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Environmental toxicology

Klaus P Rothenbacher, Alison M Pecquet
This article summarizes historical and recent research on the terrestrial toxicology of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA). Despite its ubiquitous use and presence in the environment, little published data is available to evaluate the terrestrial ecotoxicity of TBBPA. The purposes of this paper are to enable broad access to a series of TBBPA ecotoxicity tests (nitrogen transformation, earthworm survival/reproduction, and seedling emergence/growth) that were conducted in support of regulatory risk assessments, and to summarize available research in the terrestrial toxicity of TBBPA...
May 17, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kangze Liu, Zhonglei He, Hugh J Byrne, James F Curtin, Furong Tian
Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are increasingly being used in a wide range of applications, and such they are being released in greater quantities into the environment. Consequently, the environmental effects of GNPs, especially toxicities to living organisms, have drawn great attention. However, their toxicological characteristics still remain unclear. Fungi, as the decomposers of the ecosystem, interact directly with the environment and critically control the overall health of the biosphere. Thus, their sensitivity to GNP toxicity is particularly important...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
D Westmeier, A Hahlbrock, C Reinhardt, J Fröhlich-Nowoisky, S Wessler, C Vallet, U Pöschl, S K Knauer, R H Stauber
The applications of nanoparticles (NPs) are increasing exponentially in consumer products, biotechnology and biomedicine, and humans, as well as the environment, are increasingly being exposed to NPs. Analogously, various (pathogenic) microorganisms are present at all the major exposure and entry sites for NPs in the human body as well as in environmental habitats. However, the field has just started to explore the complex interplay between NPs and microbes and the (patho)biological consequences. Based on recent insights, herein, we critically reviewed the available knowledge about the interaction of NPs with microbes and the analytical investigations including the latest intravital imaging tools...
May 17, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
Akhgar Ghassabian, Leonardo Trasande
Thyroid hormones are crucial in normal brain development. Transient and mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in pregnancy is also associated with impaired neurodevelopment in the offspring (e.g., 3-4 IQ score loss in association with maternal free thyroxine in the lowest fifth percentile). While inadequate iodine intake remains the most common underlying cause of mild thyroid hormone insufficiency in vulnerable populations including pregnant women, other factors such as exposure to environmental contaminants have recently attracted increasing attention, in particular in interaction with iodine deficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Esmeralda G Blanco-Enríquez, Francisco Javier Zavala-Díaz de la Serna, María Del Rosario Peralta-Pérez, Lourdes Ballinas-Casarrubias, Iván Salmerón, Héctor Rubio-Arias, Beatriz A Rocha-Gutiérrez
Pollution of freshwater ecosystems from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is a global concern. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has included the PAHs pyrene, phenanthrene, and naphthalene among the 16 priority compounds of special concern for their toxicological effects. The aim of this study was to adapt and characterize a microbial consortium from ore waste with the potential to remove these three PAHs from water. This microbial consortium was exposed to the target PAHs at levels of 5, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg L−1 for 14 days...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Rong Xiao, Hailong Zhou, Chien-Min Chen, Huamin Cheng, Hongwu Li, Jia Xie, Hongwei Zhao, Qian Han, Xiaoping Diao
Coral embryos are a critical and sensitive period for the early growth and development of coral. Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is widely distributed in the ocean and has strong toxicity, but there is little information on the toxic effects to coral embryos exposed to this widespread environmental contaminant. Thus, in this study, we utilized the Illumina Hiseq™ 4000 platform to explore the gene response of Acropora hyacinthus embryos under the BaP stress. A total of 130,042 Unigenes were obtained and analyzed, and approximately 37...
April 24, 2018: Chemosphere
L Cornara, A Smeriglio, J Frigerio, M Labra, E Di Gristina, M Denaro, E Mora, D Trombetta
Today, in many European countries, people are looking for wild edible plants to experience new tastes and flavors, by following the new trend of being green and environmentally friendly. Young borage and spinach leaves can be easily confused by inexpert pickers with those of other plants, including poisonous ones, such as Mandragora autumnalis Bertol. (mandrake) or Digitalis purpurea L. (foxglove), common in southern and northern Italy respectively. In the last twenty years, several cases of intoxication by accidental ingestion of mandrake and foxglove have been reported...
