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Growth and development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786967/developmental-chromatin-restriction-of-pro-growth-gene-networks-acts-as-an-epigenetic-barrier-to-axon-regeneration-in-cortical-neurons
#1
Ishwariya Venkatesh, Vatsal Mehra, Zimei Wang, Ben Califf, Murray G Blackmore
Axon regeneration in the central nervous system is prevented in part by a developmental decline in the intrinsic regenerative ability of maturing neurons. This loss of axon growth ability likely reflects widespread changes in gene expression, but the mechanisms that drive this shift remain unclear. Chromatin accessibility has emerged as a key regulatory mechanism in other cellular contexts, raising the possibility that chromatin structure may contribute to the age-dependent loss of regenerative potential. Here we establish an integrated bioinformatic pipeline that combines analysis of developmentally dynamic gene networks with transcription factor regulation and genome-wide maps of chromatin accessibility...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786865/infection-with-phytopathogenic-bacterium-inhibits-melatonin-biosynthesis-decreases-longevity-of-its-vector-and-suppresses-the-free-radical-defense
#2
Yasser Nehela, Nabil Killiny
Vector-borne phytopathogenic bacteria may alter the reproductive fitness, survival, behavior, and metabolism of their vectors. Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is associated with the Huanglongbing (HLB; also known as citrus greening disease), one of the most destructive citrus diseases worldwide, and transmitted by Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Insecta, Hemiptera, Liviidae). The genome sequencing of CLas revealed that it does not have the ability to synthesize tryptophan, the precursor of melatonin, and it must acquire it from its host plant or insect vector to achieve its biological processes, such as growth and multiplication...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786859/synergistic-effects-of-abiotic-stresses-in-plants-a-case-study-of-nitrogen-limitation-and-saturating-light-intensity-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#3
Itay Cohen, Tal Rapaport, Vered Chalifa-Caspi, Shimon Rachmilevitch
Under natural conditions, plants are regularly exposed to combinations of stress factors. A common example is the conjunction between nitrogen (N) deficiency and excess light. The combined effect of stress factors is often ignored in studies using controlled conditions, possibly resulting in misleading conclusions. To address this issue, the current study examined the physiological behavior of Arabidopsis thaliana under the effect of varying nitrogen levels and light intensities. The joint influence of low N and excess light had an adverse effect on plant growth, chlorophyll and anthocyanin concentrations, photochemical capacity, and the abundance of proteins involved in carbon assimilation and anti-oxidative metabolism...
May 22, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786783/a-xenograft-model-for-venous-malformation
#4
Jillian Goines, Xian Li, Yuqi Cai, Paula Mobberley-Schuman, Megan Metcalf, Steven J Fishman, Denise M Adams, Adrienne M Hammill, Elisa Boscolo
Vascular malformations are defects caused by the abnormal growth of the vasculature. Among them, venous malformation (VM) is an anomaly characterized by slow-flow vascular lesions with abnormally shaped veins, typically in sponge-like configuration. VMs can expand over years causing disfigurement, obstruction of vital structures, thrombosis, bleeding, and pain. Treatments have been very limited and primarily based on supportive care, compression garments, sclerotherapy, and/or surgical resection. Sirolimus treatment has recently shown efficacy in some patients with complicated vascular anomalies, including VMs...
May 21, 2018: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786743/role-of-tgf%C3%A2-%C3%AE-1-expressed-in-bone-marrow%C3%A2-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-promoting-bone-formation-in-a-rabbit-femoral-defect-model
#5
Bing-Yin Sun, Bao-Xiang Zhao, Jie-Ying Zhu, Zheng-Ping Sun, Yong-An Shi, Feng Huang
Bone defects represent a major clinical and socioeconomic problem without suitable treatment options. Previous studies have shown that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF‑β1) is important in the development of various diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of rabbit bone marrow‑derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) expressing TGF‑β1 in the treatment of rabbit femoral defects. First, rabbit BMSCs were identified and cultured. TGF‑β1 was then stably overexpressed in the rabbit BMSCs by lentivirus transfection, which was expressed at a high level in the femoral defects treated with TGF‑β1‑overexpressing BMSCs, compared with PBS‑treated controls...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786687/genome-wide-analysis-of-circular-rnas-in-bovine-cumulus-cells-treated-with-bmp15-and-gdf9
#6
Yao Fu, Hao Jiang, Jian-Bo Liu, Xu-Lei Sun, Zhe Zhang, Sheng Li, Yan Gao, Bao Yuan, Jia-Bao Zhang
Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are important members of the non-coding RNA family, and those relating to animal physiologies have been widely studied in recent years. This study aimed to explore the roles of circRNAs in the regulation of follicular development. We constructed four bovine cumulus cell cDNA libraries, including a negative control group (NC) and groups treated with BMP15, GDF9 and BMP15 + GDF9, and we sequenced the libraries on the Illumina HiSeq Xten platform. We identified 1706 circRNAs and screened for differential circRNA expression...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786684/-the-development-of-the-system-of-medical-rehabilitation-based-at-the-russian-health-resort-facilities-investment-prospects
#7
E L Povazhnaya, E V Gusakova, S V Moiseenko
The present work is devoted to the prospects for attracting investments for the maintenance and development of the medical rehabilitation practices based at the Russian health resort facilities. The article describes the prerequisites for the enhancement of the investment attractiveness of the development of the system of medical rehabilitation in the said institutions including the formulation and strengthening of the legal and regulatory framework, the capacity for the organization of the second and third stages of medical rehabilitation in the existing spa and health resort facilities, the attraction of the funds of compulsory medical insurance as an additional source of the financial support...
