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Environmental toxicology

Fangyou Yan, Wensi He, Qingzhu Jia, Shuqian Xia, Qiang Wang
The quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model is an effective alternative to traditional experimental toxicity testing, which is undoubtedly important for modern environmental risk assessment and property prediction. Based on this background, the toxicological effects of ionic liquids (ILs) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) were studied via the QSAR method. A large diverse group of 141 and 85 ILs that have a minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a minimum fungicidal concentration (MBC) against C...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Russell S Thomas, Richard S Paules, Anton Simeonov, Suzanne C Fitzpatrick, Kevin M Crofton, Warren M Casey, Donna L Mendrick
The traditional approaches to toxicity testing have posed multiple challenges for evaluating the safety of commercial chemicals, pesticides, food additives/contaminants, and medical products.The challenges include number of chemicals that need to be tested, time and resource intensive nature of traditional toxicity tests, and unexpected adverse effects that occur in pharmaceutical clinical trials despite the extensive toxicological testing.Over a decade ago, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Toxicology Program (NTP), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) formed a federal consortium for "Toxicology in the 21st Century" (Tox21) with a focus on developing and evaluating in vitro high-throughput screening (HTS) methods for hazard identification and providing mechanistic insights...
March 8, 2018: ALTEX
Apurva Patange, Daniela Boehm, Michelle Giltrap, Peng Lu, P J Cullen, Paula Bourke
Generation of wastewater is one of the main environmental sustainability issues across food sector industries. The constituents of food process effluents are often complex and require high energy and processing for regulatory compliance. Wastewater streams are the subject of microbiological and chemical criteria, and can have a significant eco-toxicological impact on the aquatic life. Thus, innovative treatment approaches are required to mitigate environmental impact in an energy efficient manner. Here, dielectric barrier discharge atmospheric cold plasma (ACP) was evaluated for control of key microbial indicators encountered in food industry effluent...
March 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cássio Resende de Morais, Ana Maria Bonetti, Alexandre Aparecido Mota, Carlos Fernando Campos, Henrique Nazareth Souto, Maria Paula Carvalho Naves, Vanessa Santana Vieira Santos, Edimar Olegário de Campos Júnior, Luiz Alfredo Pavanin, Alexandre Azenha Alves de Rezende, Mário Antônio Spanó, Boscolli Barbosa Pereira
Physico-chemical and toxicological analyses are of fundamental importance to determine water quality. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of samples from the Mumbuca Stream and the Perdizes River, through both SMART and the wts test, respectively, in somatic cells of Drosophila melanogaster and to quantify the amount of heavy metals and other pollutants, which are indicative of environmental quality. Water samples were collected (M1, M2, P1, P2 and MP) and submitted to physico-chemical analysis, calculating the water quality index for each sampling site...
March 3, 2018: Chemosphere
Anna-Sara Claeson, Eva Palmquist, Steven Nordin
BACKGROUND: Individuals with environmental intolerance (EI) react to exposure from different environmental sources at levels tolerated by most people and that are below established toxicological and hazardous thresholds. The main aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of attributing symptoms to chemical and physical sources in the environment among individuals with different forms of self-reported EI and in referents. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from a population-based study, the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406), were used and individuals with self-reported EI to chemicals, buildings, electromagnetic fields and sounds as well as a group with multiple EIs were identified...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Simon Brand, Michael P Schlüsener, Dinah Albrecht, Uwe Kunkel, Claudia Strobel, Tamara Grummt, Thomas A Ternes
An analytical method based on high resolution mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography (LC-HRMS) for 25 quaternary phosphonium compounds (QPCs) and derived phosphine oxides (POs) was developed and validated. To investigate the occurrence and fate of QPCs in the aquatic environment, water, suspended solids and sediments from the rivers Rhine and Elbe (upper and middle Elbe as well as tidal Elbe) were analyzed, as well as samples from tributaries bearing significant loads of QPCs. For the first time, the quaternary phosphonium compound tetrabutylphosphonium (Bu4 P+ ) was detected...
