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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646766/gaps-in-aquatic-toxicological-studies-of-microplastics
#1
REVIEW
Ali Karami
The contamination of aquatic environments with microplastics (MPs) has spurred an unprecedented interest among scientific communities to investigate their impacts on biota. Despite the rapid growth in the number of studies on the aquatic toxicology of MPs, controversy over the fate and biological impacts of MPs is increasingly growing mainly due to the absence of standardized laboratory bioassays. Given the complex features of MPs, such as the diversity of constituent polymers, additives, shapes and sizes, as well as continuous changes in the particle buoyancy as a result of fouling and defouling processes, it is necessary to modify conventional bioassay protocols before employing them for MP toxicity testings...
June 14, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644718/third-symposium-on-interdisciplinary-activities-in-environmental-toxicology-in-north-rhine-westphalia-germany
#2
Klaus Golka, Katja Ickstadt, Silvia Selinski, Jan G Hengstler, Michael Wilhelm
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644715/biological-responses-of-the-american-coot-fulica-americana-in-wetlands-with-contrasting-environmental-conditions-basin-of-m%C3%A3-xico
#3
María Eugenia López-Islas, Itzel Ibarra-Meza, Esperanza Ortiz-Ordóñez, Liliana Favari, J Elías Sedeño-Díaz, Eugenia López-López
Wetland ecosystems are subject to severe impacts (physical and chemical) and to the input of various xenobiotics that provoke toxicological consequences. Waterbirds are potential sentinel species of these environments. To analyze how habitat conditions affect the health of Fulica americana, early-warning biomarkers, histopathology, somatic indices, and water quality were examined in two wetlands of the Basin of Mexico: Xochimilco, an urban wetland highly eutrophic with a mixture of pollutants, and Tecocomulco (the reference site), a rural wetland with hunting migratory birds in winter, and with some agricultural contaminants...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644057/the-implementation-of-medical-monitoring-programs-following-potentially-hazardous-exposures-a-medico-legal-perspective
#4
David Vearrier, Michael I Greenberg
CONTEXT: Clinical toxicologists may be called upon to determine the appropriateness of medical monitoring following documented or purported exposures to toxicants in the occupational, environmental, and medical settings. METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE database using the Ovid(®) search engine for the following terms cross-referenced to the MeSH database: ("occupational exposures" OR "environmental exposures") AND ("physiologic monitoring" OR "population surveillance")...
June 23, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641560/functional-and-catalytic-characterization-of-the-detoxifying-enzyme-haloalkane-dehalogenase-from-rhizobium-leguminosarum
#5
Nikolaos Georgakis, Evangelia Chronopoulou, Maria Anna Gad, Dimitrios Skliros, Rodica Efrose, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Nikolaos E Labrou
Haloalkanes are acutely toxic to animals and humans and their toxic effects are mainly observed in the liver, kidneys and central nervous system. In the present work, the haloalkane dehalogenase from Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (DrlA) was characterized. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis and enzyme activity assays revealed that the DrlA gene expression in R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii is induced by 1,2-dibromoethane (1,2-DBE) during the early exponential phase. The gene of the enzyme was isolated, cloned and expressed in E...
June 20, 2017: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636099/spectators-or-participants-how-can-setac-become-more-engaged-in-international-climate-change-research-programs
#6
Ralph G Stahl, Jennifer L Stauber, William H Clements
Environmental toxicologists and chemists have been crucial to evaluating the chemical fate and toxicological effects of environmental contaminants, including chlorinated pesticides, before and after Rachel Carson's publication of Silent Spring in 1962. Like chlorinated pesticides previously, global climate change is widely considered to be one of the most important environmental challenges of our time. Over the past 30 yr, climate scientists and modelers have shown that greenhouse gases such as CO2 and CH4 cause radiative forcing (climate forcing) and lead to increased global temperatures...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633424/three-dimensional-3d-heparg-spheroid-model-with-physiologically-relevant-xenobiotic-metabolism-competence-and-hepatocyte-functionality-for-liver-toxicity-screening
#7
Sreenivasa C Ramaiahgari, Suramya Waidyanatha, Darlene Dixon, Michael J DeVito, Richard S Paules, Stephen S Ferguson
Effective prediction of human responses to chemical and drug exposure is of critical importance in environmental toxicology research and drug development. While significant progress has been made to address this challenge using in vitro liver models, these approaches often fail due to inadequate tissue model functionality. Herein, we describe the development, optimization, and characterization of a novel three-dimensional (3D) spheroid model using differentiated HepaRG cells that achieve and maintain physiologically-relevant levels of xenobiotic metabolism (CYP1A2, CYP2B6, and CYP3A4/5)...
