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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732339/aryl-and-alkyl-phosphorus-containing-flame-retardants-induced-mitochondrial-impairment-and-cell-death-in-chinese-hamster-ovary-cho-k1-cells
#1
Chao Huang, Na Li, Shengwu Yuan, Xiaoya Ji, Mei Ma, Kaifeng Rao, Zijian Wang
Phosphorus-containing flame retardants (PFRs) are increasingly in demand worldwide as replacements for brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but insufficient available toxicological information on PFRs makes assessing their health risks challenging. Mitochondria are important targets of various environmental pollutants, and mitochondrial dysfunction may lead to many common diseases. In the present study, mitochondria impairment-related endpoints were measured by a high content screening (HCS) assay for 11 selected non-halogen PFRs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-k1) cells...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731309/toxicology-of-lead-and-its-damage-to-mammalian-organs
#2
Samuel Caito, Ana Carolina B Almeida Lopes, Monica M B Paoliello, Michael Aschner
The toxicity of lead has been appreciated for centuries. Lead is a commonly used metal in industrialized nations, which results in the release of lead into the environment. Governmental agencies regulate the amount of lead permissible for workers to be exposed to; however, unregulated environmental lead exposure is a high concern. While essential metals have physiologic roles, there are no health benefits from lead intake. In this chapter, we discuss sources of lead exposure, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of lead from the human body, and molecular mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity...
April 10, 2017: Metal Ions in Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731222/bio-nano-interface-and-environment-a-critical-review
#3
Gerardo Pulido-Reyes, Francisco Leganes, Francisca Fernández-Piñas, Roberto Rosal
The Bio-Nano interface is the boundary where the Engineered NanoMaterials (ENM) meet the biological system, exerting the biological function for what they have been designed or inducing adverse effects to other cells or organisms when they reach non-target scenarios, i.e: the natural environment. Research has been performed to determine the fate, transport, and toxic properties of ENM, but much of it focused on pristine or "as manufactured" ENM or where modifications of the materials were not assessed. This article reviews the most recent progresses regarding the Bio-Nano interface and the transformations that ENM suffer in the environment, paying special attention to the adsorption of environmental biomolecules on the surface of ENM...
July 21, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729132/meclas-an-online-tool-for-hazard-identification-and-classification-of-complex-inorganic-metal-containing-materials
#4
Frederik Verdonck, Hugo Waeterschoot, Patrick Van Sprang, Isabelle Vercaigne, Katrien Delbeke, Chretien Simons, Violaine Verougstraete
MeClas is a web-based tool to generate (eco)toxicity hazard categories and corresponding classification & labelling information of inorganic metal-containing complex materials such as ores, concentrates, intermediates or alloys for which the manual application of the GHS/CLP rules is very complex and requires a high level of consistency. The tool comprises several tiers, aimed at the progressive refinement of classification through recognition of specific mineral content, speciation/mineralogy up to bio-availability corrections...
July 17, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726072/concentration-of-thyrotropic-hormone-in-persons-occupationally-exposed-to-lead-cadmium-and-arsenic
#5
Marta Jurdziak, Paweł Gać, Małgorzata Poręba, Anna Szymańska-Chabowska, Grzegorz Mazur, Rafał Poręba
Thyroid hormones are essential for body homeostasis. The scientific literature contains restricted proofs for effects of environmental chemical factors on thyroid function. The present study aimed at evaluating the relationship between toxicological parameters and concentration of thyrotropic hormone in persons occupationally exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic. The studies were conducted on 102 consecutive workers occupationally exposed to lead, cadmium and arsenic (mean age 45.08 ± 9.87 years). The estimated parameters characterizing occupational exposure to metals included blood cadmium concentration (Cd-B), blood lead concentration (Pb-B), blood zinc protoporphyrin concentration (ZnPP) and urine arsenic concentration (As-U)...
July 19, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725556/de-novo-transcriptome-assembly-for-the-lung-of-the-ornamented-pygmy-frog-microhyla-fissipes
#6
Lusha Liu, Shouhong Wang, Lanying Zhao, Jianping Jiang
Microhyla fissipes, belonging to Neobatrachia, is a new model organism to study developmental biology, adaptive mechanisms from aquatic to terrestrial life, environmental toxicology, and human disease. M. fissipes use of lungs soon after hatching makes it extremely valuable for the study of lung function and development mechanisms. However, our knowledge of genes and pathways associated with lung development in M. fissipes is very limited. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly for the lung of M...