May 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Sonja Zimmermann, Bernd Sures
The platinum group elements (PGE) platinum, palladium and rhodium gain increasing (eco-)toxicological interest due to their cumulative introduction into ecosystems. So far, most PGE exposure studies investigating biological availability, uptake and bioaccumulation of PGE as well as their effects on different toxicological endpoints were performed under non-standardized conditions which occasionally make an interpretation and comparison of the results difficult. Here we compare the results of different PGE exposure studies with zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) showing influences due to the PGE source, the exposure medium, the exposure concentration and period as well as the test system...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Kalori Baana, Harriet Angwech, Geoffrey Maxwell Malinga
BACKGROUND: The housefly, Musca domestica L., is a major public health and domestic pest that spoils food and causes irritation and is a vector of many infectious disease pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Currently, its control relies largely on chemical pesticides. However, the adverse health and environmental effects of pesticides, risk of development of insect resistance, and bioaccumulation through the food chain emphasize the need to search for environmentally friendly alternatives...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
J López-Luna, M M Camacho-Martínez, F A Solís-Domínguez, M C González-Chávez, R Carrillo-González, S Martinez-Vargas, O F Mijangos-Ricardez, M C Cuevas-Díaz
Cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) have received increasing attention due to their widespread therapeutic and agricultural applicability. In the environmental field, dry powder- and ferrofluid-suspended cobalt ferrite NPs were found to be useful for removing heavy metals and metalloids from water, while diluted suspensions of cobalt ferrite NP have been promisingly applied in medicine. However, the potential toxicological implications of widespread exposure are still unknown. Since cobalt ferrite NPs are considered residual wastes of environmental or medical applications, plants may serve as a point-of-entry for engineered nanomaterials as a result of consumption of these plants...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Evgenios Agathokleous, Mitsutoshi Kitao, Edward J Calabrese
It has long been debated whether a little stress may be "good" for you. Extensive evidence has now sufficiently accumulated demonstrating that low doses of a vast range of chemical and physical agents induce protective/beneficial effects while the opposite occurs at higher doses, a phenomenon known as hormesis. Low doses of environmental agents have recently induced autophagy, a critical adaptive response that protects essentially all cell types, as well as being transgenerational via epigenetic mechanisms...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Chantel I Nicolas, Kamel Mansouri, Katherine A Phillips, Christopher M Grulke, Ann M Richard, Antony J Williams, James Rabinowitz, Kristin K Isaacs, Alice Yau, John F Wambaugh
The structures and physicochemical properties of chemicals are important for determining their potential toxicological effects, toxicokinetics, and route(s) of exposure. These data are needed to prioritize the risk for thousands of environmental chemicals, but experimental values are often lacking. In an attempt to efficiently fill data gaps in physicochemical property information, we generated new data for 200 structurally diverse compounds, which were rigorously selected from the USEPA ToxCast chemical library, and whose structures are available within the Distributed Structure-Searchable Toxicity Database (DSSTox)...
May 2, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Elisa Polledri, Rosa Mercadante, Silvia Fustinoni
RATIONALE: Tebuconazole (TEB) and penconazole (PEN) are widely applied fungicides and environmental contaminants; their toxicological properties include possible effects to the unborn child, therefore the evaluation of human exposure is relevant to risk assessment. Hair is a non-invasive specimen that incorporates pollutants allowing an extended exposure window to be surveyed. Aim of this work was to develop and validate an assay for the determination of TEB and PEN in human hair. METHODS: Under optimised conditions, analytes were extracted soaking hair in acetonitrile, in the presence of deuterated analogues, under heating and agitation...
May 4, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
J S Osterberg, K M Cammen, T F Schultz, B W Clark, R T Di Giulio
In many human-altered ecosystems, organisms are increasingly faced with more diverse and complex environmental stressors and pollutant mixtures, to which the adaptations necessary to survive exposure are likely to be numerous and varied. Improving our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie complex polygenic adaptations in natural settings requires significant toxicological, biochemical, physiological, and genomic data rarely available for non-model organisms. Here, we build upon two decades of study of adaptation to anthropogenic pollutants in a population of Atlantic killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) that inhabits the creosote-contaminated Atlantic Wood Industries Superfund (AW) site on the Elizabeth River, Virginia in the United States...
