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S N Sruthi, M S Shyleshchandran, Sunil Paul Mathew, E V Ramasamy
The presence and distribution of a few organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the paddy fields of the Kuttanad agroecosystem (KAE) was examined in the present study. Kuttanad forms a part of the Vembanad wetland system which is a Ramsar site of international importance in the state of Kerala. This study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report on the occurrence of OCP residues in KAE. Pesticide residue analysis was done with gas chromatograph (GC-ECD). Twenty-one soil samples were collected for the multiresidual analysis of OCPs...
October 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Hesham Dahshan, Ayman Mohamed Megahed, Amr Mohamed Mohamed Abd-Elall, Mahdy Abdel-Goad Abd-El-Kader, Ehab Nabawy, Mariam Hassan Elbana
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants represent about 95 % of the industrial sector effluents in Egypt. Contamination of the River Nile water with various pesticides poses a hazardous risk to both human and environmental compartments. Therefore, a large scale monitoring study was carried on pesticides pollution in three geographical main regions along the River Nil water stream, Egypt. METHODS: Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by GC-ECD...
2016: Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Marina Vafeiadi, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a group of diverse substances, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides that are resistant to biodegradation and ubiquitously present in our environment. Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals such as POPs has been linked to type 2 diabetes and metabolic disturbances in epidemiological and animal studies, but little is known about POPs exposure during pregnancy and the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)...
October 12, 2016: Environment International
Jingchen Feng, Stuart A Sevier, Bin Huang, Dongya Jia, Herbert Levine
Delayed processes are ubiquitous in biological systems and are often characterized by delay differential equations (DDEs) and their extension to include stochastic effects. DDEs do not explicitly incorporate intermediate states associated with a delayed process but instead use an estimated average delay time. In an effort to examine the validity of this approach, we study systems with significant delays by explicitly incorporating intermediate steps. We show that such explicit models often yield significantly different equilibrium distributions and transition times as compared to DDEs with deterministic delay values...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Susan A Mackintosh, Nathan Gray Dodder, Nellie J Shaul, Lihini I Aluwihare, Keith A Maruya, Susan J Chivers, Kerri Danil, David W Weller, Eunha Hoh
Non-targeted GC×GC-TOF/MS analysis of blubber from 8 common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) inhabiting the Southern California Bight was performed to identify novel, bioaccumulative DDT-related compounds, and to determine their abundance relative to the commonly-studied DDT-related compounds. We identified 45 bioaccumulative DDT-related compounds of which the majority (80%) are not typically monitored in environmental media. Identified compounds include transformation products, technical mixture impurities such as tris(chlorophenyl)methane (TCPM), the presumed TCPM metabolite tris(chlorophenyl)methanol (TCPMOH), and structurally-related compounds with unknown sources, such as hexa- to octa-chlorinated diphenylethene...
October 14, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Ximena Fadic, Fabián Placencia, Ana María Domínguez, Francisco Cereceda-Balic
There is a current tendency to develop and apply environmentally friendly techniques that meet the requirements of green analytical chemistry as an alternative to conventional analytical methods. For toxicity evaluation, these alternatives may be found in bioassays such as Tradescantia. This technique, developed in the 1980s, is highly sensitive to evaluate environmental mutagens, simple and cheap. In this paper, the sensibility of both the Tradescantia micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN) and the Tradescantia stamen hair bioassay (Trad-SH) were studied for carbaryl, dimethoate and iprodione, common agricultural and domestic pesticides that are currently used in Chile, which have never been tested with such bioassays...
October 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Jian Du, Zoya Gridneva, Melvin C L Gay, Robert D Trengove, Peter E Hartmann, Donna T Geddes
Persistent organic pollutants in human milk (HM) at high levels are considered to be detrimental to the breastfed infant. To determine the pesticide concentration in HM, a pilot cross-sectional study of 40 Western Australian (WA) women was carried out. Gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with a validated QuEChERS was used for the analysis of 88 pesticides in HM. p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) with a mean concentration of 62.8 ± 54.5 ng/g fat was found, whereas other organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids were not detected in HM...
October 8, 2016: Chemosphere
Maria Angela Guzzardi, Patricia Iozzo, Minna K Salonen, Eero Kajantie, Riikka Airaksinen, Hannu Kiviranta, Panu Rantakokko, Johan Gunnar Eriksson
As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014)...
October 2016: Aging and Disease
Antonio Velasco, Arturo Aburto-Medina, Esmaeil Shahsavari, Sergio Revah, Irmene Ortiz
Abiotic and biotic processes can be used to remediate DDX (DDT, DDD, DDE, and DDNS) contaminated soils; these processes can be fostered using specific carbon-amendments to stimulate particular soil indigenous microbial communities to improve rates or extent of degradation. In this study, toluene and glycerol were evaluated as cosubstrates under aerobic and anoxic conditions to determine the degradation efficiencies of DDX and to elucidate possible degradation mechanisms. Slurry microcosms experiments were performed during 60 days using pretreated soil with zero-valent iron (ZVI)...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Vesna Erika, Modrić, Željko Verzak, Zoran Karlović
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the frequency of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in children with intellectual disability. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Children aged 5-18 years (72 children with intellectual disabilities and 72 controls) were included in the study. All the teeth were screened for developmental defects of enamel using the modified Developmental defects of enamel (mDDE) index. RESULTS: Out of the 72 children with intellectual disabilities in this study, 20 (27...
