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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944077/how-does-hormesis-impact-biology-toxicology-and-medicine
#1
REVIEW
Edward J Calabrese, Mark P Mattson
Hormesis refers to adaptive responses of biological systems to moderate environmental or self-imposed challenges through which the system improves its functionality and/or tolerance to more severe challenges. The past two decades have witnessed an expanding recognition of the concept of hormesis, elucidation of its evolutionary foundations, and underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and practical applications to improve quality of life. To better inform future basic and applied research, we organized and re-evaluated recent hormesis-related findings with the intent of incorporating new knowledge of biological mechanisms, and providing fundamental insights into the biological, biomedical and risk assessment implications of hormesis...
2017: NPJ Aging and Mechanisms of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942081/environmental-exposure-to-organophosphorus-nerve-agents
#2
REVIEW
Slavica Vucinic, Biljana Antonijevic, Aristidis M Tsatsakis, Loukia Vassilopoulou, Anca Oana Docea, Alexander E Nosyrev, Boris N Izotov, Horst Thiermann, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Dragica Brkic
Exposure to organophosphorus nerve agents, the most deadly chemical warfare agents, is possible in a variety of situations, such as destruction of chemical warfare agents, terrorist attacks, armed conflicts or accidents in research laboratories and storage facilities. Hundreds of thousands of tons of chemical munitions were disposed of at the sea in the post World War II period, with European, Russian, Japanese and US coasts being the most affected. Sulfur mustard, Lewisite and nerve agents appear to be the most frequently chemical warfare agents disposed of at the sea...
September 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935999/integrating-a-biorepository-into-the-national-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-registry
#3
D Kevin Horton, Wendy Kaye, Laurie Wagner
As part of our continuing effort to highlight innovative approaches to improving the health and environment of communities, the Journal is pleased to publish a bimonthly column from the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). ATSDR is a federal public health agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and shares a common office of the Director with the National Center for Environmental Health (NCEH) at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ATSDR serves the public by using the best science, taking responsive public health actions, and providing trusted health information to prevent harmful exposures and diseases related to toxic substances...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934711/alterations-of-larval-photo-dependent-swimming-responses-pdr-new-endpoints-for-rapid-and-diagnostic-screening-of-aquatic-contamination
#4
Luis Colón-Cruz, Lauren Kristofco, Jonathan Crooke-Rosado, Agnes Acevedo, Aranza Torrado, Bryan W Brooks, María A Sosa, Martine Behra
Detection and toxicity assessment of waterborne contaminants are crucial for protecting human health and the environment. Development of easy-to-implement, rapid and cost-effective tools to measure anthropogenic effects on watersheds are critical for responsible management, particularly in times of increasing development and urbanization. Traditionally, environmental toxicology has focused on limited endpoints, such as lethality and fertility, which are directly affecting population levels. However, more sensitive readings are needed to assess sub-lethal effects...
September 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934642/physiological-responses-and-gene-expression-changes-in-the-western-mosquitofish-gambusia-affinis-exposed-to-progesterone-at-environmentally-relevant-concentrations
#5
Liping Hou, Hongyan Xu, Guangguo Ying, Yang Yang, Hu Shu, Jianliang Zhao, Xuemei Cheng
Progesterone (P4) is a natural and synthetic steroid, widely distributed in the aquatic environments. It can lead to adverse effects on the endocrine system in aquatic organisms. This study investigated the toxicological effects of exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (4, 44, and 410ng/L) of progesterone for 42 d on adult female mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis. We performed morphological and histological analyses on gonads, anal fins, liver, and gills after the exposure of mosquito fish to P4...
September 14, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933022/food-safety-aspects-of-primary-environmental-contaminants-in-the-edible-tissues-of-roe-deer-capreolus-capreolus
#6
József Lehel, Dóra Zwillinger, András Bartha, Katalin Lányi, Péter Laczay
The muscle, liver, kidney and fat samples of 20 roe deer of both sexes originating from a hunting area in central Hungary were investigated for the presence of heavy metals such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb, and their contents were evaluated for possible health risk to consumers. Both As and Hg were found at a level below the limit of detection (< 0.5 mg/kg wet weight) in all samples. The median of the measured Cd concentrations was significantly higher in both the kidney and the liver (p = 0.0011) of bucks than of does...
