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Hexachlorobenzene

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189073/lower-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-metals-and-the-marine-omega-3-fatty-acid-dha-in-farmed-compared-to-wild-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar
#1
Anne-Katrine Lundebye, Erik-Jan Lock, Josef D Rasinger, Ole Jakob Nøstbakken, Rita Hannisdal, Egil Karlsbakk, Vidar Wennevik, Abdullah S Madhun, Lise Madsen, Ingvild Eide Graff, Robin Ørnsrud
Contaminants and fatty acid levels in farmed- versus wild Atlantic salmon have been a hot topic of debate in terms of food safety. The present study determined dioxins (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), metals and fatty acids in wild and farmed Atlantic salmon. Contaminant levels of dioxins, PCBs, OCPs (DDT, dieldrin, lindane, chlordane, Mirex, and toxaphene), and mercury were higher in wild salmon than in farmed salmon, as were the concentrations of the essential elements selenium, copper, zinc and iron, and the marine omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188482/isolation-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-species-highly-resistant-to-pentachlorobenzene
#2
Itxaso Montánchez, Anna Chao Kaberdina, Elena Sevillano, Lucía Gallego, Susana Rodríguez-Couto, Vladimir R Kaberdin
Polychlorinated aromatic compounds, including pentachlorobenzenes and hexachlorobenzenes, are recalcitrant industrial pollutants that cause adverse effects on living cells. In this paper, the isolation of Pseudomonas fluorescens species with high resistance to pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) is reported. It was found that, in contrast to its slightly negative effect on P. fluorescens growth, PeCB readily inhibited the cell growth of Serratia spp. and Escherichia coli strains, thus indicating that inhibition of bacterial growth by PeCB is species-dependent...
February 10, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160993/three-cycles-of-human-biomonitoring-in-flanders-time-trends-observed-in-the-flemish-environment-and-health-study
#3
Greet Schoeters, Eva Govarts, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Vera Nelen, Stefaan De Henauw, Isabelle Sioen, Tim S Nawrot, Michelle Plusquin, Annette Vriens, Adrian Covaci, Ilse Loots, Bert Morrens, Dries Coertjens, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Sam De Craemer, Kim Croes, Nathalie Lambrechts, Ann Colles, Willy Baeyens
To follow time trends in exposure to environmental chemicals, three successive campaigns of the Flemish Environment and Health Study (FLEHS) have recruited and sampled in total 5825 participants between 2002 and 2014. Cord samples from newborns, urine and blood samples from 14 to 15 years old adolescents and from adults between 50 and 65 years old were analysed in geographical representative samples of the Flemish population. The data of the different campaigns were considered per age group and per biomarker after adjustment for predefined covariates to take into account differences in characteristics of the study populations over time...
November 18, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157607/temporal-occurrence-and-sources-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-suspended-particulate-matter-from-the-most-heavily-polluted-river-mouth-of-lake-chaohu-china
#4
Cheng Liu, Lei Zhang, Chengxin Fan, Fuliu Xu, Kaining Chen, Xiaozhi Gu
The Nanfei River is by many measures the most heavily polluted tributary to Lake Chaohu. In this study, the temporal occurrence and sources of four classes of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the river mouth were investigated monthly during 2014. Results show that concentrations of all four POPs in SPM were higher than those in the sediment of Lake Chaohu...
January 17, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135664/reductive-dechlorination-of-hexachlorobenzene-subjected-to-several-conditions-in-a-bioelectrochemical-system
#5
Hui Wang, Shuyu Yi, Xian Cao, Zhou Fang, Xianning Li
A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a very promising way to remove organic pollutants. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) is a widely used agricultural pesticide. In this study, single-chamber and membrane-less soil MFCs were constructed. The HCB was degraded to pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), tetrachlorobenzene (TeCB), and trichlorobenzene (TCB) in sequence by a reductive dechlorination process in soil MFCs. The influences of the external resistance, concentration of phosphate buffer, and electrode spacing in soil MFCs on the degradation rate and removal efficiency of HCB were analyzed...
January 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100418/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-atlantic-and-southern-oceans-and-oceanic-atmosphere
#6
Jenna L Luek, Rebecca M Dickhut, Michele A Cochran, Renee L Falconer, Henrik Kylin
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) continue to cycle through the atmosphere and hydrosphere despite banned or severely restricted usages. Global scale analyses of POPs are challenging, but knowledge of the current distribution of these compounds is needed to understand the movement and long-term consequences of their global use. In the current study, air and seawater samples were collected Oct. 2007-Jan. 2008 aboard the Icebreaker Oden en route from Göteborg, Sweden to McMurdo Station, Antarctica. Both air and surface seawater samples consistently contained α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH), γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), α-Endosulfan, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075578/probing-structural-perturbation-in-a-bent-molecular-crystal-with-synchrotron-infrared-microspectroscopy-and-periodic-density-functional-theory-calculations
#7
Ljupčo Pejov, Manas K Panda, Taro Moriwaki, Panče Naumov
The range of unit cell orientations generated at the kink of a bent single crystal poses unsurmountable challenges with diffraction analysis and limits the insight into the molecular-scale mechanism of bending. On a plastically bent crystal of hexachlorobenzene, it is demonstrated here that spatially resolved microfocus infrared spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation can be applied in conjunction with periodic density functional theory calculations to predict spectral changes or to extract information on structural changes that occur as a consequence of bending...
