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Hexachlorobenzene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884466/linking-pollutant-exposure-of-humpback-whales-breeding-in-the-indian-ocean-to-their-feeding-habits-and-feeding-areas-off-antarctica
#1
Krishna Das, Govindan Malarvannan, Alin Dirtu, Violaine Dulau, Magali Dumont, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822694/occurrence-sources-and-risk-assessment-of-ocps-in-surface-sediments-from-urban-rural-and-reclamation-affected-rivers-of-the-pearl-river-delta-china
#2
Wei Wang, Junhong Bai, Min Xi, Qingqing Zhao, Guangliang Zhang, Xiaojun Wen, Rong Xiao
Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814542/predictors-of-pesticide-concentrations-in-freshwater-trout-the-role-of-life-history
#3
Rachel C Scholes, Kimberly J Hageman, Gerard P Closs, Claudine H Stirling, Malcolm R Reid, Rasmus Gabrielsson, Jason M Augspurger
Concentrations of halogenated pesticides in freshwater fish can be affected by age, size, trophic position, and exposure history. Exposure history may vary for individual fish caught at a single location due to different life histories, e.g. they may have hatched in different tributaries before migrating to a specific lake. We evaluated correlations of pesticide concentrations in freshwater brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Clutha River, New Zealand, with potential predictors including capture site, age, length, trophic level, and life history...
October 28, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780102/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-sediment-and-fish-in-the-river-thames-catchment-uk
#4
Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
October 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771571/environmental-exposure-to-human-carcinogens-in-teenagers-and-the-association-with-dna-damage
#5
Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Nathalie Lambrechts, Eva Govarts, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Isabelle Sioen, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Francis Boonen, Daniëlla Ooms, Mai Wevers, Griet Jacobs, Adrian Covaci, Thomas Schettgen, Greet Schoeters
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753131/laboratory-performance-study-for-passive-sampling-of-nonpolar-chemicals-in-water
#6
Kees Booij, Foppe Smedes, Steven Crum
Two laboratory performance studies with 21 and 11 participants were carried out for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water, using silicone samplers that were deployed for 7 wk and 13 wk at 2 river sites in the Netherlands. Target analytes were polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and a number of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Calculation of aqueous concentrations based on prescribed input values and a prescribed uptake model was also included...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751690/the-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-seems-to-be-able-to-metabolize-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-a-case-control-study-in-dogs
#7
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
October 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743729/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743324/hydrodehalogenation-of-hexachloro-and-hexabromobenzene-by-metallic-calcium-in-ethanol-in-the-presence-of-rh-c-catalyst
#9
Yumi Katayama, Mitsuru Aoyagi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Harada, Alina M Simion, Naoyoshi Egashira, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Cristian Simion
Both hexachlorobenzene and hexabromobenzene were successfully hydrodehalogenated to the monohalogenated derivative and ultimately to benzene (which was subsequently reduced to cyclohexane) using a mixture of metallic Ca, ethanol, and Rh/C, by simple stirring in diethyl ether, at room or mild temperature (60 °C). Various experiments were performed in order to assess the role of the solvent and Rh/C catalyst, as well as for elucidating the reaction pathway.
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726598/application-of-the-quechers-method-for-the-determination-of-organochlorine-pesticide-residues-in-brazilian-fruit-pulps-by-gc-ecd
#10
Mário Paz, Luísa Correia-Sá, Carla B Vidal, Helena Becker, Elisane Longhinotti, Valentina F Domingues, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720132/sex-specific-influence-on-the-relationship-between-maternal-exposures-to-persistent-chemicals-and-birth-outcomes
#11
Anna Carita Callan, Andrea Lee Hinwood, Jane Heyworth, Duong Trong Phi, Jon Ø Odland
Prenatal exposure to persistent pollutants has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, although few studies have investigated the influence of the sex of the infant. Sex specific differences have been associated with neurobehavioural impacts from environmental exposures with limited and contrary findings in relation to persistent pollutants. This study investigated the relationships between maternal exposure to a range of metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides measured in biological samples and birth outcomes with a specific focus on the sex of the infant...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700994/efficient-destruction-of-hexachlorobenzene-by-calcium-carbide-through-mechanochemical-reaction-in-a-planetary-ball-mill
#12
Yingjie Li, Qingnan Liu, Wenfeng Li, Yingzhou Lu, Hong Meng, Chunxi Li
Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) is a good alternative to traditional incineration for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the key is to find an efficient co-milling reagent. Toward this aim, HCB was milled with various reagents in a planetary ball mill at room temperature, and CaC2 was found to be the best one. HCB can be destroyed completely within 20 min at a mass ratio of CaC2/HCB = 0.9 and a rotation speed of 300 rpm. The ground samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696516/fish-bioconcentration-studies-with-column-generated-analyte-concentrations-of-highly-hydrophobic-organic-chemicals
#13