September 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929103/authorization-and-toxicity-of-veterinary-drugs-and-plant-protection-products-residues-of-the-active-ingredients-in-food-and-feed-and-toxicity-problems-related-to-adjuvants
#7
REVIEW
Szandra Klátyik, Péter Bohus, Béla Darvas, András Székács
Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927536/reflections-on-a-career-and-on-the-history-of-genetic-toxicity-testing-in-the-national-toxicology-program
#8
Errol Zeiger
One of the highly visible aspects of the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP) has been its genetic toxicity testing program, which has been responsible for testing, and making publicly available, in vitro and in vivo test data on thousands of chemicals since 1979. What is less well known, however, is that this NTP program had its origin in two separate testing programs that were initiated independently at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) before the NTP was established...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927530/an-insight-into-the-genotoxicity-assessment-studies-in-dipterans
#9
REVIEW
Nidhi Mishra, Rashmi Srivastava, Uma Rani Agrawal, Raghav Ram Tewari
The dipterans have been widely utilized in genotoxicity assessment studies. Short life span, easy maintenance, production of large number of offspring in a single generation and the tissues with appropriate cell populations make these flies ideal for studies associated to developmental biology, diseases, genetics, genetic toxicology and stress biology in the group. Moreover, their cosmopolitan presence makes them suitable candidate for ecological bio-monitoring. An attempt has been made in the present review to reveal the significance of dipteran flies for assessing alterations in genetic content through various genotoxicity biomarkers and to summarize the gradual advancement in these studies...
July 2017: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922594/dose-dependent-response-to-3-nitrobenzanthrone-exposure-in-human-urothelial-cancer-cells
#10
Mario Pink, Nisha Verma, Anna Zerries, Simone Schmitz-Spanke
A product of incomplete combustion of diesel fuel, 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA), has been classified as a cancer-causing substance. It first gained attention as a potential urinary bladder carcinogen due to the presence of its metabolite in urine and formation of DNA adducts. The aim of the present study was to characterise the dose-response relationship of 3-NBA in human urothelial cancer cell line (RT4) exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.0003 µM (environmentally relevant) to 80 µM by utilising toxicological and metabolomic approaches...
September 18, 2017: Chemical Research in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922086/assessment-of-ah-receptor-transcriptional-activity-mediated-by-halogenated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-pxdd-fs-in-human-and-mouse-cell-systems
#11
Kari L Organtini, Troy D Hubbard, Gary H Perdew, Frank L Dorman
Polybrominated and mixed bromo/chloro dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PXDD/Fs) are emerging environmental contaminants of concern. Thus far, an understanding of the toxicological behavior of these chemical species and their impact upon human health is incomplete. Here we utilized human and mouse hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines to examine the ability of differentially halogenated PXDD/F congeners to induce aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)-mediated transcriptional activity. Dose-response experiments in reporter cell lines identified varied potencies among differentially halogenated PXDD/F isomers by comparison of EC50 values relative to the prototypical AHR agonist, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919451/biphasic-modulation-of-neuro-and-interrenal-steroidogenesis-in-juvenile-african-sharptooth-catfish-clarias-gariepinus-exposed-to-waterborne-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#12
Augustine Arukwe, Oju R Ibor, Aina O Adeogun
Receptor (i.e. genomic) and non-receptor (or non-genomic) effects of endocrine toxicology have received limited or almost non-existent attention for tropical species and regions. In the present study, we have evaluated the effects of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) on neuro- and interrenal steroidogenesis of the African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) using molecular, immunochemical and physiological approaches. Juvenile fish (mean weight and length: 5.6±0.6g and 8.2±1.2cm, respectively), were randomly distributed into ten 120L rectangular glass tanks containing 60L of dechlorinated tap water, at 50 fish per exposure group...
September 14, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915126/toxicological-profile-of-organochlorines-aldrin-and-dieldrin-an-indian-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Noopur Sharma, Deepali Garg, Roumi Deb, Ratika Samtani
Several epidemiological studies have suggested various environmental factors as a possible cause for increased incidence of various abnormalities. Of the various environmental contaminants, the most prevalent and the most discussed are the endocrine disrupting chemicals. Contact of such disruptors with humans has become inevitable today. They are cosmopolitan and present from agriculture to industrial sectors, even in day-to-day consumer products. Aldrin and dieldrin belong to one such class of substances which are known to have a toxic effect on various physiological systems of the human body...
