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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223923/embryonic-and-postnatal-expression-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-mrna-in-mouse-brain
#1
Eiki Kimura, Chiharu Tohyama
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor family, plays a critical role in the developing nervous system of invertebrates and vertebrates. Dioxin, a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, avidly binds to this receptor, and maternal exposure to dioxin has been shown to impair higher brain functions and dendritic morphogenesis, possibly via an AhR-dependent mechanism. However, there is little information on AhR expression in the developing mammalian brain...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217795/understanding-the-microscopic-binding-mechanism-of-hydroxylated-and-sulfated-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-with-transthyretin-by-molecular-docking-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-binding-free-energy-calculations
#2
Huiming Cao, Yuzhen Sun, Ling Wang, Chunyan Zhao, Jianjie Fu, Aiqian Zhang
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), one typical type of persistent environmental contaminant, have toxicological effects such as disrupting thyroid homeostasis in the human body. The high binding affinities of hydroxylated metabolites of PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) with transthyretin (TTR) were considered to be one major reason for their extraordinary capacity of passing through the blood-brain barrier via competitive thyroid hormone (T4) transport protein binding. Recent findings showed that sulfated PBDEs can be formed in human liver cytosol as phase-II metabolites...
February 20, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216029/ecophysiological-responses-of-juvenile-seabass-dicentrarchus-labrax-exposed-to-increased-temperature-and-dietary-methylmercury
#3
Ana Luísa Maulvault, Vera Barbosa, Ricardo Alves, Ana Custódio, Patrícia Anacleto, Tiago Repolho, Pedro Pousão Ferreira, Rui Rosa, António Marques, Mário Diniz
The ecotoxicological effects of methylmercury (MeHg) exposure have been intensively described in literature. Yet, it is still unclear how marine biota will respond to the presence of MeHg under climate change, namely ocean warming. The present study aimed to investigate, for the first time, fish condition [Fulton's K index (K), hepatosomatic index (HIS) and brain-to-body mass ratio (BB-ratio)] and several stress-related responses in an ecologically and commercially important fish species (Dicentrachus labrax) exposed for 28days to dietary MeHg (8...
February 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215500/environmental-epigenomics-current-approaches-to-assess-epigenetic-effects-of-endocrine-disrupting-compounds-edc-s-on-human-health
#4
REVIEW
Natalia Tapia-Orozco, Gerardo Santiago-Toledo, Valeria Barrón, Ana María Espinosa-García, José Antonio García-García, Roeb García-Arrazola
Environmental Epigenomics is a developing field to study the epigenetic effect on human health from exposure to environmental factors. Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been detected primarily in pharmaceutical drugs, personal care products, food additives, and food containers. Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with a high incidence and prevalence of many endocrine-related disorders in humans. Nevertheless, further evidence is needed to establish a correlation between exposure to EDC and human disorders...
February 10, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214179/mixture-toxicity-of-flubendazole-and-fenbendazole-to-daphnia-magna
#5
Alan Puckowski, Stefan Stolte, Marta Wagil, Marta Markiewicz, Paulina Łukaszewicz, Piotr Stepnowski, Anna Białk-Bielińska
Nowadays, residual amounts of many pharmaceuticals can be found in various environmental compartments including surface and ground waters, soils and sediments as well as biota. Even though they undergo degradability, their environmental discharge is relatively continuous, thus they may be regarded as quasi-persistent contaminants, and are also frequently regarded as emerging organic pollutants. Benzimidazoles, especially flubendazole (FLU) and fenbendazole (FEN), represent two anthelmintic drugs belonging to this group...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211993/recent-lab-on-chip-developments-for-novel-drug-discovery
#6
REVIEW
Nauman Khalid, Isao Kobayashi, Mitsutoshi Nakajima
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro total analysis systems (μTAS) revolutionized the biochemical and electronic industries, and this miniaturization process became a key driver for many markets. Now, it is a driving force for innovations in life sciences, diagnostics, analytical sciences, and chemistry, which are called 'lab-on-a-chip, (LOC)' devices. The use of these devices allows the development of fast, portable, and easy-to-use systems with a high level of functional integration for applications such as point-of-care diagnostics, forensics, the analysis of biomolecules, environmental or food analysis, and drug development...
February 17, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Systems Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209408/household-air-pollution-from-various-types-of-rural-kitchens-and-its-exposure-assessment
#7
Maninder Kaur Sidhu, Khaiwal Ravindra, Suman Mor, Siby John
Exposure to household air pollutants has become a leading environmental health risk in developing countries. Considering this, real-time temporal variation in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured in various types of rural household kitchens. Observed average concentrations of PM2.5, CO, percent relative humidity (%RH) and temperature (T) in five different kitchen types were 549.6μg/m(3), 4.2ppm, 70.2% and 20°C respectively. Highest CO and PM2.5 concentration were found in household performing cooking in indoor kitchens (CO: 9...