March 2, 2018: Water Research
Qian Li, Zhengli Yang, Yifan Zhao, Xiaodong Jia, Zhijun Zhou, Yubin Zhang
All blood cells are differentiated from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), a process known as hematopoiesis that can be influenced by a variety of environmental factors. In this unit, we introduce a couple of protocols including phenotypic analysis, mixed bone marrow (BM) chimera and rescue assays, colony-forming unit (CFU), and in vitro OP9 stromal cell differentiation assays for evaluating HSPCs in the BM of mice, and provide some examples of their implications in mouse models treated with heavy metals...
February 21, 2018: Current Protocols in Toxicology
John P Buchweitz, Keri Carson, Sarah Rebolloso, Andreas Lehner
Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause...
February 26, 2018: Chemosphere
Uros Midic, Benjamin Goheen, Kailey A Vincent, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) are crucial for embryo implantation and placentation. Environmental toxicants that compromise TSC function could impact fetal viability, pregnancy, and progeny health. Understanding the effects of low, chronic EDC exposures on TSCs and pregnancy is a priority in developmental toxicology. Differences in early implantation between primates and other mammals make a nonhuman primate model ideal. We examined effects of chronic low-level exposure to atrazine, tributyltin, bisphenol A, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and perfluorooctanoic acid on rhesus monkey TSCs in vitro by RNA sequencing...
March 2, 2018: Reproductive Toxicology
Benjamin P Espinasse, Nicholas K Geitner, Ariette Schierz, Mathieu Therezien, Curtis John Richardson, Gregory V Lowry, P Lee Ferguson, Mark R Wiesner
During nanoparticle environmental exposure, presence in the water column is expected to dominate long distance transport as well as initial aquatic organism exposure. Much work has been done to understand potential ecological and toxicological effects of these particles. However, little has been done to date to understand the comparative persistence of engineered particles in realistic environmental systems. Presented here is a study of the water column lifetimes of 3 different classes of nanoparticles prepared with a combination of surface chemistries in wetland mesocosms...
March 5, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Celia Herrera-Rincon, Michael Levin
A recent study in Xenopus laevis embryos showed that the very early brain has important functions long before behavior. While the nascent brain is being constructed, it is required for normal patterning of the muscle and peripheral nerve networks, including those far away from the head. In addition to providing important developmental signals to remote tissues in normal embryogenesis, its presence is also able to render harmless exposure to specific chemicals that normally act as teratogens. These activities of the early brain can be partially compensated for in a brainless embryo by experimental modulation of neurotransmitter and ion channel signaling...
2018: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Marco E Franco, Grace E Sutherland, Ramon Lavado
The use of fish cell cultures has proven to be an effective tool in the study of environmental and aquatic toxicology. Valuable information can be obtained from comparisons between cell lines from different species and organs. In the present study, specific chemicals were used and biomarkers (e.g. 7-Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS)) were measured to assess the metabolic capabilities and cytotoxicity of the fish hepatic cell lines Hepa-E1 and RTH-149, and the fish gill cell lines RTgill-W1 and G1B...
February 26, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Rikke Poulsen, Nina Cedergreen, Tyrone B Hayes, Martin Hansen
Nitrate is heavily used as an agricultural fertilizer and is today a ubiquitous environmental pollutant. Environmental endocrine effects caused by nitrate have received increasing attention over the last 15 years. Nitrate is hypothesized to interfere with thyroid and steroid hormone homeostasis and developmental and reproductive endpoints. The current review focuses on aquatic ecotoxicology with emphasis on field and laboratory controlled in vitro and in vivo studies. Furthermore, nitrate is just one of several forms of nitrogen that is present in the environment and many of these are quickly interconvertable...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Daniel L Villeneuve, Michelle M Angrish, Marie C Fortin, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Marc Leonard, Luigi Margiotta-Casaluci, Sharon Munn, Jason M O'Brien, Nathan L Pollesch, L Cody Smith, Xiaowei Zhang, Dries Knapen
Toxicological responses to stressors are more complex than the simple one biological perturbation to one adverse outcome model portrayed by individual adverse outcome pathways (AOPs). Consequently, the AOP framework was designed to facilitate de facto development of AOP networks that can aid understanding and prediction of pleiotropic and interactive effects more common to environmentally realistic, complex exposure scenarios. The present paper introduces nascent concepts related to the qualitative analysis of AOP networks...
