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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914352/searching-for-novel-modes-of-toxic-actions-of-oil-spill-using-e-%C3%A2-coli-live-cell-array-reporter-system-a-hebei-spirit-oil-spill-study
#1
Dawoon Jung, Miao Guan, Sangwoo Lee, Cheolmin Kim, Hyesoo Shin, Seongjin Hong, Un Hyuk Yim, Won Joon Shim, John P Giesy, Jong Seong Khim, Xiaowei Zhang, Kyungho Choi
Oil is a complex mixture of numerous compounds. Therefore, oil spills near shore can cause various adverse effects on coastal ecosystems. However, most toxicological assessments conducted on oil spill sites have focused on limited modes of toxic actions. In the present study, we utilized the Escherichia coli (E. coli) live cell array system (LCA) to identify novel modes of toxicities of the oil spill-affected sediments. For this purpose, sediment samples were collected from an area heavily polluted by Hebei Spirit oil spill (HSOS) incident of 2007...
November 30, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907809/does-exposure-to-phthalates-influence-thyroid-function-and-growth-hormone-homeostasis-the-taiwan-environmental-survey-for-toxicants-test-2013
#2
Han-Bin Huang, Wen-Harn Pan, Jung-Wei Chang, Hung-Che Chiang, Yue Leon Guo, Jouni J K Jaakkola, Po-Chin Huang
BACKGROUND: Previous epidemiologic and toxicological studies provide some inconsistent evidence that exposure to phthalates may affect thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis. OBJECTIVE: To assess the relations between exposure to phthalates and indicators of thyroid function and growth hormone homeostasis disturbances both among adults and minors. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study of 279 Taiwanese adults (≥18 years old) and 79 minors (<18 years old) in 2013...
November 28, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904610/effects-of-air-pollution-on-human-health-and-practical-measures-for-prevention-in-iran
#3
REVIEW
Adel Ghorani-Azam, Bamdad Riahi-Zanjani, Mahdi Balali-Mood
Air pollution is a major concern of new civilized world, which has a serious toxicological impact on human health and the environment. It has a number of different emission sources, but motor vehicles and industrial processes contribute the major part of air pollution. According to the World Health Organization, six major air pollutants include particle pollution, ground-level ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, and lead. Long and short term exposure to air suspended toxicants has a different toxicological impact on human including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, neuropsychiatric complications, the eyes irritation, skin diseases, and long-term chronic diseases such as cancer...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901621/perfluorooctanoic-acid-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblast-cells
#4
Eun Mi Choi, Kwang Sik Suh, Sang Youl Rhee, Seungjoon Oh, Jeong-Taek Woo, Sung Woon Kim, Young Seol Kim, Youngmi Kim Pak, Suk Chon
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a stable organic perfluorinated compound, is an emerging persistent organic pollutant, found widely in human and wildlife populations. Recent evidence suggests that exposure to environmental toxicants can be associated with higher risks of osteoporosis and fractures. We studied the cellular toxicology of PFOA in MC3T3-E1osteoblast cells. To examine the effect of PFOA, we measured cell viability, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial superoxide, and mitochondrial parameters including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), cardiolipin content, and cytochrome c release in MC3T3-E1 cells...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898327/effects-of-three-different-embryonic-exposure-modes-of-2-2-4-4-tetrabromodiphenyl-ether-on-the-path-angle-and-social-activity-of-zebrafish-larvae
#5
Bin Zhang, Xiaoling Chen, Ruijie Pan, Ting Xu, Jing Zhao, Wenping Huang, Youyu Liu, Daqiang Yin
The toxicological research of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) has focused on its neurotoxicity; however, many questions still remain. For example, behavioral effects other than basic locomotion are seldom reported. To further evaluate the neurobehavioral toxicity of 2, 2', 4, 4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a typical PBDE congener in animal tissues, we employed three different exposure modes, namely, continuous, early pulse, and interval exposure, to investigate the path angle and social activity changes of zebrafish larvae exposed to BDE-47 using automated equipment (Zebrabox)...
November 26, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895264/sex-differences-in-human-and-animal-toxicology-toxicokinetics
#6
Michael Gochfeld
Sex, the states of being female or male, potentially interacts with all xenobiotic exposures, both inadvertent and deliberate, and influences their toxicokinetics (TK), toxicodynamics, and outcomes. Sex differences occur in behavior, exposure, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics, accounting for female-male differences in responses to environmental chemicals, diet, and pharmaceuticals, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Often viewed as an annoying confounder, researchers have studied only one sex, adjusted for sex, or ignored it...
