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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328072/tensor-estimation-for-double-pulsed-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging
#1
Calvin B Shaw, Edward S Hui, Joseph A Helpern, Jens H Jensen
Double-pulsed diffusional kurtosis imaging (DP-DKI) represents the double diffusion encoding (DDE) MRI signal in terms of six-dimensional (6D) diffusion and kurtosis tensors. Here a method for estimating these tensors from experimental data is described. A standard numerical algorithm for tensor estimation from conventional (i.e. single diffusion encoding) diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) data is generalized to DP-DKI. This algorithm is based on a weighted least squares (WLS) fit of the signal model to the data combined with constraints designed to minimize unphysical parameter estimates...
March 22, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327259/prevalence-of-enamel-developmental-defects-and-relationship-with-early-childhood-caries-in-trinidad
#2
Rahul S Naidu, June H Nunn
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) and their relationship with early childhood caries (ECC) among preschool children in Trinidad. METHODS: A cross-sectional oral health survey of 251 three- to five-year-old preschool children was undertaken in central Trinidad. The decayed, missing, and filled primary teeth (dmft) index and the DDE index were used to measure visible caries experience and enamel developmental defects, respectively...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320527/characterization-and-genome-functional-analysis-of-the-ddt-degrading-bacterium-ochrobactrum-sp-ddt-2
#3
Xiong Pan, Tianheng Xu, Haoyu Xu, Hua Fang, Yunlong Yu
A strain of Ochrobactrum sp. DDT-2 that was capable of degrading DDT as the sole carbon and energy source was isolated and sequenced, and its biodegradation characteristics and metabolism mechanism were examined. The genome sequence of the isolate DDT-2 was composed of 4,630,303bp with a GC content of 55.99% and 4454 coding genes. The degradation rate of DDT by the isolate DDT-2 increased with the increasing substrate concentration (0.1-10mg/l) and temperature (20-40°C). The degradation half-life of DDT in the presence of the isolate DDT-2 at pH7...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314123/which-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-the-rivers-of-the-bohai-region-of-china-represent-the-greatest-risk-to-the-local-ecosystem
#4
Yueqing Zhang, Andrew C Johnson, Chao Su, Meng Zhang, Monika D Jürgens, Yajuan Shi, Yonglong Lu
Freshwater aquatic organisms can be exposed to hundreds of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) discharged by natural and anthropogenic activities. Given our limited resources it is necessary to identify, from the existing evidence, which is the greatest threat so that control measures can be targeted wisely. The focus of this study was to rank POPs according to the relative risk they represent for aquatic organisms in rivers in the Bohai Region, China. A list of 14 POPs was compiled based on the available data on their presence in these rivers and ecotoxicological data...
February 28, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300282/stable-nitrogen-and-carbon-isotopes-in-sediments-and-biota-from-three-tropical-marine-food-webs-application-to-chemical-bioaccumulation-assessment
#5
Hui Zhang, Yun Teng, Tra Thi Thanh Doan, Yun Wei Yat, Sheot Harn Chan, Barry C Kelly
Studies of trophodynamics and contaminant bioaccumulation in tropical marine ecosystems are limited. This study employed stable isotope and trace contaminant analysis to assess sources of primary productivity, trophic interactions and chemical bioaccumulation behavior in two mangrove food webs and one offshore coastal marine food web in Singapore. Samples of sediment, phytoplankton, mangrove leaves, clams, snails, crabs, worms, prawns, and fishes were analyzed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values, as well as concentrations of persistent organic pollutants...
March 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298006/nuclear-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-pore-imaging-experimental-phase-detection-by-double-diffusion-encoding
#6
Kerstin Demberg, Frederik Bernd Laun, Johannes Windschuh, Reiner Umathum, Peter Bachert, Tristan Anselm Kuder
Diffusion pore imaging is an extension of diffusion-weighted nuclear magnetic resonance imaging enabling the direct measurement of the shape of arbitrarily formed, closed pores by probing diffusion restrictions using the motion of spin-bearing particles. Examples of such pores comprise cells in biological tissue or oil containing cavities in porous rocks. All pores contained in the measurement volume contribute to one reconstructed image, which reduces the problem of vanishing signal at increasing resolution present in conventional magnetic resonance imaging...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292528/halogenated-organic-pollutants-in-marine-biota-from-the-xuande-atoll-south-china-sea-levels-biomagnification-and-dietary-exposure
#7
Yu-Xin Sun, Yong-Xia Hu, Zai-Wang Zhang, Xiang-Rong Xu, Heng-Xiang Li, Lin-Zi Zuo, Yi Zhong, Hong Sun, Bi-Xian Mai
Six marine biota species were collected from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea to investigate the bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and dechlorane plus (DP). Pike conger (Muraenesox talabonoides) had the highest concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) among the six marine biota species. DDTs were the predominant HOPs, followed by PCBs and PBDEs, with minor contributions of DBDPE and DP...