September 2017: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719877/functional-genomic-assessment-of-2-2-bis-bromomethyl-1-3-propanediol-induced-cytotoxicity-in-a-single-gene-knockout-library-of-e-%C3%A2-coli
#7
Miao Guan, Xiaowei Zhang
Functional gene fingerprinting of chemicals could be used to understand the direct gene-chemical interaction in the process of toxification from a genome-wide scale. 2, 2-bis (bromomethyl)-1, 3-propanediol (BMP) is a brominated flame retardant with widespread production but with very limited toxicological data. Here the cytotoxicity of BMP was assessed by Escherichia coli (E. coli) functional genome-wide knockout mutants screening and the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated. The median inhibition concentration (IC50) of BMP was 1...
July 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714573/assessment-of-the-dna-damaging-potential-of-environmental-chemicals-using-a-quantitative-high-throughput-screening-approach-to-measure-p53-activation
#8
Kristine L Witt, Jui-Hua Hsieh, Stephanie L Smith-Roe, Menghang Xia, Ruili Huang, Jinghua Zhao, Scott S Auerbach, Junguk Hur, Raymond R Tice
Genotoxicity potential is a critical component of any comprehensive toxicological profile. Compounds that induce DNA or chromosomal damage often activate p53, a transcription factor essential to cell cycle regulation. Thus, within the US Tox21 Program, we screened a library of ∼10,000 (∼8,300 unique) environmental compounds and drugs for activation of the p53-signaling pathway using a quantitative high-throughput screening assay employing HCT-116 cells (p53(+/+) ) containing a stably integrated β-lactamase reporter gene under control of the p53 response element (p53RE)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713383/the-toxicological-mechanisms-of-environmental-soot-black-carbon-and-carbon-black-focus-on-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Rituraj Niranjan, Ashwani Kumar Thakur
The environmental soot and carbon blacks (CBs) cause many diseases in humans, but their underlying mechanisms of toxicity are still poorly understood. Both are formed after the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons but differ in their constituents and percent carbon contents. For the first time, "Sir Percival Pott" described soot as a carcinogen, which was subsequently confirmed by many others. The existing data suggest three main types of diseases due to soot and CB exposures: cancer, respiratory diseases, and cardiovascular dysfunctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710991/the-impact-assessment-of-anticancer-drug-imatinib-on-the-feeding-behavior-of-rotifers-with-an-integrated-perspective-exposure-post-exposure-and-re-exposure
#10
Zhengyu Yan, Kun Yan, Xingliang He, Yanhua Liu, Jie Zhang, Oscar Lopez Torres, Ruixin Guo, Jianqiu Chen
The anticancer drugs are getting increasing attention as an emerging contaminant in the aquatic environments. In the present study, feeding behavior of the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus under the impact of anticancer drug imatinib was evaluated. Traditional toxicological studies usually focus on dose-effect relationship at a given exposure time, while ignore the possible impact after the exposure. Thus, how the impact varied in the post-exposure and re-exposure was also considered in the present study. The feeding depression of the rotifers was attributed to the increased concentration of imatinib...
July 12, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707494/dry-coating-of-solid-dosage-forms-an-overview-of-processes-and-applications
#11
Anastasia Foppoli, Alessandra Maroni, Matteo Cerea, Lucia Zema, Andrea Gazzaniga
Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental and safety-related issues on one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics...
July 14, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704774/corrosion-protection-products-as-a-source-of-bisphenol-a-and-toxicity-to-the-aquatic-environment
#12
Etiënne L M Vermeirssen, Conrad Dietschweiler, Inge Werner, Michael Burkhardt
Steel components are typically treated with anti-corrosion coatings like epoxy or polyurethane resins to protect the integrity and functioning of steel. Such resins may contain substances, such as bisphenol A (BPA), that have caused concern in a human and environmental toxicological context. We investigated the release of toxicity from four anti-corrosion coatings used in hydraulic and civil engineering. Resins were applied onto glass plates and leachate samples produced by horizontally shaking the plates in water for 7 days...
July 3, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702563/remarkable-differences-in-the-biochemical-fate-of-cd-2-hg-2-ch3hg-and-thimerosal-in-red-blood-cell-lysate
#13
Matthew A Gibson, Sophia Sarpong-Kumankomah, Susan Nehzati, Graham N George, Jürgen Gailer
Humans are environmentally exposed to potentially toxic Cd and Hg species and to the Hg compound thimerosal (THI), an antibactericidal vaccine additive. Previous studies have revealed that Cd(2+), Hg(2+) and CH3Hg(+) are taken up by red blood cells (RBCs) and bind to cytosolic glutathione (GSH) and/or hemoglobin (Hb). Since interactions in the cytosol of RBCs may be linked to their hemolysis, a more comprehensive characterization of these interactions was sought. After the addition of each Cd and Hg species to RBC lysate, the mixtures were analyzed after 5 min, 2 h and 6 h by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES)...