Christian Schlechtriem, Leonard Böhm, Rebecca Bebon, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The performance of aqueous exposure bioconcentration fish tests according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline 305 requires the possibility of preparing stable aqueous concentrations of the test substances. For highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs; octanol-water partition coefficient [log KOW ] > 5), testing via aqueous exposure may become increasingly difficult. A solid-phase desorption dosing system was developed to generate stable concentrations of HOCs without using solubilizing agents...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694046/linking-toxicity-profiles-to-pollutants-in-sludge-and-sediments
#14
Hana Stiborova, Michal Kolar, Jana Vrkoslavova, Jana Pulkrabova, Jana Hajslova, Katerina Demnerova, Ondrej Uhlik
Obtaining a complex picture of how pollutants synergistically influence toxicity of a system requires statistical correlation of chemical and ecotoxicological data. In this study, we determined concentrations of eight potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and four groups of organic pollutants in 15 sewage sludge and 12 river sediment samples, then linked measured contaminant concentrations to the toxicity of each matrix through constrained correspondence analysis (CCA). In sludge samples, Hg, As, hexachlorohexane (HCH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) influenced the toxicity profiles, with the first four having significant effects and HBCD being marginally significant...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685970/an-approach-to-biodegradation-of-chlorobenzenes-combination-of-typha-angustifolia-and-bacterial-effects-on-hexachlorobenzene-degradation-in-water
#15
Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Guoli Lu, Song Li, Yuanqing Zhou
Although rhizoremediation is an effective approach to remove organic pollutants from the environment, little is known about the mechanism of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) biodegradation in water. In this study, we used Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) grown in sterile Hoagland nutrient solution to determine the rhizosphere effects on the ability of bacteria in water to reduce HCB levels. The results revealed that T. angustifolia could facilitate HCB degradation and that the initial HCB concentration was the major factor responsible for HCB degradation in nutrient solution...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684504/risks-profile-and-health-vulnerability-of-cotton-picker-s-women-by-organanochlorine-phosphates-ocps-from-southern-punjab-pakistan
#16
Humaira Yasmeen, Abdul Qadir, Mehvish Mumtaz, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Jabbir Hussain Syed, Adeel Mahmood, Nadia Jamil, Farva Nazar, Habib Ali, Muhammad Shafiq Ahmad, Zafar Iqbal Tanveer, Gan Zhang
The present study was conducted to highlight the existing level of ∑16 OCPs from human milk (n = 45) and blood serum (n = 40) of cotton picker women in Khanewal district, Southern Punjab, Pakistan. Source apportionment, congener specific analysis and risk surveillance of OCPs was reported from human milk and blood samples. Levels of OCPs (ng g(-1) ) in milk and blood serum samples ranged from 15.7 to 538.3 ng g(-1) and 16.4 to 747. 1 ng g(-1) , respectively and was found lower than previously published reports from other regions of the globe...
September 29, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666324/prenatal-exposure-to-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-association-with-offspring-neuropsychological-development-at-4years-of-age-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-crete-greece
#17
Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Despoina Anousaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Panos Bitsios, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are highly-resistant compounds to environmental degradation and due to fat solubility they bioaccumulate through the food chain. As they cross the placenta, in utero exposure to POPs could disrupt child neurodevelopment as they are considered to be neurotoxic. AIMS: We examined whether in utero exposure to levels of different POPs is associated with offspring cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 4years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study)...
September 22, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617333/persistent-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-air-of-the-north-sea-region-and-air-sea-exchange
#18
Carolin Mai, Norbert Theobald, Heinrich Hühnerfuss, Gerhard Lammel
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH...
December 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27604141/application-of-multiwalled-carbon-nanotubes-for-the-preconcentration-and-determination-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-water-samples-by-gas-chromatography-with-mass-spectrometry
#19
Abdollah Taghani, Naaser Goudarzi, Ghadamali Bagherian
A fast, sensitive, and convenient technique consisting of a miniaturized solid-phase extraction method named microextraction in packed syringe coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry was developed for the preconcentration and determination of some pesticides, including hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, alachlor, aldrine, and metolachlore, in natural water samples. Carboxyl-purified multiwalled carbon nanotubes were used as a sorbent in microextraction in packed syringe. Based on this technique, 6...
November 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599000/ordered-mesoporous-carbonaceous-materials-with-tunable-surface-property-for-enrichment-of-hexachlorobenzene
#20
Jianwei Fan, Xianqiang Ran, Yuan Ren, Chun Wang, Jianping Yang, Wei Teng, Liyin Zou, Yu Sun, Bin Lu, Yonghui Deng, Dongyuan Zhao
A gradient pyrolysis approach has been adopted for synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbonaceous materials with different surface and textural properties for removal of hexachlorobenzene. The resultant ordered mesoporous carbonaceous materials possess high surface areas (364-888 m(2)/g), large pore volumes (0.23-0.47 cm(3)/g), uniform pore sizes (2.6-3.8 nm), and tunable hydrophobic properties. They show high-efficiency removal performances for hexachlorobenzene with high adsorption capacity of 594.2-992.1 μg/g...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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