March 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288427/the-trophic-transfer-of-persistent-pollutants-hcb-ddts-pcbs-within-polar-marine-food-webs
#8
Simonetta Corsolini, Gianluca Sarà
Biomagnification (increase in contaminant concentrations at successively higher levels of trophic web), is a process that can transversally impair biodiversity and human health. Most research shows that biomagnification should be higher at poles with northern sites having a major tendency to biomagnify Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) through their marine food webs. We investigated the biomagnification degree into two marine trophic webs combining carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes and POP analyses. We showed that the Antarctic trophic web was more depleted than the sub-Arctic one and the differences highlighted for the basal part could explain the difference in length between them...
February 23, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288144/thyroid-stimulating-hormone-levels-in-newborns-and-early-life-exposure-to-endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-analysis-of-three-european-mother-child-cohorts
#9
Marijke de Cock, Michiel R de Boer, Eva Govarts, Nina Iszatt, Lubica Palkovicova, Marja H Lamoree, Greet Schoeters, Merete Eggesbø, Tomas Trnovec, Juliette Legler, Margot van de Bor
BACKGROUND: Various studies report interactions between thyroid hormones and early life chemical exposure. Our objective was to analyse associations between markers of endocrine disrupting chemical exposure and thyroid function in newborns, determined in heel prick blood spots. METHODS: Three European mother-child cohorts (FLEHSI - Belgium, HUMIS - Norway, and the PCB cohort - Slovakia. Total n=1784) were pooled for the purpose of this study. Data on Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) was obtained from national neonatal screening registries, and cord plasma and/or breast milk was collected to determine exposure to various chemicals...
March 13, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277312/organochlorinated-pesticides-levels-in-a-representative-sample-of-the-spanish-adult-population-the-bioambient-es-project
#10
Juan José Ramos, Olga Huetos, Sara González, Marta Esteban, Eva Calvo, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Argelia Castaño
Organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) were measured in a representative sample of Spanish adults within the Bioambient.es project, a nationwide human biomonitoring program promoted by Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. The objective of Bioambient.es is to establish reference levels of environmental pollutants in the general population. Participants were recruited in 2009-2010 during their annual medical examination at work. Serum levels of thirteen OCPs were investigated: Aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, heptachlor-epoxide, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylenes (DDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) The highest concentrations were observed for DDE, HCB and β-HCH...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273534/levels-and-profiles-of-organohalogenated-contaminants-in-human-blood-from-egypt
#11
Mohamed Abou-Elwafa Abdallah, Amen Hamdy Zaky, Adrian Covaci
Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and some organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in serum of Egyptian colorectal cancer patients (n = 35) and compared to a healthy control group (n = 32). p,p'-DDE (the major metabolite of DDT) was the most frequently detected contaminant with the highest concentration (median = 131 ng/g lw) in all studied serum samples. BDE-209 was the least frequently detected contaminant with a median concentration <0...
March 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271351/distribution-and-residue-profile-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-in-sediment-and-fish-of-lake-manzala-egypt
#12
Ahmed A El-Kady, Terry L Wade, Stephen T Sweet, José L Sericano
Sediment and fish (Oreochromis niloticus) samples collected from Lake Manzala were analyzed to assess the spatial distribution of OCPs and 96 PCBs. Relatively higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos, ∑DDT, and HCB were found, particularly at the Bahr Al-Baqar drain station, which has uncontrolled inputs of untreated domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastes. The concentrations of ∑PCBs ranged from 19 to 69 ng/g dw and from 7.4 to 29 ng/g dw for sediment and fish samples, respectively. Ratios of DDT to its metabolites suggest that the source of ∑DDT is from past usage of technical DDT in the regions surrounding the lake...
March 7, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259092/dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes-ddts-in-human-hair-and-serum-in-rural-and-urban-areas-in-south-china
#13
Chun-Tao He, Xiao Yan, Mei-Huan Wang, Xiao-Bo Zheng, Ke-Hui Chen, Mi-Na Guo, Jing Zheng, She-Jun Chen
Human hair has been employed as a biomarker for exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), but information on the source of dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites in hair is limited. The present study investigated the contamination of DDTs in human hair from a rural area and an urban area of South China and compared with those in human serum and indoor dust. The concentrations of ∑DDTs ranged from 2.30 to 489ng/g, with a median of 21.8ng/g in human hair. The ∑DDT concentrations (median=40...
