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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525814/risk-assessment-of-triclosan-in-the-global-environment-using-a-probabilistic-approach
#1
Jiahua Guo, Hisato Iwata
The occurrence of antimicrobial agent triclosan (TCS) in the global aquatic and terrestrial environment is an emerging concern. While risk assessment for TCS is available in certain countries, no studies have attempted to assess the risk of TCS worldwide. This could be due to lack of method to characterize the global exposure. The present study therefore proposed a probabilistic-based approach to approximate the percent-ranked measured environmental concentrations (MECs) by estimating exposure concentration distribution (ECD) for different environmental compartments on a global scale, incorporating approximate 1200 single MECs...
May 16, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525648/the-role-of-omics-in-the-application-of-adverse-outcome-pathways-for-chemical-risk-assessment
#2
Erica K Brockmeier, Geoff Hodges, Thomas H Hutchinson, Emma Butler, Markus Hecker, Knut Erik Tollefsen, Natalia Garcia-Reyero, Peter Kille, Dörthe Becker, Kevin Chipman, John Colbourne, Timothy W Collette, Andrew Cossins, Mark Cronin, Peter Graystock, Steve Gutsell, Dries Knapen, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Anke Lange, Stuart Marshall, Stewart F Owen, Edward J Perkins, Stewart Plaistow, Anthony Schroeder, Daisy Taylor, Mark Viant, Gerald Ankley, Francesco Falciani
In conjunction with the second International Environmental Omics Symposium (iEOS) conference, held at the University of Liverpool (UK) in September 2014, a workshop was held to bring together experts in toxicology and regulatory science from academia, government and industry. The purpose of the workshop was to review the specific roles that high-content omics datasets (e.g., transcriptomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and proteomics) can hold within the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) framework for supporting ecological and human health risk assessments...
May 19, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521495/thank-you-for-our-reviewers-of-2016-environmental-health-and-toxicology
#3
Mina Ha
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521388/non-targeted-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry-strategy-for-simultaneous-monitoring-of-xenobiotics-and-endogenous-compounds-in-green-sea-turtles-on-the-great-barrier-reef
#4
Amy L Heffernan, Maria M Gómez-Ramos, Caroline Gaus, Soumini Vijayasarathy, Ian Bell, Christine Hof, Jochen F Mueller, Maria J Gómez-Ramos
Chemical contamination poses a threat to ecosystem, biota and human health, and identifying these hazards is a complex challenge. Traditional hazard identification relies on a priori-defined targets of limited chemical scope, and is generally inappropriate for exploratory studies such as explaining toxicological effects in environmental systems. Here we present a non-target high resolution mass spectrometry environmental monitoring study with multivariate statistical analysis to simultaneously detect biomarkers of exposure (e...
May 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505322/exosomes-in-toxicology-relevance-to-chemical-exposure-and-pathogenesis-of-environmentally-linked-diseases
#5
Dilshan S Harischandra, Shivani Ghaisas, Dharmin Rokad, Anumantha G Kanthasamy
Chronic exposure to environmental toxins has been known to initiate or aggravate various neurological disorders, carcinomas and other adverse health effects. Uptake by naïve cells of pathogenic factors such as danger-associated molecules, mRNAs, miRNAs or aggregated proteins leads to disruption in cellular homeostasis further resulting in inflammation and disease propagation. While early research tended to focus solely on exosomal removal of unwanted cellular contents, more recent reports indicate that these nano-vesicles play an active role in intercellular signaling...
May 15, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495856/flavored-e-cigarette-liquids-and-cinnamaldehyde-impair-respiratory-innate-immune-cell-function
#6
Phillip Wayne Clapp, Erica Ann Pawlak, Justin Trevor Lackey, James Edward Keating, Steven L Reeber, Gary L Glish, Ilona Jaspers
Innate immune cells of the respiratory tract are the first line of defense against pathogenic and environmental insults. Failure of these cells to perform their immune functions leaves the host susceptible to infection, and may contribute to impaired resolution of inflammation. While combustible tobacco cigarettes have been shown to suppress respiratory immune cell function, the effects of flavored electronic cigarette liquids (e-liquids) and individual flavoring agents on respiratory immune cell responses are unknown...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494283/preliminary-study-of-phytoremediation-of-brownfield-soil-contaminated-by-pahs
#7
Šárka Petrová, Jan Rezek, Petr Soudek, Tomáš Vaněk
Our project was aimed at improving a brownfield in the city of Kladno, where an old steel producing facility used to be in operation. Ecological risk is mainly caused by the processing of co-products during coal production (tars, oils). Knowledge of toxicology and environmental aspects can help us protect human health and the environment. Primarily, we focused on soil sampling and identification of pollutants. Results showed that organic contamination on the site is very high. Average concentration of total petroleum carbon in the soil was about 13g/kg DW, which is much more than the maximum allowed concentration...