February 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Elizabeth K Peterson, David B Buchwalter, Jacob L Kerby, Matthew K LeFauve, Claire W Varian-Ramos, John P Swaddle
The fields of behavioral ecology, conservation science, and environmental toxicology individually aim to protect and manage the conservation of wildlife in response to anthropogenic stressors, including widespread anthropogenic pollution. Although great emphasis in the field of toxicology has been placed on understanding how single pollutants affect survival, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach that includes behavioral ecology is essential to address how anthropogenic compounds are a risk for the survival of species and populations in an increasingly polluted world...
April 2017: Current Zoology
Darlene M Dreon, Trevor M Hannon, Brett Cross, Brett J Carter, Nicholas S Mercer, Jason H Nguyen, Andy Tran, Peter A Melendez, Nancy Morales, Jonathan E Nelson, Meng H Tan
BACKGROUND: A basal bolus insulin regimen requires multiple daily insulin injections, which might discourage patient adherence. As a potential solution, a mealtime insulin-delivery system-a 3-day wearable bolus-only patch-was designed to manually administer mealtime insulin discreetly by actuating buttons through clothing, without the need for multiple needle sticks. METHOD: Extensive functional testing of the patch included dose accuracy (from initial fill of the device to empty), pressure-vacuum leak testing, last-dose lockout and occlusion detection (safety alert features that lock the dosing buttons when no insulin is delivered), assessments of insulin drug stability, toxicological risk (including chemical testing), and system biocompatibility...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Xiaowei Zhang, Pu Xia, Pingping Wang, Jianghua Yang, Donald Baird
Toxic substances in the environment generate adverse effects at all levels of biological organization from the molecular level to community and ecosystem. Given this complexity, it is not surprising that ecotoxicologists have struggled to address the full consequences of toxic substance release at ecosystem level, due to the limits of observational and experimental tools to reveal the changes in deep structure at different levels of organization. -Omics technologies, consisting of genomics and ecogenomics, have the power to reveal, in unprecedented detail, the cellular processes of an individual or biodiversity of a community in response to environmental change with high sample/observation throughput...
February 26, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Marine L Croze, Luc Zimmer
Atmospheric pollution is a well-known environmental hazard, especially in developing countries where millions of people are exposed to airborne pollutant levels above safety standards. Accordingly, several epidemiological and animal studies confirmed its role in respiratory and cardiovascular pathologies and identified a strong link between ambient air pollution exposure and adverse health outcomes such as hospitalization and mortality. More recently, the potential deleterious effect of air pollution inhalation on the central nervous system was also investigated and mounting evidence supports a link between air pollution exposure and neurodegenerative pathologies, especially Alzheimer's disease (AD)...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Ali Movafeghi, Alireza Khataee, Mahboubeh Abedi, Roshanak Tarrahi, Mohammadreza Dadpour, Fatemeh Vafaei
Plants are essential components of all ecosystems and play a critical role in environmental fate of nanoparticles. However, the toxicological impacts of nanoparticles on plants are not well documented. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NPs) are produced worldwide in large quantities for a wide range of purposes. In the present study, the uptake of TiO2 -NPs by the aquatic plant Spirodela polyrrhiza and the consequent effects on the plant were evaluated. Initially, structural and morphological characteristics of the used TiO2 -NPs were determined using XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques...
February 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jeffrey C Wolf
Histopathology index systems involve the application of weighted scores to various diagnostic findings for the purpose of calculating overall organ and/or whole animal health measurements. Such systems were originally developed as tools for monitoring the general health of fish populations. More recently, index systems have been applied to hypothesis-based toxicological studies, the goal of which is to investigate whether a cause-and-effect relationship exists between exposure to a particular test substance or environmental contaminant and morphologic effects in fish tissues...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
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