li, Yingzhou Lu, Hong Meng, Chunxi Li
Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) is a good alternative to traditional incineration for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the key is to find an efficient co-milling reagent. Toward this aim, HCB was milled with various reagents in a planetary ball mill at room temperature, and CaC2 was found to be the best one. HCB can be destroyed completely within 20 min at a mass ratio of CaC2/HCB = 0.9 and a rotation speed of 300 rpm. The ground samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Christian Schlechtriem, Leonard Böhm, Rebecca Bebon, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The performance of aqueous exposure bioconcentration fish tests according to OECD 305 requires the possibility of preparing stable aqueous concentrations of the test substances. For highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) (log Kow > 5) testing via aqueous exposure may become increasingly difficult. A solid-phase desorption dosing system was developed to generate stable concentrations of HOCs without using solubilizing agents. The system was tested with hexachlorobenzene (HCB), o-terphenyl (oTP), PCB 153, and dibenz[a,h]anthracene (DBA) (log Kow 5...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hana Stiborova, Michal Kolar, Jana Vrkoslavova, Jana Pulkrabova, Jana Hajslova, Katerina Demnerova, Ondrej Uhlik
Obtaining a complex picture of how pollutants synergistically influence toxicity of a system requires statistical correlation of chemical and ecotoxicological data. In this study, we determined concentrations of eight potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and four groups of organic pollutants in 15 sewage sludge and 12 river sediment samples, then linked measured contaminant concentrations to the toxicity of each matrix through constrained correspondence analysis (CCA). In sludge samples, Hg, As, hexachlorohexane (HCH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) influenced the toxicity profiles, with the first four having significant effects and HBCD being marginally significant...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Guoli Lu, Song Li, Yuanqing Zhou
Although rhizoremediation is an effective approach to remove organic pollutants from the environment, little is known about the mechanism of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) biodegradation in water. In this study, we used Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) grown in sterile Hoagland nutrient solution to determine the rhizosphere effects on the ability of bacteria in water to reduce HCB levels. The results revealed that T. angustifolia could facilitate HCB degradation and that the initial HCB concentration was the major factor responsible for HCB degradation in nutrient solution...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
Humaira Yasmeen, Abdul Qadir, Mehvish Mumtaz, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Jabbir Hussain Syed, Adeel Mahmood, Nadia Jamil, Farva Nazar, Habib Ali, Muhammad Shafiq Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal Tanveer, Gan Zhang
The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of ∑16 OCPs from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of cotton picker women in Khanewal district, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener specific analysis and risk surveillance of OCPs was reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs (ng g(-1) ) in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 to 538.3 ng g(-1) and 16.4 to 747. 1 ng g(-1) , respectively and was found lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Despoina Anousaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Panos Bitsios, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are highly-resistant compounds to environmental degradation and due to fat solubility they bioaccumulate through the food chain. As they cross the placenta, in utero exposure to POPs could disrupt child neurodevelopment as they are considered to be neurotoxic. AIMS: We examined whether in utero exposure to levels of different POPs is associated with offspring cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 4years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study)...
September 22, 2016: Environment International
Carolin Mai, Norbert Theobald, Heinrich Hühnerfuss, Gerhard Lammel
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH...
September 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Abdollah Taghani, Naaser Goudarzi, Ghadamali Bagherian
A fast, sensitive, and convenient technique consisting of a miniaturized solid-phase extraction method named microextraction in packed syringe coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for the preconcentration and determination of some pesticides, including hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, alachlor, aldrine, and metolachlore, in natural water samples. Carboxyl-purified multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used as a sorbent in microextraction in packed syringe. Based on this technique, 6...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Jianwei Fan, Xianqiang Ran, Yuan Ren, Chun Wang, Jianping Yang, Wei Teng, Liyin Zou, Yu Sun, Bin Lu, Yonghui Deng, Dongyuan Zhao
A gradient pyrolysis approach has been adopted for synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbonaceous materials with different surface and textural properties for removal of hexachlorobenzene. The resultant ordered mesoporous carbonaceous materials possess high surface areas (364-888 m(2)/g), large pore volumes (0.23-0.47 cm(3)/g), uniform pore sizes (2.6-3.8 nm), and tunable hydrophobic properties. They show high-efficiency removal performances for hexachlorobenzene with high adsorption capacity of 594.2-992.1 μg/g...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Ariadna S Szczybelski, Martine J van den Heuvel-Greve, Tineke Kampen, Chenwen Wang, Nico W van den Brink, Albert A Koelmans
The predicted expansion of oil and gas (O&G) activities in the Arctic urges for a better understanding of impacts of these activities in this region. Here we investigated the influence of location, feeding strategy and animal size on the bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by three Arctic benthic species in Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, Norway). No toxicity was expected based on biota PAH critical body residues. Biota PCB levels were mainly below limit of detection, whereas samples were moderately polluted by HCB...
November 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Yared Beyene Yohannes, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Despite the presence of a wide variety and number of birds, there is exceedingly little data on organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in birds inhabiting in Africa. In the present study, concentrations of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes, drins, cyclodienes, and hexachlorobenzene were measured in liver, kidney, heart and brain of 4 bird species from the Rift Valley region, Ethiopia. Indoor residual spraying of DDT for malaria vector control, and indiscriminate and illegal use of pesticides underline the relevance of this study...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Gerhard Lammel, Alejandro Spitzy, Ondřej Audy, Sabine Beckmann, Garry P Codling, Lisett Kretzschmann, Petr Kukučka, Irene Stemmler
Despite the fact that most persistent toxic substances have hardly been primarily emitted for several decades, their concentrations are only slowly decreasing in the global oceans. Surface seawater samples were collected along a 38°-24° N/28°-67° W transect in the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean. While the concentration levels of hexachlorobenzene (2.1-6.1 pg L(-1)), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, up to 2.1 pg L(-1)) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB, 10.8-24.9 pg L(-1)) were in the same range as observed earlier in the North Atlantic, hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, 90-627 pg L(-1)) was found elevated, partly also relative to previous measurements in the same sea region...
August 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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