June 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633102/an-integrated-assessment-of-ceftazidime-and-photoproducts-on-the-feeding-behavior-of-rotifers-from-exposure-to-post-exposure
#8
Yanhua Liu, Yaqi Wang, Jie Zhang, Liu Sun, Anqi Zhang, Oscar Lopez Torres, Ruixin Guo, Jianqiu Chen
Compared to traditional toxicological studies, which depict the dose-effect of contaminants themselves on organisms at the given time, the exposure and post-exposure impacts of antibiotic ceftazidime and its photoproducts are carried out to systematically evaluate the environmental risk fate of ceftazidime in aquatic environments. For the exposure process, the promotion effect of ceftazidime on the feeding behavior of the rotifers decreased when the target compound was irradiated by sunlight, and the promotion effect was converted into inhibition effect, which indicated that the highest toxicity of ceftazidime on the feeding behavior of the rotifers was found after UV-B irradiation...
June 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627759/vibrational-biospectroscopy-characterises-biochemical-differences-between-cell-types-used-for-toxicological-investigations-and-identifies-alterations-induced-by-environmental-contaminants
#9
Kelly A Heys, Richard F Shore, M Glória Pereira, Francis L Martin
The use of cell-based assays is essential in reducing the number of vertebrates used in the investigation of chemical toxicities and in regulatory toxicology assessment. An important factor in obtaining meaningful results which can be accurately extrapolated is the use of biologically appropriate cell lines. In this preliminary study, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy with multivariate analysis was used to assess the fundamental biomolecular differences between a commonly used cell line, MCF-7 cells, and an environmentally relevant cell line derived from Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) dermal fibroblasts...
June 19, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622373/a-versatile-and-low-cost-open-source-pipetting-robot-for-automation-of-toxicological-and-ecotoxicological-bioassays
#10
Sebastian Steffens, Leonie Nüßer, Thomas-Benjamin Seiler, Nadine Ruchter, Mark Schumann, Ricarda Döring, Catrina Cofalla, Avi Ostfeld, Elad Salomons, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert, Markus Brinkmann
In the past decades, bioassays and whole-organism bioassay have become important tools not only in compliance testing of industrial chemicals and plant protection products, but also in the monitoring of environmental quality. With few exceptions, such test systems are discontinuous. They require exposure of the biological test material in small units, such as multiwell plates, during prolonged incubation periods, and do not allow online read-outs. It is mostly due to these shortcomings that applications in continuous monitoring of, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620612/potential-role-of-pet-cats-as-a-sentinel-species-for-human-exposure-to-flame-retardants
#11
Luis A Henríquez-Hernández, Elena Carretón, María Camacho, José Alberto Montoya-Alonso, Luis D Boada, Verónica Bernal Martín, Yaiza Falcón Cordón, Soraya Falcón Cordón, Manuel Zumbado, Octavio P Luzardo
Flame retardants are a wide group of chemicals used by the industry to avoid combustion of materials. These substances are commonly found in plastics, electronic equipment, fabrics, and in many other everyday articles. Subsequently, ubiquitous environmental contamination by these common chemical is frequently reported. In the present study, we have evaluated the level of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated diphenyl ethers (BDEs), and organophosphorous flame retardants (OPFRs) in pet cats through the analysis of their serum...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618231/a-high-resolution-study-of-dynamic-changes-of-ce2o3-and-ceo2-nanoparticles-in-complex-environmental-media
#12
Ruth Corrin Merrifield, Kenton P Arkill, Richard E Palmer, Jamie R Lead
Ceria nanoparticles (NPs) rapidly and easily cycle between Ce(III) and Ce(IV) oxidation states, making them prime candidates for commercial and other applications. Increased commercial use has resulted in increased discharge to the environment and increased associated risk. Once in complex media such as environmental waters or toxicology exposure media, the same redox transformations can occur, causing altered behavior and effects compared to the pristine NPs. This study used high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy to investigate changes in structure and oxidation state of small, polymer-coated ceria suspensions in complex media...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618056/improving-substance-information-in-usetox%C3%A2-part-1-discussion-on-data-and-approaches-for-estimating-freshwater-ecotoxicity-effect-factors
#13
Erwan Saouter, Karin Aschberger, Peter Fantke, Michael Z Hauschild, Stephanie K Bopp, Aude Kienzler, Alicia Paini, Rana Pant, Michela Secchi, Serenella Sala
The scientific consensus model USEtox® is recommended by the European Commission as the reference model to characterize life cycle chemical emissions in terms of their potential human toxicity and freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity impacts in the context of the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) Handbook and the Environmental Footprint pilot phase looking at products (PEF) and organisations (OEF). Consequently, this model has been systematically used within the PEF/OEF pilot phase by 25 EU industry sectors, which manufacture a wide variety of consumer products...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612310/histological-and-biochemical-biomarkers-analysis-reveal-strong-toxicological-impacts-of-pollution-in-hybrid-sparrow-passer-domesticus-%C3%A3-passer-hispaniolensis-in-southern-tunisia
#14
Nahed Amri, Fatma Rahmouni, Med Ali Chokri, Tarek Rebai, Riadh Badraoui
Environmental pollution is a great concern worldwide. Our aim was to investigate the histopathological injuries and oxidative stress induced by exposure to contaminants in liver tissues of hybrid sparrows (Passer domesticus × Passer hispaniolensis) living in Gabès city, which is one of the most polluted hot spot in Tunisia. Our results show evidence of a pronounced impairment in liver function which is confirmed by histopathological changes as well as remarkable blood chemical alterations in sparrows living near the Gabès-Ghannouche factory complex of phosphate treatment...