February 6, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002503/atmospheric-oxidation-of-halogenated-aromatics-comparative-analysis-of-reaction-mechanisms-and-reaction-kinetics
#8
Goran Kovacevic, Aleksandar Sabljic
Atmospheric transport is the major route for global distribution of semi-volatile compounds such as halogenated aromatics as well as their major exposure route for humans. Their major atmospheric removal process is oxidation by hydroxyl radicals. There is very little information on the reaction mechanism or reaction-path dynamics of atmospheric degradation of halogenated benzenes. Furthermore, the measured reaction rate constants are missing for the range of environmentally relevant temperatures, i.e. 230-330 K...
December 21, 2016: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992738/concentrations-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-pooled-human-serum-by-age-and-gender
#9
Aleysha Thomas, Leisa-Maree Leontjew Toms, Fiona A Harden, Peter Hobson, Nicole M White, Kerrie L Mengersen, Jochen F Mueller
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used for many decades in Australia with cessation of selected persistent and bioaccumulative OCPs ranging from the 1970s to as recently as 2007. The specific aims of this study were to use samples representative of an Australian population to assess age and gender differences in the concentration of OCPs in human blood sera and to investigate temporal trends in these chemicals. Serum was collected from de-identified, surplus pathology samples over five time periods (2002/03, 2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13), with 183 serum pools made from 12,175 individual samples; 26 pools in 2002/03, 85 pools in 2006/07 and 24 pools each in 2008/09, 2010/11 and 2012/13...
December 16, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988186/organochlorine-pesticides-in-tree-bark-and-human-hair-in-yunnan-province-china-concentrations-distributions-and-exposure-pathway
#10
Haodong Yuan, Jun Jin, Yao Bai, Qiuxu Li, Ying Wang, Qinghua Wang
The concentrations and distributions of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in West China were investigated and internal and external exposure of humans to OCPs were assessed by analyzing samples of human hair and tree bark collected in Kaiyuan, in Yunnan Province, China. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (collectively called DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were the dominant OCPs in the human hair and tree bark samples. The mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the tree bark samples were 298pg/g dry weight (dw), 100pg/g dw, and 183pg/g dw, respectively, and the mean total DDT, total HCH, and HCB concentrations in the hair samples were 2850pg/g dw, 348pg/g dw, and 1026pg/g dw, respectively...
December 14, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884466/linking-pollutant-exposure-of-humpback-whales-breeding-in-the-indian-ocean-to-their-feeding-habits-and-feeding-areas-off-antarctica
#11
Krishna Das, Govindan Malarvannan, Alin Dirtu, Violaine Dulau, Magali Dumont, Gilles Lepoint, Philippe Mongin, Adrian Covaci
Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, breeding off la Reunion Island (Indian Ocean) undergo large-scale seasonal migrations between summer feeding grounds near Antarctica and their reproductive winter grounds in the Indian Ocean. The main scope of the current study was to investigate chemical exposure of humpback whales breeding in the Indian Ocean by providing the first published data on this breeding stock concerning persistent organic pollutants (POPs), namely polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), DDT and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs)...
January 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822694/occurrence-sources-and-risk-assessment-of-ocps-in-surface-sediments-from-urban-rural-and-reclamation-affected-rivers-of-the-pearl-river-delta-china
#12
Wei Wang, Junhong Bai, Min Xi, Qingqing Zhao, Guangliang Zhang, Xiaojun Wen, Rong Xiao
Sediments were collected to a depth of 20 cm from urban, rural, and reclamation-affected rivers in the Pearl River Delta of China. In total, 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed in all sediment samples, and the occurrence, possible sources, toxicity, and health risks of OCPs were evaluated to compare the contamination characteristics of OCPs in sediments among the three types of rivers. The results showed that concentrations of Σ16OCPs in sediments from the three rivers followed the order urban river > reclamation-affected river > rural river, with a mean value of 247...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814542/predictors-of-pesticide-concentrations-in-freshwater-trout-the-role-of-life-history
#13
Rachel C Scholes, Kimberly J Hageman, Gerard P Closs, Claudine H Stirling, Malcolm R Reid, Rasmus Gabrielsson, Jason M Augspurger
Concentrations of halogenated pesticides in freshwater fish can be affected by age, size, trophic position, and exposure history. Exposure history may vary for individual fish caught at a single location due to different life histories, e.g. they may have hatched in different tributaries before migrating to a specific lake. We evaluated correlations of pesticide concentrations in freshwater brown trout (Salmo trutta) from the Clutha River, New Zealand, with potential predictors including capture site, age, length, trophic level, and life history...
