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Environmental toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806580/the-eco-toxic-effects-of-pesticide-and-heavy-metal-mixtures-towards-earthworms-in-soil
#1
REVIEW
Herman Uwizeyimana, Meie Wang, Weiping Chen, Kifayatullah Khan
Earthworms are the key soil organisms, contribute to many positive ecological services that could be degraded by pesticides and other soil pollutants such as heavy metals. Chemicals usually occur as mixtures in the environmental systems which can lead synergistic effects. The assessment and characterization of soil pollutants that effects risks are very difficult due to the complexity of soil matrix, poor understanding about the fate and effects of chemical combinations like pesticide and metal mixtures in terrestrial systems, and scarcity of toxicological data on mixtures of pollutants...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806564/tissue-distribution-and-toxicity-effects-of-myclobutanil-enantiomers-in-lizards-eremias-argus
#2
Li Chen, Ruiting Li, Jinling Diao, Zhongnan Tian, Shanshan Di, Wenjun Zhang, Cheng Cheng, Zhiqiang Zhou
In recent years, serious environmental pollution has caused a decrease in the abundance of many species worldwide. Reptiles are the most diverse group of terrestrial vertebrates. There are large amounts of toxicological data available regarding myclobutanil, but the adverse effects of myclobutanil on lizards has not been widely reported. In this study, treatment groups were orally administered a single-dose of myclobutanil (20mg/kg body weight (bw)). Subsequently, it was found that there were differences in myclobutanil levels between the different tissues and concentrations also changed with degradation time...
August 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803428/environmental-hazard-assessment-by-the-ecoscore-system-to-discriminate-pah-polluted-soils
#3
Christine Lors, Jean-François Ponge, Denis Damidot
A bioassay battery-integrated index was applied to different soils sampled from a former coke factory, with the aim to evaluate the discriminating capacity of the Ecoscore system (ES) to assess the environmental hazard of PAH-polluted soils. Two soils from a former coke factory, polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were evaluated for their ecotoxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and their genotoxicity. These soils have been already presented in a previous paper but data have been reanalyzed for the present article in an endeavor to standardize the ES...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803025/the-effect-of-nano-tio2-photocatalysis-on-the-antioxidant-activities-of-cu-zn-sod-at-physiological-ph
#4
Wen Zheng, Hai-Feng Zou, Shao-Wu Lv, Yan-Hong Lin, Min Wang, Fei Yan, Ye Sheng, Yan-Hua Song, Jie Chen, Ke-Yan Zheng
Security issues of nanoparticles on biological toxicity and potential environmental risk have attracted more and more attention with the rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology. In this work, we explored the effect and probable mechanism of nano-TiO2 on antioxidant activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) under natural light and mixed light at physiological pH. Nano-TiO2 was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method, and then characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron micrographs (TEM)...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802948/modelling-the-toxicity-of-a-large-set-of-metal-and-metal-oxide-nanoparticles-using-the-ochem-platform
#5
Vasyl Kovalishyn, Natalia Abramenko, Iryna Kopernyk, Larysa Charochkina, Larysa Metelytsia, Igor V Tetko, Willie Peijnenburg, Leonid Kustov
Inorganic nanomaterials have become one of the new areas of modern knowledge and technology and have already found an increasing number of applications. However, some nanoparticles show toxicity to living organisms, and can potentially have a negative influence on environmental ecosystems. While toxicity can be determined experimentally, such studies are time consuming and costly. Computational toxicology can provide an alternative approach and there is a need to develop methods to reliably assess Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships for nanomaterials (nano-QSPRs)...
August 9, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802021/acute-exposure-to-an-environmentally-relevant-concentration-of-diclofenac-elicits-oxidative-stress-in-the-culturally-important-galaxiid-fish-galaxias-maculatus
#6
Nicole K Mcrae, Chris N Glover, S Rebekah Burket, Bryan W Brooks, Sally Gaw
Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug of growing concern in aquatic environments worldwide, yet knowledge of its effects on aquatic biota are restricted to a few model species and mechanisms of impact. In the current study, diclofenac accumulation, its effects on metabolic rate, ionoregulation, and oxidative stress were examined at environmentally-relevant (0.17 μg L-1) and elevated (763 μg L-1) concentrations in a culturally and economically important galaxiid fish, inanga (Galaxias maculatus), from the Southern Hemisphere...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801706/seasonal-distribution-source-identification-and-toxicological-risk-assessment-of-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-sediments-from-wadi-el-bey-watershed-in-tunisia
#7
Imen Gdara, Ines Zrafi, Catia Balducci, Angelo Cecinato, Ahmed Ghrabi
Surface sediments were collected from the Watershed of Wadi El Bey in Tunisia to evaluate the degree of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contamination. Sediments were collected during different seasons in 14 sites that received wastes from domestic effluent, industrial discharge, and agricultural drainage wastes. Twenty-six individual PAHs were analyzed. The total PAH contents (Σ PAHs) in surface sediments showed wide variability, ranging from 6.89 ± 0.05 to 340 ± 0.1 ng g(-1). The 4-, 5-, and 6-ring compounds were the most abundant PAHs detected at the majority of sites...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800684/sediment-zn-release-during-post-drought-re-flooding-assessing-environmental-risk-to-hyalella-azteca-and-daphnia-magna
#8
Sara M Nedrich, G Allen Burton
Hydrologic variability exacerbated by climate change affects biogeochemical cycling in sediments through changes in pH, redox, and microbial activity. These alterations affect the lability and speciation of metals, such that toxicity may be observed in otherwise non-toxic sediments. In this study, we investigate the effects of drought and reflooding on metal bioavailability in sediments with low to moderate concentrations of Zn (18-270 mg kg(-1)). Sediments were collected from coastal wetlands in Michigan, dried (36-days) and re-inundated in lab microcosms...