June 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608639/abuse-of-rachel-carson-and-misuse-of-ddt-science-in-the-service-of-environmental-deregulation
#15
REVIEW
Jingxiang Yang, Michael D Ward, Bart Kahr
Fake news?? The contact insecticide DDT has been reappraised as a safe, life-saving compound by special interest groups committed to repealing environmental regulations. It is shown in this essay how some specific toxicological data has been misused by those aiming to disingenuously influence public policy. Graphic: Pestroy, a DDT-laced coating marketed in 1946 by Sherwin-Williams Research Laboratories.
June 13, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606381/which-origin-for-polycystic-ovaries-syndrome-genetic-environmental-or-both
#16
Patrick Fenichel, Charlotte Rougier, Sylvie Hieronimus, Nicolas Chevalier
Polycystic ovaries syndrome (PCOS), the most common female endocrine disorder, affects 7-10% of women of childbearing age. It includes ovarian hyperandrogenism, impaired follicular maturation, anovulation and subfertility. Insulin resistance, although present in most cases, is not necessary for diagnosis. It increases hyperandrogenism and long-term metabolic, cardiovascular and oncological risks. The origin of hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia has a genetic component, as demonstrated by familial aggregation studies and recent identification of associated genomic variants, conferring a particular susceptibility to the syndrome...
June 9, 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605645/novel-in-vivo-experimental-viability-assays-with-high-sensitivity-and-throughput-capacity-using-a-bdelloid-rotifer
#17
Zita Olah, Ashley I Bush, David Aleksza, Bence Galik, Eszter Ivitz, Lilla Macsai, Zoltan Janka, Zoltan Karman, Janos Kalman, Zsolt Datki
Rotifers have been used in biological research as well-characterized models of aging. Their multi-organ characters and their sensitivity for chemicals and environmental changes make them useful as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Our aim was to create a bdelloid rotifer model to use in high-throughput viability and non-invasive assays. In order to identify our species Philodina acuticornis odiosa (PA), 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out and their species-specific morphological markers identified...
June 9, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601522/comparative-toxicological-effects-of-two-antifouling-biocides-on-the-marine-diatom-chaetoceros-lorenzianus-damage-and-post-exposure-recovery
#18
Pooja Chavan, Rajesh Kumar, Ramalingam Kirubagaran, Vayalam P Venugopalan
Antifouling biocides are commonly used in coastal electric power stations to prevent biofouling in their condenser cooling systems. However, the environmental impact of the chemical biocides is less understood than the thermal stress effects caused by the condenser effluents. In this study, Chaetoceros lorenzianus, a representative marine diatom, was used to analyse the toxicity of two antifouling biocides, chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The diatom cells were subjected to a range of concentrations of the biocides (from 0...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601520/aquatic-toxicity-of-several-textile-dye-formulations-acute-and-chronic-assays-with-daphnia-magna-and-raphidocelis-subcapitata
#19
Roberta Croce, Filippo Cinà, Anna Lombardo, Gregory Crispeyn, Claudia Ileana Cappelli, Matteo Vian, Simone Maiorana, Emilio Benfenati, Diego Baderna
Dyes are widely used in various sectors and can be released into the environment where they persist for a long time because of their high stability to light or temperature and their resistance to environmental degradation. Dyes are often poorly characterized and toxicological/ecotoxicological data are available only for a few. These features, coupled with their toxicity, make dyes a possible source of ecological concern, particularly for freshwater aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, new data may be very useful for their risk assessment...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595784/cadmium-triggers-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress-in-human-peripheral-blood-lymphocytes-and-monocytes-analysis-using-in-vitro-and-system-toxicology-approaches
#20
Nouf Abdulkareem Omer Alkharashi, Vaiyapuri Subbarayan Periasamy, Jegan Athinarayanan, Ali A Alshatwi
Cadmium (Cd) is a well-known heavy metal that causes environmental pollution and human health problems. Several studies attempted to assess Cd toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, the systemic profile of cadmium toxicity has not been studied well. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of Cd on human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes and gene expression, using a system toxicological approach. Cd effect on cell viability and morphology were analyzed by MTT assay and AO/EB staining respectively...
July 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
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