November 28, 2016: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894055/indirect-effects-of-climate-changes-on-cadmium-bioavailability-and-biological-effects-in-the-mediterranean-mussel-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#7
Alessandro Nardi, Luana Fiorella Mincarelli, Maura Benedetti, Daniele Fattorini, Giuseppe d'Errico, Francesco Regoli
Despite the great interest in the consequences of climate change on the physiological functioning of marine organisms, indirect and interactive effects of rising temperature and pCO2 on bioaccumulation and responsiveness to environmental pollutants are still poorly explored, particularly in terms of cellular mechanisms. According to future projections of temperature and pH/pCO2, this study investigated the main cellular pathways involved in metal detoxification and oxidative homeostasis in Mediterranean mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis, exposed for 4 weeks to various combinations of two levels of pH/pCO2 (8...
November 25, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886581/a-multi-omic-approach-to-elucidate-low-dose-effects-of-xenobiotics-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-larvae
#8
Susie S Y Huang, Jonathan P Benskin, Nik Veldhoen, Bharat Chandramouli, Heather Butler, Caren C Helbing, John R Cosgrove
Regulatory-approved toxicity assays such as the OECD Fish Embryo Toxicity Assay (TG236) allow correlation of chemical exposure to adverse morphological phenotypes. However, these assays are ineffective in assessing sub-lethal (i.e. low-dose) effects, or differentiating between similar phenotypes induced by different chemicals. Inclusion of multi-omic analyses in studies investigating xenobiotic action provides improved characterization of biological response, thereby enhancing prediction of toxicological outcomes in whole animals in the absence of morphological effects...
November 18, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883231/evaluating-the-credibility-of-histopathology-data-in-environmental-endocrine-toxicity-studies
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey C Wolf, Gerd Maack
Agencies responsible for environmental protection are tasked with developing regulatory guidance that is based on the best available scientific evidence. Histopathology is a common endpoint in toxicologic bioassays; however, because of the subjective nature of this endpoint, and the advanced level of specialized training required for its effective utilization, the reliability of histopathology data can be inconsistent. Consequently, mechanisms for evaluating such data on a case-by-case basis are needed. The purposes of this review are to describe a methodology that can be used to evaluate the credibility of histopathology findings, and discuss the results of such assessments as applied to real-world data collected from the scientific literature...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869673/3d-visualization-of-developmental-toxicity-of-2-4-6-trinitrotoluene-in-zebrafish-embryogenesis-using-light-sheet-microscopy
#10
Juneyong Eum, Jina Kwak, Hee Joung Kim, Seoyoung Ki, Kooyeon Lee, Ahmed A Raslan, Ok Kyu Park, Md Ashraf Uddin Chowdhury, Song Her, Yun Kee, Seung-Hae Kwon, Byung Joon Hwang
Environmental contamination by trinitrotoluene is of global concern due to its widespread use in military ordnance and commercial explosives. Despite known long-term persistence in groundwater and soil, the toxicological profile of trinitrotoluene and other explosive wastes have not been systematically measured using in vivo biological assays. Zebrafish embryos are ideal model vertebrates for high-throughput toxicity screening and live in vivo imaging due to their small size and transparency during embryogenesis...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867807/screening-for-potential-endocrine-disruptors-in-fish-evidence-from-structural-alerts-and-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-toxicological-assays
#11
Monika Nendza, Andrea Wenzel, Martin Müller, Geertje Lewin, Nelly Simetska, Frauke Stock, Jürgen Arning
BACKGROUND: The European chemicals' legislation REACH aims to protect man and the environment from substances of very high concern (SVHC). Chemicals like endocrine disruptors (EDs) may be subject to authorization. Identification of (potential) EDs with regard to the environment is limited because specific experimental assessments are not standard requirements under REACH. Evidence is based on a combination of in vitro and in vivo experiments (if available), expert judgement, and structural analogy with known EDs...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864735/environmental-analysis-of-waste-foundry-sand-via-life-cycle-assessment
#12
Jozef Mitterpach, Emília Hroncová, Juraj Ladomerský, Karol Balco
The aim of this manuscript is to provide an environmental assessment of the creation and use of waste foundry sand (WFS) via an LCA in a foundry for grey cast iron. A life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 8. This environmental analysis assessed the impact of creating waste foundry sand (WFS) in a foundry, Hronec (Slovakia, Central Europe). According to BREF, this foundry is classified as an iron foundry with a production capacity greater than 20 t/day with processes typical for grey cast iron foundries...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864593/toxicogenomics-in-environmental-science
#13
Alexandra Brinke, Sebastian Buchinger
This chapter reviews the current knowledge and recent progress in the field of environmental, aquatic ecotoxicogenomics with a focus on transcriptomic methods. In ecotoxicogenomics the omics technologies are applied for the detection and assessment of adverse effects in the environment, and thus are to be distinguished from omics used in human toxicology [Snape et al., Aquat Toxicol 67:143-154, 2004]. Transcriptomic methods in ecotoxicology are applied to gain a mechanistic understanding of toxic effects on organisms or populations, and thus aim to bridge the gap between cause and effect...
