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Hexachlorobenzene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100418/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-atlantic-and-southern-oceans-and-oceanic-atmosphere
#1
Jenna L Luek, Rebecca M Dickhut, Michele A Cochran, Renee L Falconer, Henrik Kylin
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075578/probing-structural-perturbation-in-a-bent-molecular-crystal-with-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy-and-periodic-density-functional-theory-calculations
#2
Ljupco Pejov, Manas K Panda, Taro Moriwaki, Pance Naumov
The range of unit cell orientations generated at the kink of a bent single crystal poses unsurmountable challenges with diffraction analysis and limits the insight into the molecular-scale mechanism of bending. On a plastically bent crystal of hexachlorobenzene it is demonstrated here that spatially resolved microfocus infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation can be applied in conjunction with periodic density functional theory calculations to predict spectral changes or to extract information on structural changes that occur as a consequence of bending...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002503/atmospheric-oxidation-of-halogenated-aromatics-comparative-analysis-of-reaction-mechanisms-and-reaction-kinetics
#3
Goran Kovacevic, Aleksandar Sabljic
Atmospheric transport is the major route for global distribution of semi-volatile compounds such as halogenated aromatics as well as their major exposure route for humans. Their major atmospheric removal process is oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. There is very little information on the reaction mechanism or reaction-path dynamics of atmospheric degradation of halogenated benzenes. Furthermore, the measured reaction rate constants are missing for the range of environmentally relevant temperatures, i.e. 230-330 K...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992738/concentrations-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-pooled-human-serum-by-age-and-gender
#4
Aleysha Thomas, Leisa-Maree Leontjew Toms, Fiona A Harden, Peter Hobson, Nicole M White, Kerrie L Mengersen, Jochen F Mueller
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988186/organochlorine-pesticides-in-tree-bark-and-human-hair-in-yunnan-province-china-concentrations-distributions-and-exposure-pathway
#5
Haodong Yuan, Jun Jin, Yao Bai, Qiuxu Li, Ying Wang, Qinghua Wang
The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in West China were investigated and internal and external exposure of humans to OCPs were assessed by analyzing samples of human hair and tree bark collected in Kaiyuan, in Yunnan Province, China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the human hair and tree bark samples. The mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the tree bark samples were 298pg/g dry weight (dw), 100pg/g dw, and 183pg/g dw, respectively, and the mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the hair samples were 2850pg/g dw, 348pg/g dw, and 1026pg/g dw, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884466/linking-pollutant-exposure-of-humpback-whales-breeding-in-the-indian-ocean-to-their-feeding-habits-and-feeding-areas-off-antarctica
#6
Krishna Das, Govindan Malarvannan, Alin Dirtu, Violaine Dulau, Magali Dumont, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822694/occurrence-sources-and-risk-assessment-of-ocps-in-surface-sediments-from-urban-rural-and-reclamation-affected-rivers-of-the-pearl-river-delta-china
#7
Wei Wang, Junhong Bai, Min Xi, Qingqing Zhao, Guangliang Zhang, Xiaojun Wen, Rong Xiao
Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814542/predictors-of-pesticide-concentrations-in-freshwater-trout-the-role-of-life-history
#8
Rachel C Scholes, Kimberly J Hageman, Gerard P Closs, Claudine H Stirling, Malcolm R Reid, Rasmus Gabrielsson, Jason M Augspurger
Concentrations of halogenated pesticides in freshwater fish can be affected by age, size, trophic position, and exposure history. Exposure history may vary for individual fish caught at a single location due to different life histories, e.g. they may have hatched in different tributaries before migrating to a specific lake. We evaluated correlations of pesticide concentrations in freshwater brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Clutha River, New Zealand, with potential predictors including capture site, age, length, trophic level, and life history...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780102/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-sediment-and-fish-in-the-river-thames-catchment-uk
#9
Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771571/environmental-exposure-to-human-carcinogens-in-teenagers-and-the-association-with-dna-damage
#10
Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Nathalie Lambrechts, Eva Govarts, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Isabelle Sioen, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Francis Boonen, Daniëlla Ooms, Mai Wevers, Griet Jacobs, Adrian Covaci, Thomas Schettgen, Greet Schoeters
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753131/laboratory-performance-study-for-passive-sampling-of-nonpolar-chemicals-in-water
#11
Kees Booij, Foppe Smedes, Steven Crum
Two laboratory performance studies with 21 and 11 participants were carried out for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water, using silicone samplers that were deployed for 7 wk and 13 wk at 2 river sites in the Netherlands. Target analytes were polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and a number of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Calculation of aqueous concentrations based on prescribed input values and a prescribed uptake model was also included...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751690/the-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-seems-to-be-able-to-metabolize-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-a-case-control-study-in-dogs
#12
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743729/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#13
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743324/hydrodehalogenation-of-hexachloro-and-hexabromobenzene-by-metallic-calcium-in-ethanol-in-the-presence-of-rh-c-catalyst
#14
Yumi Katayama, Mitsuru Aoyagi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Harada, Alina M Simion, Naoyoshi Egashira, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Cristian Simion
Both hexachlorobenzene and hexabromobenzene were successfully hydrodehalogenated to the monohalogenated derivative and ultimately to benzene (which was subsequently reduced to cyclohexane) using a mixture of metallic Ca, ethanol, and Rh/C, by simple stirring in diethyl ether, at room or mild temperature (60 °C). Various experiments were performed in order to assess the role of the solvent and Rh/C catalyst, as well as for elucidating the reaction pathway.