February 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206703/toxicological-evaluation-of-the-topoisomerase-inhibitor-etoposide-in-the-model-animal-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-3t3-l1-normal-murine-cells
#8
So Young Lee, Joo Yeon Kim, Yu-Jin Jung, Kyungsu Kang
Etoposide, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, has been widely used as a clinical anticancer drug to treat diverse cancer patients. Since not only rapidly dividing cancer cells but also the cells of normal human tissues and every living organism in environmental ecosystems have topoisomerases, it is crucial to study the toxicity of etoposide in other organisms in addition to cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the toxicity of etoposide in both a soil nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, and 3T3-L1 normal murine cells...
February 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193589/head-kidney-liver-and-skin-histopathology-and-gene-expression-in-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-l-exposed-to-highly-polluted-marine-sediments-from-portman-bay-spain
#9
Said Ben Hamed, Francisco Guardiola, Alberto Cuesta, Salvadora Martínez, María José Martínez-Sánchez, Carmen Pérez-Sirvent, María Ángeles Esteban
Biomarkers have become crucial tools in modern environmental assessment as they can help to predict magnitude of pollution. The head-kidney (HK) and liver (hematopoietic and xenobiotic metabolism organs, respectively) are the key organs in all fish toxicological studies, although the skin has received less attention in this respect. The impact of two different types of polluted sediment collected from Portman Bay (Spain) on HK, liver and skin gene expression in gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) exposed for two weeks to the sediments was determined by real time-PCR...
May 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185220/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-surface-sediments-near-a-mining-site-in-okobo-enjema-nigeria-concentrations-source-apportionment-and-risk-assessment
#10
Kenechukwu E Ugwu, Pius O Ukoha
PAHs are pollutants of serious environmental and human health concerns. PAH studies in environmental compartments may assist in designing PAH control measures. The levels of selected PAHs in surface sediment samples of a stream near a mining site at Okobo-Enjema, Nigeria, were investigated. The data were used to determine the possible sources of the PAHs and to assess the potential health risk of the PAHs to humans which was evaluated based on the sediment quality, contamination level and cancer risk guidelines...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184298/recent-advances-in-understanding-assessing-toxicity-to-the-epigenome
#11
REVIEW
Kevin Sweder
The ability of non-genotoxic agents to induce cancer has been documented and clearly requires a reassessment of testing for environmental and human safety. Drug safety testing has historically relied on test batteries designed to detect DNA damage leading to mutation and cancer. The standard genetic toxicology testing battery has been a reliable tool set to identify small molecules/chemicals as hazards that could lead to genetic changes in organisms and induction of cancer. While pharmaceutical companies and regulatory agencies have extensively used the standard battery, it is not suitable for compounds that may induce epigenetic changes...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168709/recent-trends-and-applications-in-liquid-phase-chromatography-enantioseparation-of-atropisomers
#12
REVIEW
Paola Peluso, Victor Mamane, Emmanuel Aubert, Sergio Cossu
The term Atropisomerism defines a type of enantiomerism that arises from hindered rotation around an axis that makes two rotational isomers enantiomers. Atropisomeric compounds are present in nature, being important building blocks of many biologically active compounds. Atropisomers have been extensively studied in environmental and toxicological chemistry and, in particular, separating them has become a need in specific fields as organic synthesis and pharmaceutical research. High-performance LC has been fruitfully applied in this context, and despite HPLC separation on chiral stationary phase is considered as mature technology nowadays, in the last years several advancements and applications contributed to study compounds where axial chirality is of utmost importance...
February 6, 2017: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167386/dna-adducts-in-marine-fish-as-biological-marker-of-genotoxicity-in-environmental-monitoring-the-way-forward
#13
REVIEW
Daniela M Pampanin, Steven J Brooks, Bjørn Einar Grøsvik, Jérémie Le Goff, Sonnich Meier, Magne O Sydnes
DNA adducts in fish represent a very important genotoxicity endpoint in environmental monitoring, being a pre-mutagenic lesion that plays an essential role in the initiation of carcinogenesis. The analysis of DNA adducts is a challenging task due to the low concentration of the analyte. Methods are available to determine the presence of DNA adducts, although further knowledge is required to fully understand the nature of the adducts and responsible xenobiotics (i.e. position of adduct in DNA, most active xenobiotic and metabolite forms, structural information)...