May 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481423/the-pig-a-gene-mutation-assay-in-mice-and-human-cells-a-review
#8
Ann-Karin Olsen, Stephen D Dertinger, Christopher T Krüger, Dag M Eide, Christine Instanes, Gunnar Brunborg, Andrea Hartwig, Anne Graupner
This MiniReview describes the principle of mutation assays based on the endogenous Pig-a gene and summarizes results for two species of toxicological interest, mice and humans. The work summarized here largely avoids rat-based studies, as are summarized elsewhere. The Pig-a gene mutation assay has emerged as a valuable tool for quantifying in vivo and in vitro mutational events. The Pig-a locus is located at the X-chromosome, giving the advantage that one inactivated allele can give rise to a mutated phenotype, detectable by multi-colour flow cytometry...
May 8, 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477266/combination-of-multiple-neural-crest-migration-assays-to-identify-environmental-toxicants-from-a-proof-of-concept-chemical-library
#9
Johanna Nyffeler, Xenia Dolde, Alice Krebs, Kevin Pinto-Gil, Manuel Pastor, Mamta Behl, Tanja Waldmann, Marcel Leist
Many in vitro tests have been developed to screen for potential neurotoxicity. However, only few cell function-based tests have been used for comparative screening, and thus experience is scarce on how to confirm and evaluate screening hits. We addressed these questions for the neural crest cell migration test (cMINC). After an initial screen, a hit follow-up strategy was devised. A library of 75 compounds plus internal controls (NTP80-list), assembled by the National Toxicology Program of the USA (NTP) was used...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474816/the-rise-of-glyphosate-and-new-opportunities-for-biosentinel-early-warning-studies
#10
Zoe Kissane, Jill M Shephard
Glyphosate has become the most commonly used herbicide worldwide, with a reputation of being environmentally benign, non-toxic and safe to wildlife and humans. However, studies have indicated its toxicity has been underestimated, and that its persistence in the environment is greater than once thought. Its actions as a neurotoxin and endocrine disruptor indicate its potential to act in similar ways to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as the organochlorine (OC) chemicals dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dioxin...
May 5, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473775/the-role-of-the-cephalopod-digestive-gland-in-the-storage-and-detoxification-of-marine-pollutants
#11
REVIEW
Ana P Rodrigo, Pedro M Costa
The relevance of cephalopods for fisheries and even aquaculture, is raising concerns on the relationship between these molluscs and environmental stressors, from climate change to pollution. However, how these organisms cope with environmental toxicants is far less understood than for other molluscs, especially bivalves, which are frontline models in aquatic toxicology. Although, sharing the same basic body plan, cephalopods hold distinct adaptations, often unique, as they are active predators with high growth and metabolic rates...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472193/dynamic-species-classification-of-microorganisms-across-time-abiotic-and-biotic-environments-a-sliding-window-approach
#12
Frank Pennekamp, Jason I Griffiths, Emanuel A Fronhofer, Aurélie Garnier, Mathew Seymour, Florian Altermatt, Owen L Petchey
The development of video-based monitoring methods allows for rapid, dynamic and accurate monitoring of individuals or communities, compared to slower traditional methods, with far reaching ecological and evolutionary applications. Large amounts of data are generated using video-based methods, which can be effectively processed using machine learning (ML) algorithms into meaningful ecological information. ML uses user defined classes (e.g. species), derived from a subset (i.e. training data) of video-observed quantitative features (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467386/effects-of-hydroxylated-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-developing-zebrafish-are-indicative-of-disruption-of-oxidative-phosphorylation
#13
Jessica Legradi, Marinda van Pomeren, Anna-Karin Dahlberg, Juliette Legler
Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been detected in humans and wildlife. Using in vitro models, we recently showed that OH-PBDEs disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. The goal of the current study was to determine the in vivo effects of OH-PBDE reported in marine wildlife. To this end, we exposed zebrafish larvae to 17 OH-PBDEs from fertilisation to 6 days of age, and determined developmental toxicity as well as OXPHOS disruption potential with a newly developed assay of oxygen consumption in living embryos...
May 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463415/using-chromatin-immunoprecipitation-in-toxicology-a-step-by-step-guide-to-increasing-efficiency-reducing-variability-and-expanding-applications
#14
Shaun D McCullough, Doan M On, Emma C Bowers
Histone modifications work in concert with DNA methylation to regulate cellular structure, function, and response to environmental stimuli. More than 130 unique histone modifications have been described to date, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) allows for the exploration of their associations with the regulatory regions of target genes and other DNA/chromatin-associated proteins across the genome. Many variations of ChIP have been developed in the 30 years since its earliest version came into use, which makes it challenging for users to integrate the procedure into their research programs...