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726598/application-of-the-quechers-method-for-the-determination-of-organochlorine-pesticide-residues-in-brazilian-fruit-pulps-by-gc-ecd
#15
Mário Paz, Luísa Correia-Sá, Carla B Vidal, Helena Becker, Elisane Longhinotti, Valentina F Domingues, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720132/sex-specific-influence-on-the-relationship-between-maternal-exposures-to-persistent-chemicals-and-birth-outcomes
#16
Anna Carita Callan, Andrea Lee Hinwood, Jane Heyworth, Duong Trong Phi, Jon Ø Odland
Prenatal exposure to persistent pollutants has been associated with adverse birth outcomes, although few studies have investigated the influence of the sex of the infant. Sex specific differences have been associated with neurobehavioural impacts from environmental exposures with limited and contrary findings in relation to persistent pollutants. This study investigated the relationships between maternal exposure to a range of metals, polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides measured in biological samples and birth outcomes with a specific focus on the sex of the infant...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700994/efficient-destruction-of-hexachlorobenzene-by-calcium-carbide-through-mechanochemical-reaction-in-a-planetary-ball-mill
#17
Yingjie Li, Qingnan Liu, Wenfeng Li, Yingzhou Lu, Hong Meng, Chunxi Li
Mechanochemical destruction (MCD) is a good alternative to traditional incineration for the destruction of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), like hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and the key is to find an efficient co-milling reagent. Toward this aim, HCB was milled with various reagents in a planetary ball mill at room temperature, and CaC2 was found to be the best one. HCB can be destroyed completely within 20 min at a mass ratio of CaC2/HCB = 0.9 and a rotation speed of 300 rpm. The ground samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy...
January 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696516/fish-bioconcentration-studies-with-column-generated-analyte-concentrations-of-highly-hydrophobic-organic-chemicals
#18
Christian Schlechtriem, Leonard Böhm, Rebecca Bebon, Hans-Jörg Bruckert, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The performance of aqueous exposure bioconcentration fish tests according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline 305 requires the possibility of preparing stable aqueous concentrations of the test substances. For highly hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs; octanol-water partition coefficient [log KOW ] > 5), testing via aqueous exposure may become increasingly difficult. A solid-phase desorption dosing system was developed to generate stable concentrations of HOCs without using solubilizing agents...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694046/linking-toxicity-profiles-to-pollutants-in-sludge-and-sediments
#19
Hana Stiborova, Michal Kolar, Jana Vrkoslavova, Jana Pulkrabova, Jana Hajslova, Katerina Demnerova, Ondrej Uhlik
Obtaining a complex picture of how pollutants synergistically influence toxicity of a system requires statistical correlation of chemical and ecotoxicological data. In this study, we determined concentrations of eight potentially toxic metals (PTMs) and four groups of organic pollutants in 15 sewage sludge and 12 river sediment samples, then linked measured contaminant concentrations to the toxicity of each matrix through constrained correspondence analysis (CCA). In sludge samples, Hg, As, hexachlorohexane (HCH), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) influenced the toxicity profiles, with the first four having significant effects and HBCD being marginally significant...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27685970/an-approach-to-biodegradation-of-chlorobenzenes-combination-of-typha-angustifolia-and-bacterial-effects-on-hexachlorobenzene-degradation-in-water
#20
Bei Wang, Cuiping Zhang, Shuying Li, Guangqiu Lu, Guoli Lu, Song Li, Yuanqing Zhou
Although rhizoremediation is an effective approach to remove organic pollutants from the environment, little is known about the mechanism of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) biodegradation in water. In this study, we used Typha angustifolia (T. angustifolia) grown in sterile Hoagland nutrient solution to determine the rhizosphere effects on the ability of bacteria in water to reduce HCB levels. The results revealed that T. angustifolia could facilitate HCB degradation and that the initial HCB concentration was the major factor responsible for HCB degradation in nutrient solution...
September 2016: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
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