September 15, 2017: Reviews on Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903495/rna-seq-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-exposed-to-lead-pb-reveals-transcriptome-dynamics-splicing-alterations-and-disease-risk-associations
#14
Peng Jiang, Zhonggang Hou, Jennifer M Bolin, James A Thomson, Ron Stewart
Lead (Pb) is a well-known toxicant, especially for the developing nervous system, albeit the mechanism is largely unknown. In this study, we use time series RNA-seq to conduct a genome-wide survey of the transcriptome response of human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to lead treatment. Using a dynamic time warping algorithm coupled with statistical tests, we find that lead can either accelerate or decelerate the expression of specific genes during the time series. We further show that lead disrupts a neuron- and brain-specific splicing factor NOVA1 regulated splicing network...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898253/engineering-human-cell-spheroids-to-model-embryonic-tissue-fusion-in-vitro
#15
David G Belair, Cynthia J Wolf, Carmen Wood, Hongzu Ren, Rachel Grindstaff, William Padgett, Adam Swank, Denise MacMillan, Anna Fisher, Witold Winnik, Barbara D Abbott
Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions drive embryonic fusion events during development, and perturbations of these interactions can result in birth defects. Cleft palate and neural tube defects can result from genetic defects or environmental exposures during development, yet very little is known about the effect of chemical exposures on fusion events during human development because of a lack of relevant and robust human in vitro assays of developmental fusion behavior. Given the etiology and prevalence of cleft palate and the relatively simple architecture and composition of the embryonic palate, we sought to develop a three-dimensional culture system that mimics the embryonic palate and could be used to study fusion behavior in vitro using human cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891353/development-of-an-inhalation-unit-risk-factor-for-ethylene-dibromide
#16
Heather R Schaefer, Jessica L Myers
The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) follows standard scientific methods to develop up-to-date toxicity factors for chemicals emitted in the state of Texas. An inhalation unit risk factor (URF) was developed for ethylene dibromide (EDB, CAS 106-93-4) based on an increased incidence of nasal cavity adenocarcinomas observed in female rats in a 2-year inhalation cancer bioassay conducted by the National Toxicology Program (NTP). The NTP study provided evidence of several EDB-induced tumors in male and female rats and in female mice...
September 11, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889400/are-children-playgrounds-safe-play-areas-inorganic-analysis-and-lead-isotope-ratios-for-contamination-assessment-in-recreational-brazilian-parks
#17
Ainara Gredilla, Silvia Fdez-Ortiz de Vallejuelo, Leticia Gomez-Nubla, Jose Antonio Carrero, Felipe B de Leão, Juan Manuel Madariaga, Luis F O Silva
In city playgrounds, there is a potential risk of harming children's health by contamination coming from anthropogenic activities. With the aim to determinate the sources and the risk of hazardous elements, soil samples were collected in 19 selected playgrounds of different urban and rural areas from the Rio Grande do Sul state (Brazil). The concentration of 23 metals and metalloids and lead isotopic ratios were determined by ICP-MS. The methodology proposed here, firstly, classified the parks according to the average metal content by means of the NWACs (Normalized-and-Weighted Average Concentrations) and assess the contamination risk determining the Contamination Factors (CFs)...
September 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889346/prospective-of-microbial-exopolysaccharide-for-heavy-metal-exclusion
#18
Bhavana V Mohite, Sunil H Koli, Chandrakant P Narkhede, Sucheta N Patil, Satish V Patil
Metals as a resource are depleting, and on another side, it fetches serious environmental pollution causing a threat to human health and ecosystem. The heavy metal accumulation due to anthropogenic activities results in toxicological manifestation. The traditional methods of remediation are not cost effective, efficient, and ecofriendly which necessitate and motivate towards the safe, effective, and ecofriendly biological methods. The increasing presence of heavy metals in the microbial habitat compels the microbes to develop the ability to tolerate or resist the presence of heavy metals...
September 9, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889277/neurodegeneration-induced-by-metals-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#19
Felix Antunes Soares, Daiandra Almeida Fagundez, Daiana Silva Avila
Metals are a component of a variety of ecosystems and organisms. They can generally be divided into essential and nonessential metals. The essential metals are involved in physiological processes once the deficiency of these metals has been associated with diseases. Although iron, manganese, copper, and zinc are important for life, it has been evidenced that they are also involved in neuronal damage in many neurodegenerative disorders. Nonessential metals, which are metals without physiological functions, are present in trace or higher levels in living organisms...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889270/uranium-and-the-central-nervous-system-what-should-we-learn-from-recent-new-tools-and-findings
#20
Céline Dinocourt
Increasing industrial and military use of uranium has led to environmental pollution, which may result in uranium reaching the brain and causing cerebral dysfunction. A recent literature review has discussed data published over the last 10 years on uranium and its effects on brain function (Dinocourt C, Legrand M, Dublineau I, et al., Toxicology 337:58-71, 2015). New models of uranium exposure during neonatal brain development and the emergence of new technologies (omics and epigenetics) are of value in identifying new specific targets of uranium...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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