December 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780102/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-sediment-and-fish-in-the-river-thames-catchment-uk
#14
Qiong Lu, Monika D Jürgens, Andrew C Johnson, Carola Graf, Andy Sweetman, John Crosse, Paul Whitehead
Some organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) have been banned from production and use in the UK for >30years but due to their toxicity and persistence are still of concern. However, due to their hydrophobicity they are present at very low concentrations and are difficult to measure in water, and so other matrices need to be sampled in order to best assess contamination. This study measured concentrations of ΣICES 7 PCBs (PCB congeners 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) and Σ6 PBDEs (PBDE congeners 28, 47, 99, 100, 153, 154) and HCB in both bed-sediments and wild roach (a common pelagic fish) in the Thames Basin...
January 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771571/environmental-exposure-to-human-carcinogens-in-teenagers-and-the-association-with-dna-damage
#15
Carmen Franken, Gudrun Koppen, Nathalie Lambrechts, Eva Govarts, Liesbeth Bruckers, Elly Den Hond, Ilse Loots, Vera Nelen, Isabelle Sioen, Tim S Nawrot, Willy Baeyens, Nicolas Van Larebeke, Francis Boonen, Daniëlla Ooms, Mai Wevers, Griet Jacobs, Adrian Covaci, Thomas Schettgen, Greet Schoeters
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether human environmental exposure to chemicals that are labeled as (potential) carcinogens leads to increased (oxidative) damage to DNA in adolescents. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six hundred 14-15-year-old youngsters were recruited all over Flanders (Belgium) and in two areas with important industrial activities. DNA damage was assessed by alkaline and formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (Fpg) modified comet assays in peripheral blood cells and analysis of urinary 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels...
January 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753131/laboratory-performance-study-for-passive-sampling-of-nonpolar-chemicals-in-water
#16
Kees Booij, Foppe Smedes, Steven Crum
Two laboratory performance studies with 21 and 11 participants were carried out for passive sampling of nonpolar chemicals in water, using silicone samplers that were deployed for 7 wk and 13 wk at 2 river sites in the Netherlands. Target analytes were polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobutadiene, hexachlorobenzene, and a number of performance reference compounds (PRCs). Calculation of aqueous concentrations based on prescribed input values and a prescribed uptake model was also included...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751690/the-heartworm-dirofilaria-immitis-seems-to-be-able-to-metabolize-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-a-case-control-study-in-dogs
#17
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Pilar F Valerón, Yaiza Falcón-Cordón, Soraya Falcón-Cordón, Maira Almeida-González, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
It has been described that the co-existence of parasite infection and chemical exposure has various effects on the accumulation of persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs) in the host. Certain parasites are not only able to accumulate POPs but also seem to have the ability to metabolize certain compounds. We have designed a case-control study aimed to disclose the role of Dirofilaria immitis in the bioavailability of POPs in dogs trying to know whether these parasites store or metabolize the POPs. A total of 40 common POPs (18 polychlorinated biphenyls congeners (PCBs) and 22 organochlorine pesticides were quantified in dog serum...
January 1, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743729/persistent-organic-pollutants-in-early-pregnancy-and-risk-of-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743324/hydrodehalogenation-of-hexachloro-and-hexabromobenzene-by-metallic-calcium-in-ethanol-in-the-presence-of-rh-c-catalyst
#19
Yumi Katayama, Mitsuru Aoyagi, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Harada, Alina M Simion, Naoyoshi Egashira, Yoshiharu Mitoma, Cristian Simion
Both hexachlorobenzene and hexabromobenzene were successfully hydrodehalogenated to the monohalogenated derivative and ultimately to benzene (which was subsequently reduced to cyclohexane) using a mixture of metallic Ca, ethanol, and Rh/C, by simple stirring in diethyl ether, at room or mild temperature (60 °C). Various experiments were performed in order to assess the role of the solvent and Rh/C catalyst, as well as for elucidating the reaction pathway.
January 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27726598/application-of-the-quechers-method-for-the-determination-of-organochlorine-pesticide-residues-in-brazilian-fruit-pulps-by-gc-ecd
#20
Mário Paz, Luísa Correia-Sá, Carla B Vidal, Helena Becker, Elisane Longhinotti, Valentina F Domingues, Cristina Delerue-Matos
The Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) method was applied to the extraction of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues from commercial fruit pulps available in supermarkets in Fortaleza, Northeastern Brazil. The analyses were carried out by gas chromatography (GC), coupled to an electron-capture detector (ECD), and were confirmed by GC-tandem mass spectrometry (MS). The parameters of the analytical method, such as accuracy, precision, linear range, limits of detection and quantification, were determined for each pesticide...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
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