April 2017: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166271/transcriptional-deregulation-of-genetic-biomarkers-in-chironomus-riparius-larvae-exposed-to-ecologically-relevant-concentrations-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-dehp
#14
Óscar Herrero, Gloria Morcillo, Rosario Planelló
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant used worldwide as a plasticizer and solvent in many formulations. Based on available toxicological data, it has been classified as toxic for reproduction and as an endocrine disruptor. Despite this, ecotoxicological studies in aquatic wildlife organisms are still scarce. In the present work, the toxic molecular alterations caused by DEHP in aquatic larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius have been studied, by analyzing the transcriptional activity of genes related to some vital cellular pathways, such as the ribosomal machinery (rpL4, rpL13), the cell stress response (hsc70, hsp70, hsp40, hsp27), the ecdysone hormone pathway (EcR), the energy metabolism (GAPDH), and detoxication processes (CYP4G)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163161/zebrafish-models-of-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
REVIEW
Daria A Meshalkina, Marina N Kizlyk, Elana V Kysil, Adam D Collier, David J Echevarria, Murilo S Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Cai Song, Jason E Warnick, Evan J Kyzar, Allan V Kalueff
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by motor, social and cognitive deficits that develop early during childhood. The pathogenesis of ASD is not well characterized and involves a multifaceted interaction between genetic, neurobiological and environmental factors. Animal (experimental) models possess evolutionarily conserved behaviors and molecular pathways that are highly relevant for studying ASD. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a relatively new animal model with promise for understanding the pathogenesis of complex brain disorders and discovering novel treatments...
February 3, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160702/safety-assessment-of-nanopesticides-using-the-roundworm-caenorhabditis-elegans
#16
Mauricio T Jacques, Jhones L Oliveira, Estefânia V R Campos, Leonardo F Fraceto, Daiana Silva Ávila
The extensive use of pesticides is causing environmental pollution, affecting animal organisms in different habitats and also leading human health at risk. In this study, we present as an alternative the use of nanoparticles loaded with pesticides and report their toxicological assessment to a soil organism, Caenorhabditis elegans. Three nanoparticle formulations were analyzed: solid lipid nanoparticles loaded or not with atrazine and simazine, SLN; polymeric nanoparticles, NC_PCL loaded with atrazine; and chitosan/tripolyphosphate, CS/TPP, loaded or not with paraquat...
February 1, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159303/transcriptional-responses-of-zebrafish-to-complex-metal-mixtures-in-laboratory-studies-overestimates-the-responses-observed-with-environmental-water
#17
Ajay Pradhan, Per Ivarsson, Daniel Ragnvaldsson, Håkan Berg, Jana Jass, Per-Erik Olsson
Metals released into the environment continue to be of concern for human health. However, risk assessment of metal exposure is often based on total metal levels and usually does not take bioavailability data, metal speciation or matrix effects into consideration. The continued development of biological endpoint analyses are therefore of high importance for improved eco-toxicological risk analyses. While there is an on-going debate concerning synergistic or additive effects of low-level mixed exposures there is little environmental data confirming the observations obtained from laboratory experiments...
January 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157555/release-of-volatile-and-semi-volatile-toxicants-during-house-fires
#18
Fiona Hewitt, Antonis Christou, Kathryn Dickens, Richard Walker, Anna A Stec
Qualitative results are presented from analysis of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs) obtained through sampling of gaseous effluent and condensed particulates during a series of experimental house fires conducted in a real house. Particular emphasis is given to the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed by the Environmental Protection Agency due to their potentially carcinogenic effects. The initial fuel packages were either cooking oil or a single sofa; these were burned both alone, and in furnished surroundings...
December 27, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153528/incorporating-toxcast-and-tox21-datasets-to-rank-biological-activity-of-chemicals-at-superfund-sites-in-north-carolina
#19
Sloane K Tilley, David M Reif, Rebecca C Fry
BACKGROUND: The Superfund program of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was established in 1980 to address public health concerns posed by toxic substances released into the environment in the United States. Forty-two of the 1328 hazardous waste sites that remain on the Superfund National Priority List are located in the state of North Carolina. METHODS: We set out to develop a database that contained information on both the prevalence and biological activity of chemicals present at Superfund sites in North Carolina...
January 30, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151030/toxicity-of-tio2-nanoparticles-on-soil-nitrification-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-lack-of-classical-dose-response-relationships
#20
Marie Simonin, Jean M F Martins, Xavier Le Roux, Gaëlle Uzu, Aude Calas, Agnès Richaume
Titanium-dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) are increasingly released in agricultural soils through, e.g. biosolids, irrigation or nanoagrochemicals. Soils are submitted to a wide range of concentrations of TiO2-NPs depending on the type of exposure. However, most studies have assessed the effects of unrealistically high concentrations, and the dose-response relationships are not well characterized for soil microbial communities. Here, using soil microcosms, we assessed the impact of TiO2-NPs at concentrations ranging from 0...
February 2, 2017: Nanotoxicology
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