August 7, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797960/acute-toxic-effects-of-zinc-and-mercury-on-survival-standard-metabolism-and-metal-accumulation-in-juvenile-ridgetail-white-prawn-exopalaemon-carinicauda
#9
Chengsong Zhang, Kuijie Yu, Fuhua Li, Jianhai Xiang
Ridgetail white prawn (Exopalaemon carinicauda) is widely distributed in Chinese coastal zones, especially in the Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. It is not only considered as an important economic species in China, but also taken as a potential indicator species for the environmental pollution in the estuaries. At present, the responses of this species to environmental toxicants, including trace metal are not well understood. In this study, the acute toxic effects of zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) on the survival, oxygen consumption, ammonia-N excretion, and metal accumulation were investigated in the juveniles of E...
August 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796823/assessment-of-photocatalytic-potentiality-and-determination-of-ecotoxicity-using-plant-model-for-better-environmental-applicability-of-synthesized-copper-copper-oxide-and-copper-doped-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles
#10
Debadrito Das, Animesh Kumar Datta, Divya Vishambhar Kumbhakar, Bapi Ghosh, Ankita Pramanik, Sudha Gupta, Aninda Mandal
NPS SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND AZO-DYE DEGRADATION: A facile cost effective wet chemical method of synthesis is proposed for Cu-NPs, CuO-NPs and Cu-doped ZnO-NPs. The nanomaterials are opto-physically characterized for nano standard quality. Cu-doped ZnO-NPs based catalytic system is found to possess most efficient photocatalytic activity in degradation of two organic azo-dyes namely methyl red (MR) and malachite green (MG) that are released as industrial effluents in eco-environment intercollegium...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777671/protective-effect-of-azadirachta-indica-and-vitamin-e-against-arsenic-acid-induced-genotoxicity-and-apoptosis-in-rats
#11
Ademola Adetokunbo Oyagbemi, Temidayo Olutayo Omobowale, Olufunke Eunice Ola-Davies, Olumuyiwa Abiola Adejumobi, Ebunoluwa Rachael Asenuga, Funmilola Kehinde Adeniji, Adeolu Alex Adedapo, Momoh Audu Yakubu
Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) is one of the major environmental toxicants with severe toxicological consequences in some developing and developed countries. Rats in Group A received normal saline. Genotoxicity and apoptosis were induced by single intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg sodium arsenite to rats in Groups B-F. Rats in Groups C and D had earlier been pretreated with Azadirachta indica (100 and 200 mg/kg) or E and F with vitamin E (50 and 100 mg/kg), respectively. Markers of oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatic damage, genotoxicity, and apoptosis were assessed...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777440/3d-differentiation-of-luhmes-cell-line-to-study-recovery-and-delayed-neurotoxic-effects
#12
Georgina Harris, Helena Hogberg, Thomas Hartung, Lena Smirnova
Current neurotoxicity testing and the study of molecular mechanisms in neurodegeneration in vitro usually focuses on acute exposures to compounds. 3D Lund human mesencephalic (LUHMES) cells allow long-term treatment or pulse exposure in combination with compound washout to study delayed neurotoxic effects as well as recovery and neurodegeneration pathways. In this unit we describe 3D LUHMES culture and characterization. Characterization of the model involves immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and qPCR measurements...
August 4, 2017: Current Protocols in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775358/integrate-life-cycle-assessment-and-risk-analysis-results-not-methods
#13
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D Trump, Ben A Wender, Thomas P Seager, Alan J Kennedy, Jeffrey M Keisler
Two analytic perspectives on environmental assessment dominate environmental policy and decision-making: risk analysis (RA) and life-cycle assessment (LCA). RA focuses on management of a toxicological hazard in a specific exposure scenario, while LCA seeks a holistic estimation of impacts of thousands of substances across multiple media, including non-toxicological and non-chemically deleterious effects. While recommendations to integrate the two approaches have remained a consistent feature of environmental scholarship for at least 15 years, the current perception is that progress is slow largely because of practical obstacles, such as a lack of data, rather than insurmountable theoretical difficulties...