July 12, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698907/virtual-issue-1-oil-spill-research-in-the-bulletin-of-environmental-contamination-and-toxicology
#14
EDITORIAL
Mace G Barron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 11, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697389/interaction-patterns-and-toxicities-of-binary-and-ternary-pesticide-mixtures-to-daphnia-magna-estimated-by-an-accelerated-failure-time-model
#15
Xuchun Qiu, Wataru Tanoue, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Takashi Yanagawa, Masanori Seki, Yohei Shimasaki, Tsuneo Honjo, Yuji Oshima
Organisms in natural environments are often exposed to a broad variety of chemicals, and the multi-chemical mixtures exposure may produce significant toxic effects, even though the individual chemicals are present at concentrations below their no-observed-effect concentrations. This study represents the first attempt that uses the accelerated failure time (AFT) model to quantify the interaction and toxicity of multi-chemical mixtures in environmental toxicology. We firstly conducted the acute immobilization tests with Daphnia magna exposed to mixtures of diazinon (DZN), fenitrothion (MEP); and thiobencarb (TB) in single, binary, and ternary formulations, and then fitted the results to the AFT model...
July 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696678/benchmarking-water-quality-from-wastewater-to-drinking-waters-using-reduced-transcriptome-of-human-cells
#16
Pu Xia, Xiaowei Zhang, Hanxin Zhang, Pingping Wang, Mingming Tian, Hongxia Yu
One of the major challenge in environmental science is how to monitor and assess the risk of complex environmental mixtures. In vitro bioassays with limited key toxicological endpoints have been shown to be suitable to evaluate mixtures of organic pollutants in wastewater and recycled water. Omics approaches such as transcriptomics can monitor biological effects at genome-scale. However, few studies have applied omics approach in the assessment of mixtures of organic micropollutants. Here, an omics approach was developed for profiling bioactivity of ten water samples ranging from wastewater to drinking water in human cells by a reduced human transcriptome (RHT) method and dose response modeling...
July 11, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695304/heavy-metal-contamination-in-river-water-and-sediments-of-the-swarnamukhi-river-basin-india-risk-assessment-and-environmental-implications
#17
Priyanka Patel, N Janardhana Raju, B C Sundara Raja Reddy, U Suresh, D B Sankar, T V K Reddy
The concentration of heavy metals was analyzed each of 20 river water, suspended sediments and bed sediments along the stretch of Swarnamukhi River Basin. River water is not contaminated with heavy metals except Fe and Mn. Contamination factor in sediments shows considerable to very high degree contamination with Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The sources of these metals could be residential wastes, sewer outfall, fertilizers, pesticides (M-45 + carbondine) and traffic activities apart from natural weathering of granitic rocks present in the basin area...
July 10, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694970/increasing-evidence-indicates-low-bioaccumulation-of-carbon-nanotubes
#18
Rhema Bjorkland, David Tobias, Elijah J Petersen
As the production of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) expands, so might the potential for release into the environment. The possibility of bioaccumulation and toxicological effects has prompted research on their fate and potential ecological effects. For many organic chemicals, bioaccumulation properties are associated with lipid-water partitioning properties. However, predictions based on phase partitioning provide a poor fit for nanomaterials. In the absence of data on the bioaccumulation and other properties of CNTs, the Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics (OPPT) within the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subjects new pre-manufacture submissions for all nanomaterials to a higher-level review...
2017: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689762/a-toxicological-review-of-the-ethylene-glycol-series-commonalities-and-differences-in-toxicity-and-modes-of-action
#19
Jeff Fowles, Marcy Banton, Joanna Klapacz, Hua Shen
This review summarizes the hazards, exposure and risk that are associated with ethylene glycols (EGs) in their intended applications. Ethylene glycol (EG; CAS RN 107-21-1) and its related oligomers include mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-EG. All of the EGs are quickly and extensively absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, but not by the dermal route. Metabolism involves oxidation to the mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Elimination is primarily through the urine as the parent compound or the monoacid, and, in the case of EG, also as exhaled carbon dioxide...
July 6, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686651/a-preliminary-approach-to-quantifying-the-overall-environmental-risks-posed-by-development-projects-during-environmental-impact-assessment
#20
Sam Nicol, Iadine Chadès
Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is used globally to manage the impacts of development projects on the environment, so there is an imperative to demonstrate that it can effectively identify risky projects. However, despite the widespread use of quantitative predictive risk models in areas such as toxicology, ecosystem modelling and water quality, the use of predictive risk tools to assess the overall expected environmental impacts of major construction and development proposals is comparatively rare. A risk-based approach has many potential advantages, including improved prediction and attribution of cause and effect; sensitivity analysis; continual learning; and optimal resource allocation...
2017: PloS One
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