April 25, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Sana Khalid, Muhammad Shahid, Irshad Bibi, Tania Sarwar, Ali Haidar Shah, Nabeel Khan Niazi
Population densities and freshwater resources are not evenly distributed worldwide. This has forced farmers to use wastewater for the irrigation of food crops. This practice presents both positive and negative effects with respect to agricultural use, as well as in the context of environmental contamination and toxicology. Although wastewater is an important source of essential nutrients for plants, many environmental, sanitary, and health risks are also associated with the use of wastewater for crop irrigation due to the presence of toxic contaminants and microbes...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
A Irizar, M J B Amorim, K P Fuller, D I Zeugolis, J J Scott-Fordsmand
Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) based medical devices are increasingly produced and thus, their presence in the environment is likely to increase. The present study analysed the biodegradation of PCL electro-spun scaffolds (alone) and PCL electro-spun scaffolds coated with human recombinant (hR) collagen and Bovine Achilles tendon (BAT) collagen in sewage sludge and in soil. Additionally, an eco-toxicological test with the model organism Enchytraeus crypticus was performed to assess environmental hazard of the produced materials in soils...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
Phoebe A Stapleton, Christopher J Wingard, Timothy R Nurkiewicz, Alison C Holloway, Judith T Zelikoff, Thomas B Knudsen, Lynette K Rogers
Xenobiotic exposures affect the maternal and/or in utero environment resulting in impairments in fetal development. During the period of rapid fetal growth, developing cardiovascular systems are especially vulnerable to their environment. Furthermore, fetal exposures can evoke changes in epigenetic signatures that result in permanent modifications in gene expression. This symposium focused on the intersection between maternal and fetal exposure and the developing cardiovascular system. The impact of maternal exposures on prenatal development is of major concern for regulatory agencies given the unique vulnerability of the embryo/fetus to environmental factors, the importance of vascular biology to maternal-fetal interactions, and the adverse consequences of vascular disruption to children's health...
April 27, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Indika Herath, Meththika Vithanage, Saman Seneweera, Jochen Bundschuh
Thiolated arsenic compounds are the sulfur analogous substructures of oxo-arsenicals as the arsinoyl (As = O) is substituted by an arsinothioyl (As = S) group. Relatively brief history of thioarsenic research, mostly in the current decade has endeavored to understand their consequences in the natural environment. However, thioarsenic related aspects have by far not attached much research concern on global scale compared to other arsenic species. This review attempts to provide a critical overview for the first time on formation mechanisms of thioarsenicals, their chemistry, speciation and analytical methodologies in order to provide a rational assessment of what is new, what is current, what needs to be known or what should be done in future research...
April 26, 2018: Environment International
Maud Pelletier, Philippe Glorennec, Corinne Mandin, Barbara Le Bot, Olivier Ramalho, Fabien Mercier, Nathalie Bonvallot
BACKGROUND: The toxic effects of environmental exposure to chemicals are increasingly being studied and confirmed, notably for semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). These are found in many products and housing materials, from which they are emitted to indoor air, settled dust and other surfaces. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work is to assess the human health risk posed by residential indoor exposure to 32 SVOCs, assessed in previous nationwide studies. METHODS: A chemical-by-chemical risk assessment, using a hazard quotient (HQ) or excess risk (ER) method, was supplemented by a cumulative risk assessment (CRA)...
April 26, 2018: Environment International
Peter Jeschke
The agrochemical industry is continuously searching for new pesticides to develop products with optimal efficacy, lower application rates in the field, increased selectivity, favorable toxicological and environmental safety, enhanced user friendliness and better economic viability. One strategy to achieve these ambitious goals makes use of the unique properties of molecules containing asymmetric centers. In the past, many natural products and their congeners have been a source of inspiration for designing new active ingredients, and the molecular structure of the resulting molecules have become increasingly complex...
April 27, 2018: Pest Management Science
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