May 21, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786640/vitamin-d-in-vascular-calcification-a-double-edged-sword
#8
REVIEW
Jeffrey Wang, Jimmy J Zhou, Graham R Robertson, Vincent W Lee
Vascular calcification (VC) as a manifestation of perturbed mineral balance, is associated with aging, diabetes and kidney dysfunction, as well as poorer patient outcomes. Due to the current limited understanding of the pathophysiology of vascular calcification, the development of effective preventative and therapeutic strategies remains a significant clinical challenge. Recent evidence suggests that traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and dyslipidaemia, fail to account for clinical observations of vascular calcification...
May 22, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786585/hygienic-assessment-of-the-effects-of-pesticides-application-on-adult-population-morbidity-with-thyroid-gland-diseases
#9
Anna M Antonenko, Olena P Vavrinevych, Maria M Korshun, Sergiy T Omelchuk
OBJECTIVE: Introduction: It is proved that some groups of fungicides and herbicides are capable of affecting the thyroid gland, provoking its growth, leading to a compensatory change in the activity of the hormones synthesis. Therefore, the presence of their residual amounts in plant may affect the level of thyroid gland pathology. The aim of the work was to analyze the influence of pesticide application on the Ukrainian adult population morbidity with thyroid diseases in the period from 2001 to 2014...
2018: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786558/new-substrates-for-stem-cell-control
#10
REVIEW
Sara Schmidt, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Mark Bradley
The capacity to culture stem cells in a controllable, robust and scalable manner is necessary in order to develop successful strategies for the generation of cellular and tissue platforms for drug screening, toxicity testing, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Creating substrates that support the expansion, maintenance or directional differentiation of stem cells would greatly aid these efforts. Optimally, the substrates used should be chemically defined and synthetically scalable, allowing growth under defined, serum-free culture conditions...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786553/from-skeletal-development-to-the-creation-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-bone-forming-progenitors
#11
REVIEW
Wai Long Tam, Frank P Luyten, Scott J Roberts
Bone has many functions. It is responsible for protecting the underlying soft organs, it allows locomotion, houses the bone marrow and stores minerals such as calcium and phosphate. Upon damage, bone tissue can efficiently repair itself. However, healing is hampered if the defect exceeds a critical size and/or is in compromised conditions. The isolation or generation of bone-forming progenitors has applicability to skeletal repair and may be used in tissue engineering approaches. Traditionally, bone engineering uses osteochondrogenic stem cells, which are combined with scaffold materials and growth factors...
July 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786509/-targeted-screening-for-pre-eclampsia-in-the-first-trimester-of-pregnancy-at-toulouse-university-hospital
#12
A Genoux, P Guerby, M Morin, B Perret, C Vayssière, S M Hamdi
GOALS: Preeclampsia (PE) is a leading cause of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Early treatment by aspirin has been shown to significantly reduce PE risk before 37weeks supporting the implementation of first-trimester screening. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A targeted screening was recently implemented at Toulouse University Hospital for women in their first pregnancy or those with personal or familial history of PE. It uses Fetal Medicine Foundation (FMF) algorithm that combines maternal characteristics, clinical, biophysical and biochemical (PAPP-A, Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A, and PlGF, Placental Growth Factor) data...