March 2016: Acta Stomatologica Croatica
Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Theano Roumeliotaki, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Despoina Anousaki, Panu Rantakokko, Hannu Kiviranta, Eleni Fthenou, Panos Bitsios, Soterios A Kyrtopoulos, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
BACKGROUND: Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are highly-resistant compounds to environmental degradation and due to fat solubility they bioaccumulate through the food chain. As they cross the placenta, in utero exposure to POPs could disrupt child neurodevelopment as they are considered to be neurotoxic. AIMS: We examined whether in utero exposure to levels of different POPs is associated with offspring cognitive and behavioral outcomes at 4years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study)...
September 22, 2016: Environment International
Julia Neitsch, Wolfgang Schwack, Philipp Weller
Even more than 50 years after the ban of DDT in Germany, farmers are still affected by its persistence in contaminated soils. Depending on the crop cultivated on such soils, this often leads to low-level residues of DDT and its metabolites DDE and DDD ("DDX"), which are perceived as a risk by the food value chain. Pesticide formulations used in modern agriculture commonly contain high levels of surfactants, but so far no open-field studies have evaluated the effects of these treatments on the mobility of lipophilic contaminants, such as DDX...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Swati Kalra, Pooja Dewan, Prerna Batra, Tusha Sharma, Vipin Tyagi, Basu Dev Banerjee
We explored the association between maternal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and neural tube defects (NTDs) in the offspring. Blood was collected from 35 mothers and their offsprings with NTDs (case group) and from 35 mothers-neonate dyads without congenital anomalies (control group). The median blood levels of DDE, t-HCH and endosulphan in mothers in the case group and of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), total hexachlorocyclohexane (t-HCH) and endosulfan in the neonates with NTDs were significantly higher...
September 16, 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
Brankica Kartalović, Nikolina J Novakov, Željko Mihaljev, Jelena Petrović, Nadežda Prica, Jelena Babić, Miroslav A Ćirković
The aim of this study was to determine the level of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in 57 samples of canned tuna and 31 samples of canned sardines in vegetable oil, collected from supermarkets in Serbia. OC pesticides α-HCH, β-HCH, δ-HCH, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), DDE, DDD, dielderin, endosulfane I, endosulfane II, endosulan sulfate, endrin, endrin ketone, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, lindane, aldrin, metoxichlor, cis-chlordane and trans-chlordane were determined using a GS-MS method. The highest concentrations (µg kg(-1), arithmetic means) in canned tuna were for δ-HCH (60...
December 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part B, Surveillance
J Lang, S Birkenbeil, S Bock, R Heinrich-Weltzien, K Kromeyer-Hauschild
Aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in a medieval and an early-modern-age population from Thuringia, Germany. Sixty-six skeletons subdivided into 31 single burials (12(th)/13(th) c.) and 35 individuals buried in groups (15(th)/16(th) c.) were examined. DDE were classified on 1,246 teeth according to the DDE index. Molar-incisor-hypomineralisation (MIH), a special type of DDE, was recorded according to the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) criteria...
August 25, 2016: Anthropologischer Anzeiger; Bericht über die Biologisch-anthropologische Literatur
Frauke Hoffmann, Werner Kloas
p,p'-Dichlordiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) is a metabolite of the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), an organochloride which was massively used from its discovery in 1939 until the early 1970's. Due to the tremendous half-life of DDT and DDE, both substances are to date environmentally relevant. Furthermore, DDT is still employed in many African countries in the context of the WHO's antimalaria campaign. In amphibians, DDE was found to act as antiandrogenic endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC), whereas in other species DDE was found to act as an estrogen...
September 14, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Luca Roncati, Veronica Termopoli, Teresa Pusiol
The endocrine disruptors (EDs) are able to influence the endocrine system, mimicking or antagonizing hormonal molecules. They are bio-persistent for their degradation resistance in the environment. Our research group has investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the EDs presence in 35 brain samples, coming from 27 cases of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) and 8 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), collected by centralization in the last year (2015). More in detail, a mixture of 25 EDs has been subjected to analytical procedure, following standard protocols...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
T B Sivertsen, J Aßmus, G Greve, A N Åstrøm, M S Skeie
AIM: This was to describe oral health in children with congenital heart defects (CHD), to evaluate association of different background variables with oral health, and to compare caries prevalence at dentine level with caries data in the general population. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 5-year-old children in Western Norway with a need for lifelong follow-up due to CHD were invited to participate (n = 100). Children born in 2005, 2006, and 2007 underwent a comprehensive oral health examination during the period 2010-2012...
October 2016: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Carolin Mai, Norbert Theobald, Heinrich Hühnerfuss, Gerhard Lammel
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied to determine occurrence, levels and spatial distribution in the marine atmosphere and surface seawater during cruises in the German Bight and the wider North Sea in spring and summer 2009-2010. In general, the concentrations found in air are similar to, or below, the levels at coastal or near-coastal sites in Europe. Hexachlorobenzene and α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) were close to phase equilibrium, whereas net atmospheric deposition was observed for γ-HCH...
September 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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