May 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461781/zebrafish-as-an-in-vivo-model-for-sustainable-chemical-design
#15
Pamela D Noyes, Gloria R Garcia, Robert L Tanguay
Heightened public awareness about the many thousands of chemicals in use and present as persistent contaminants in the environment has increased the demand for safer chemicals and more rigorous toxicity testing. There is a growing recognition that the use of traditional test models and empirical approaches is impractical for screening for toxicity the many thousands of chemicals in the environment and the hundreds of new chemistries introduced each year. These realities coupled with the green chemistry movement have prompted efforts to implement more predictive-based approaches to evaluate chemical toxicity early in product development...
December 21, 2016: Green Chemistry: An International Journal and Green Chemistry Resource: GC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460297/substitution-of-pfas-chemistry-in-outdoor-apparel-and-the-impact-on-repellency-performance
#16
Philippa J Hill, Mark Taylor, Parikshit Goswami, Richard S Blackburn
Intensifying legislation and increased research on the toxicological and persistent nature of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have recently influenced the direction of liquid repellent chemistry use; environmental, social, and sustainability responsibilities are at the crux. Without PFAS chemistry, it is challenging to meet current textile industry liquid repellency requirements, which is a highly desirable property, particularly in outdoor apparel where the technology helps to provide the wearer with essential protection from adverse environmental conditions...
April 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458204/cyanobacteria-blooms-in-water-italian-guidelines-to-assess-and-manage-the-risk-associated-to-bathing-and-recreational-activities
#17
Enzo Funari, Maura Manganelli, Franca M Buratti, Emanuela Testai
Cyanobacteria thrive in many aquatic environments, where they can produce cyanotoxins with different toxicological profile. Anthropic pressure and climate changes are causing the expansion in terms of time and space of their blooms, increasing the concerns for human health in several exposure scenarios. Here the update of the Italian guidelines for the management of cyanobacterial blooms in bathing water is presented. A risk-based approach has been developed according to the current scientific knowledge on cyanobacteria distribution in the Italian Lakes and on chemical, toxicological and epidemiological aspects of different cyanotoxins, summarized in the first part of the paper...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455566/toxicological-effects-of-sphaeranthus-indicus-linn-asteraceae-leaf-essential-oil-against-human-disease-vectors-culex-quinquefasciatus-say-and-aedes-aegypti-linn-and-impacts-on-a-beneficial-mosquito-predator
#18
Muthiah Chellappandian, Annamalai Thanigaivel, Prabhakaran Vasantha-Srinivasan, Edward-Sam Edwin, Athirstam Ponsankar, Selvaraj Selin-Rani, Kandaswamy Kalaivani, Sengottayan Senthil-Nathan, Giovanni Benelli
Use of environmentally friendly, decomposable natural products for effective vector control has gained considerable momentum in modern society. In this study, essential oil of Sphaeranthus indicus (Si-EO) was extracted and further phytochemical screening revealed fourteen compounds with prominent peak area percentage of 24.9 and 22.54% in 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde and benzene,2-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,4-dimethoxy, respectively. The Si-EO was further evaluated for their larvicidal response against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti at different dosages (62...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452032/mixture-risk-assessment-due-to-ingestion-of-arsenic-copper-and-zinc-from-milkfish-farmed-in-contaminated-coastal-areas
#19
Yi-Jun Lin, Min-Pei Ling, Szu-Chieh Chen, Wei-Yu Chen, Nan-Hung Hsieh, Yi-Hsien Cheng, Shu-Han You, Wei-Chun Chou, Ming-Chao Lin, Chung-Min Liao
Human health risks associated with the consumption of metal-contaminated fish over extended periods have become a concern particularly in Taiwan, where fish is consumed on a large scale. This study applied the interaction-based hazard index (HI) to assess the mixture health risks for fishers and non-fishers who consume the arsenic (As), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) contaminated milkfish from As-contaminated coastal areas in Taiwan, taking into account joint toxic actions and potential toxic interactions. We showed that the interactions of As-Zn and Cu-Zn were antagonistic, whereas As-Cu interaction was additive...
April 28, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447134/-poisonings-in-germany-poisons-centres-medical-management-and-national-monitoring
#20
REVIEW
Herbert Desel, Helmut Hentschel, Andreas Stürer
BACKGROUND: Illnesses caused by exposure to extracorporeal artificial substances play a major role in emergency medicine, family medicine, and environmental medicine. OBJECTIVE: The current situation of medical poisoning management and national reporting of poisonings in Germany are described. MATERIALS UND METHODS: The information and data presented here are derived from a literature review and from stakeholder interviews. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Eight poison centres (PCs) offer consultation supporting the diagnosis and treatment of poisoning cases in Germany today...
April 26, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
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