November 19, 2016: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859543/chemical-activity-based-environmental-risk-analysis-of-the-plasticizer-di-ethylhexyl-phthalate-and-its-main-metabolite-mono-ethylhexyl-phthalate
#14
Frank A P C Gobas, S Victoria Otton, Laura F Tupper-Ring, Meara A Crawford, Kathryn E Clark, Michael G Ikonomou
This study applies a chemical activity-based approach to (i) evaluate environmental concentrations of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (n = 23,651) and its metabolite mono-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) (n = 1,232) in 16 environmental media from 1,174 studies in the United States, Canada, Europe and Asia, and in-vivo toxicity data from 934 studies in 20 species as well as in-vitro biological activity data from USEPA's Toxicity Forecaster (ToxCast) and other sources; and (ii) conduct a comprehensive environmental risk analysis...
November 17, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855330/behavioural-effect-of-low-dose-bpa-on-male-zebrafish-tuning-of-male-mating-competition-and-female-mating-preference-during-courtship-process
#15
Xiang Li, Jia-Yu Guo, Xu Li, Hai-Jun Zhou, Shu-Hui Zhang, Xiao-Dong Liu, Dong-Yan Chen, Yong-Chun Fang, Xi-Zeng Feng
The ubiquity of environmental pollution by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as bisphenol A (BPA) is progressively considered as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Numerous toxicological studies have proved that BPA are hazardous to aquatic environment, along with alterations in the development and physiology of aquatic vertebrates. However, generally, there is a paucity in knowledge of behavioural and physiological effects of BPA with low concentration, for example, 0.22 nM (50 ng/L) and 2...
November 14, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847480/disease-and-disorders-of-freshwater-unionid-mussels-a-brief-overview-of-recent-studies
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Carella, Grazia Villari, Nicola Maio, Gionata De Vico
The use of aquatic invertebrates in biomedical research and as environmental sentinels has dramatically grown in recent decades, with an increased need in understanding of comparative pathology. The Unionids freshwater mussels are a group of worldwide distributed bivalves residing small ditches and ponds, lakes, canals and rivers, often used as animal test in eco-toxicological studies. Once one of the most abundant bivalve molluscs in ancient rivers around the world, now many of them are declining in many countries and consequently are nearly extinct in many areas...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844421/environmental-impacts-of-tobacco-product-waste-international-and-australian-policy-responses
#17
REVIEW
Lucinda A Wallbank, Ross MacKenzie, Paul J Beggs
The health risks of tobacco consumption are well established, but there is less awareness of the global environmental impacts of smoking. The by-products of the 6.3 trillion cigarettes smoked annually are filters (butts) that contain benzene, nicotine, cadmium, and dozens of other chemicals. It is estimated that between one- and two-thirds of all filters are discarded on roads, pavements, and green spaces. Butt litter as an environmental and public health hazard is a relatively new field of study, but recent research and findings have clear global implications...
November 14, 2016: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842788/toxicology-in-reproductive-endocrinology
#18
REVIEW
Roohi Jeelani, Martin H Bluth, Husam M Abu-Soud
Fertility relies on a series of time dependent events, which are largely regulated by hormones. Concentration and function of these hormones can be altered by exposure of consumed and environmental toxins. It is of important to consider the dose and timing of toxin exposures in assessing the impact of them on reproductive health, however the utility of laboratory assessment in this regard is not well established. General laboratory assessment of reproduction and infertility includes hormone evaluation (hCG, prolactin, TSH, free thyroxin, FSH, LH and androgens among others) and treatment is via various assisted reproductive technologies...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836757/pm2-5-exposure-induced-autophagy-is-mediated-by-lncrna-loc146880-which-also-promotes-the-migration-and-invasion-of-lung-cancer-cells
#19
Xiaobei Deng, Nannan Feng, Min Zheng, Xiaofei Ye, Hongyan Lin, Xiao Yu, Zhihua Gan, Zheng Fang, Huan Zhang, Ming Gao, Zhi-Jie Zheng, Herbert Yu, Wenjun Ding, Biyun Qian
BACKGROUND: Evidence shows that individuals who are under long-term exposure to environmental PM2.5 are at increased risk of lung cancer. Various laboratory experiments also suggest several mechanistic links between PM2.5 exposure and lung carcinogenesis. However, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) mediated pathogenic change after PM2.5 exposure and its potential roles in tumorigenesis and disease progression have not been reported. METHODS: Cytotoxicity induced by PM2...
November 9, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833648/alternative-drugs-go-global-possible-lead-and-or-mercury-intoxication-from-imported-natural-health-products-and-a-need-for-scientifically-evaluated-poisoning-monitoring-from-environmental-exposures
#20
Lygia Therese Budnik, Xaver Baur, Volker Harth, Axel Hahn
BACKGROUND: With increases in globalization, cultural remedies from Chinese, Ayurvedic, Arab and other traditions have become more available to international consumers, offering unfamiliar "Natural Health Products" (NHP), used as alternative medicine or supplementary medicine. Contamination with toxic ingredients including lead, mercury, arsenic, and other toxic elements has been documented in several of these products from various parts of the globe, particularly from some parts of Asia and the Orient...
2016: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
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