August 4, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774615/effects-of-halobenzoquinone-and-haloacetic-acid-water-disinfection-byproducts-on-human-neural-stem-cells
#14
Katherine Z Fu, Jinhua Li, Sai Vemula, Birget Moe, Xing-Fang Li
Human neural stem cells (hNSCs) are a useful tool to assess the developmental effects of various environmental contaminants; however, the application of hNSCs to evaluate water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is scarce. Comprehensive toxicological results are essential to the prioritization of DBPs for further testing and regulation. Therefore, this study examines the effects of DBPs on the proliferation and differentiation of hNSCs. Prior to DBP treatment, characteristic protein markers of hNSCs from passages 3 to 6 were carefully examined and it was determined that hNSCs passaged 3 or 4 times maintained stem cell characteristics and can be used for DBP analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763202/paleo-ecotoxicology-what-can-lake-sediments-tell-us-about-ecosystem-responses-to-environmental-pollutants
#15
Jennifer Korosi, Joshua R Thienpont, John P Smol, Jules M Blais
The development of effective risk reduction strategies for aquatic pollutants requires a comprehensive understanding of toxic impacts on ecosystems. Classical toxicological studies are effective for characterizing pollutant impacts on biota in a controlled, simplified environment. Nonetheless, it is well-acknowledged that predictions based on the results of these studies must be tested over the long-term in a natural ecosystem setting, to account for increased complexity and multiple stressors. Paleolimnology (the study of lake sediment cores to reconstruct environmental change) can address many key knowledge gaps...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762882/acute-pesticide-related-illness-among-farmworkers-barriers-to-reporting-to-public-health-authorities
#16
Joanne Bonnar Prado, Prakash R Mulay, Edward J Kasner, Heidi K Bojes, Geoffrey M Calvert
Farmworkers are at high risk of acute occupational pesticide-related illness (AOPI) and AOPI surveillance is vital to preventing these illnesses. Data on such illnesses are collected and analyzed to identify high risk groups, high risk pesticides, and root causes. Interventions to address these risks and root causes include farmworker outreach, education, and regulation. Unfortunately, it is well known that AOPI is under-reported, meaning that the true burden of this condition remains unknown. This paper reviews the barriers to reporting of farmworker AOPI to public health authorities and provides some practical solutions...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Agromedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762622/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-qsar-directed-the-discovery-of-3-pyridin-2-yl-benzenesulfonamide-derivatives-as-novel-herbicidal-agents
#17
Yong Xie, Wei Peng, Fei Ding, Shu-Jie Liu, Hong-Juan Ma, Chang-Ling Liu
BACKGROUND: Agrochemicals have been crucial to the production of food, and the need for the development of novel agrochemicals continues unceasing owing to the loss of existing produces via the growth of resistance and the desire for products with more propitious environmental and toxicological patterns. RESULTS: The results of both CoMFA and CoMSIA models indicated that the biological activity can effectively be improved through the structural optimization and molecular design of these synthetic compounds from the aspects of steric, electrostatic, hydrophobic, hydrogen bond donor and acceptor fields...
August 1, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762048/pharmaceuticals-and-personal-care-products-ppcps-in-arctic-environments-indicator-contaminants-for-assessing-local-and-remote-anthropogenic-sources-in-a-pristine-ecosystem-in-change
#18
Roland Kallenborn, Eva Brorström-Lundén, Lars-Otto Reiersen, Simon Wilson
A first review on occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) is presented. The literature survey conducted here was initiated by the current Assessment of the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP). This first review on the occurrence and environmental profile of PPCPs in the Arctic identified the presence of 110 related substances in the Arctic environment based on the reports from scientific publications, national and regional assessments and surveys, as well as academic research studies (i...
July 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757310/recommendations-for-harmonization-of-data-collection-and-analysis-of-developmental-neurotoxicity-endpoints-in-regulatory-guideline-studies-proceedings-of-workshops-presented-at-society-of-toxicology-and-joint-teratology-society-and-neurobehavioral-teratology
#19
REVIEW
Abby A Li, Larry P Sheets, Kathleen Raffaele, Virginia Moser, Angela Hofstra, Alan Hoberman, Susan L Makris, Robert Garman, Brad Bolon, Wolfgang Kaufmann, Roland Auer, Edmund Lau, Thomas Vidmar, Wayne J Bowers
The potential for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) of environmental chemicals may be evaluated using specific test guidelines from the US Environmental Protection Agency or the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). These guidelines generate neurobehavioral, neuropathological, and morphometric data that are evaluated by regulatory agencies globally. Data from these DNT guideline studies, or the more recent OECD extended one-generation reproductive toxicity guideline, play a pivotal role in children's health risk assessment in different world areas...
July 27, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754927/perfluoroalkyl-substances-in-human-bone-concentrations-in-bones-and-effects-on-bone-cell-differentiation
#20
A Koskela, J Koponen, P Lehenkari, M Viluksela, M Korkalainen, J Tuukkanen
Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), including two most commonly studied compounds perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), are widely distributed environmental pollutants, used extensively earlier. Due to their toxicological effects the use of PFAS is now regulated. Based on earlier studies on PFOA's distribution in bone and bone marrow in mice, we investigated PFAS levels and their possible link to bone microarchitecture of human femoral bone samples (n = 18). Soft tissue and bone biopsies were also taken from a 49-year old female cadaver for PFAS analyses...
July 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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