May 18, 2018: Annales de Cardiologie et D'angéiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786506/wing-morphogenesis-in-lepidoptera
#13
REVIEW
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
The wings of Lepidoptera develop from imaginal disks that are made up of a simple two-layered epithelium whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout the period of growth and morphogenesis. The wings of different species of Lepidoptera differ greatly in both size and shape, yet it is possible to fate-map homologous locations on the developing wing disks and explicitly monitor the growth, size, and shape of the wing, or any of its regions, throughout the entire ontogeny of the wing...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786141/an-inhibitory-antibody-targeting-carbonic-anhydrase-xii-abrogates-chemoresistance-and-significantly-reduces-lung-metastases-in-an-orthotopic-breast-cancer-model-in-vivo
#14
Bettina von Neubeck, Gabor Gondi, Chiara Riganti, Chenchen Pan, Arnaldo Parra Damas, Hagen Scherb, Ali Ertürk, Reinhard Zeidler
Carbonic Anhydrase XII (CAXII) is a membrane-tethered ectoenzyme involved in intracellular pH regulation and overexpressed across various types of human cancer. Because CAXII inhibition shows antitumour activity in vitro, it is thought that the enzyme is mandatory for maximum tumour growth, above all under hypoxic conditions. Recently, it has been shown that CAXII is co-expressed along with the P-glycoprotein (P-GP) on many tumour cells and that both proteins physically interact. Of interest, blocking CAXII activity also decreases P-GP activity in cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786137/longitudinal-growth-of-receptive-language-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy-between-18-months-and-54-months-of-age
#15
Katherine C Hustad, Ashley Sakash, Aimee Teo Broman, Paul J Rathouz
AIM: We examined receptive language developmental trajectories between 18 months and 54 months for three clinical speech-language profile groups of children with cerebral palsy (those with speech motor involvement, without speech motor involvement, and with anarthria) and quantified differences from age-level expectations. We identified latent classes of comprehension development, related these classes to clinical profile groups, and examined how well early receptive language predicted outcomes...
May 22, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786104/correlation-between-the-expression-of-il%C3%A2-18-and-deep-venous-thrombosis
#16
Guangdi Li, Rudan Zhou, Xueling Zhao, Riguang Liu, Chuan Ye
The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the expression of interleukin (IL)‑18 and related markers on deep venous thrombosis (DVT) to examine their correlation. Sprague‑Dawley rats of different models were established and were randomly assigned into three groups. The expression of IL‑18, nuclear factor (NF)‑κB and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were detected in blood samples. The inferior vena cava (IVC) was ligated to establish the DVT model. Rat IL‑18 overexpression and inhibition vectors were constructed...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785961/trajectories-of-childhood-blood-pressure-and-adult-left-ventricular-hypertrophy-the-bogalusa-heart-study
#17
Tao Zhang, Shengxu Li, Lydia Bazzano, Jiang He, Paul Whelton, Wei Chen
This longitudinal study aims to characterize longitudinal blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood and examine the impact of level-independent childhood BP trajectories on adult left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and remodeling patterns. The longitudinal cohort consisted of 1154 adults (787 whites and 367 blacks) who had repeated measurements of BP 4 to 15 times from childhood (4-19 years) to adulthood (20-51 years) and assessment of echocardiographic LV dimensions in adulthood. Model-estimated levels and linear slopes of BP at childhood age points were calculated in 1-year intervals using the growth curve parameters and their first derivatives, respectively...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785960/reduction-in-regulatory-t-cells-in-early-pregnancy-causes-uterine-artery-dysfunction-in-mice
#18
Alison S Care, Stephane L Bourque, Jude S Morton, Emma P Hjartarson, Sarah A Robertson, Sandra T Davidge
Preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and miscarriage remain important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. These complications are associated with reduced numbers of a specialized T lymphocyte subset called regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in the maternal circulation, decidua, and placenta. Treg cells suppress inflammation and prevent maternal immunity toward the fetus, which expresses foreign paternal alloantigens. Treg cells are demonstrated to contribute to vascular homeostasis, but whether Treg cells influence the vascular adaptations essential for a healthy pregnancy is unknown...
May 21, 2018: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785949/-the-functions-of-yhcz-gene-during-bacillus-thuringiensis-growth
#19
Lin da Jia, Tan Tan Gao, Qi Peng, Jing Lv, Jie Zhang, Min Chen, Fu Ping Song
yhcZ and yhcY genes constitute a two-component system in Bacillus subtilis and B. cereus that regulates bacterial growth. However, the exact biological function of yhcZ gene in B. thuringiensis has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we proved that HD73_5824 is an yhcZ gene in B. thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki HD73 strain by combining gene functional annotation, analysis of upstream and downstream genes arrangement, and amino acid sequence alignment. This yhcZ gene may co-regulate bacterial growth with HD73_5825 gene (yhcY gene) by constituting a two-component system...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785929/dissection-of-the-in-vitro-developmental-program-of-hammondia-hammondi-reveals-a-link-between-stress-sensitivity-and-life-cycle-flexibility-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#20
Sarah L Sokol, Abby S Primack, Sethu C Nair, Zhee S Wong, Maiwase Tembo, Shiv K Verma, Camila K Cerqueira-Cezar, J P Dubey, Jon P Boyle
Most eukaryotic parasites are obligately heteroxenous, requiring sequential infection of different host species in order to survive. Toxoplasma gondii is a rare exception to this rule, having a uniquely facultative heteroxenous life cycle. To understand the origins of this phenomenon, we compared development and stress responses in T. gondii to those of its its obligately heteroxenous relative, Hammondia hammondi and have identified multiple H. hammondi growth states that are distinct from those in T. gondii...
May 22, 2018: ELife
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