March 1, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255932/developmental-defects-of-enamel-in-first-permanent-molars-associated-with-use-of-asthma-drugs-in-preschool-aged-children-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#14
A Mastora, G Vadiakas, A Agouropoulos, P Gartagani-Panagiotopoulou, V Gemou Engesaeth
AIM: To investigate the association between the occurrences of developmental defects of enamel (DDE), in first permanent molars, and bronchodilators and/or corticosteroid intake for asthma-like episodic treatment at preschool age, in 6-12 year old children. METHODS: Children of the case group (n = 70) were followed in the Paediatric Pulmonary Unit and the Unit of Allergology, Asthma and Inflammation at 'Aghia Sofia' Children's Hospital, Athens, Greece and had used asthma drugs during their first 4 years of life...
March 2, 2017: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242657/tn6350-a-novel-transposon-carrying-pyocin-s8-genes-encoding-a-bacteriocin-with-activity-against-carbapenemase-producing-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#15
Helena Turano, Fernando Gomes, Gesiele A Barros-Carvalho, Ralf Lopes, Louise Cerdeira, Luis E S Netto, Ana C Gales, Nilton Lincopan
A novel transposon belonging to the Tn3-like family was identified on the chromosome of a commensal strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ST2343. Tn6350 is 7,367 bp in size, harboring eight ORFs, an ATPase (IS481 family), a transposase (DDE catalytic type), a Tn3 resolvase, three hypothetical proteins, and genes encoding the new pyocin S8 with their immunity protein. We show that pyocin S8 displays activity against carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa, including IMP-1, SPM-1, VIM-1, GES-5 and KPC-2 producers.
February 27, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242563/pesticides-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-a-case-control-study
#16
Marco Vinceti, Federica Violi, Manolis Tzatzarakis, Jessica Mandrioli, Carlotta Malagoli, Elizabeth E Hatch, Nicola Fini, Antonio Fasano, Valerii N Rakitskii, Olga-Ioanna Kalantzi, Aristides Tsatsakis
Neurotoxic chemicals including several pesticides have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We investigated the relation between organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the etiology of sporadic ALS, determining for the first time their levels in cerebrospinal fluid as indicator of antecedent exposure. We recruited 38 ALS patients and 38 controls referred to an Italian clinical center for ALS care, who underwent a lumbar puncture for diagnostic purposes between 1994-2013, and had 1mL of cerebrospinal fluid available for the determination of OCPs, PCBs and PAHs...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238380/organochlorine-pesticide-concentrations-in-pooled-serum-of-people-in-different-age-groups-from-five-chinese-cities
#17
Qinghua Wang, Haodong Yuan, Jun Jin, Peng Li, Yulong Ma, Ying Wang
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in human serum samples pooled by donor age (≥60, 50-59, 40-49, 30-39, and 20-29y). The pooled samples were supplied by hospitals in five Chinese cities, Yitong (Jilin Province), Weifang (Shandong Province), Ganzi (Sichuan Province), Huaihua (Hunan Province), and Lingshui (Hainan Province). p,p'-Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the serum samples. The total OCP concentrations and individual concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and β-HCH were relatively high compared with concentrations that have been found in other parts of the world...
May 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238206/synergistic-effect-of-ddt-and-its-metabolites-in-lipopolysaccharide-mediated-tnf-%C3%AE-production-is-inhibited-by-progesterone-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells
#18
Pablo Dominguez-Lopez, Laura Diaz-Cueto, Arturo Aguilar-Rojas, Fabian Arechavaleta-Velasco
Increased TNF-α levels have been associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis-(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT), 1,1-bis-(chlorophenyl)-2,2-dichloroethene (DDE), and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(chlorophenyl)ethane (DDD) induce TNF-α release in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Conversely, progesterone (P4) inhibits TNF-α secretion. Pregnant women in malaria endemic areas may be co-exposure to these compounds. Thus, this study was to investigate the synergistic effect of LPS and these pesticides in PBMC and to assess P4 influence on this synergy...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237311/residues-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-surface-soil-and-raw-foods-from-rural-areas-of-the-republic-of-tajikistan
#19
Mace G Barron, Zebunisso J Ashurova, Mukhamadcho A Kukaniev, Hakbarqul K Avloev, Karim K Khaidarov, Jamshed N Jamshedov, Oygul S Rahmatullova, Sunbula S Atolikshoeva, Sakina S Mamadshova, Oksana Manzenyuk
The central Asian Republic of Tajikistan has been an area of extensive historical agricultural pesticide use as well as large scale burials of banned chlorinated insecticides. The current investigation was a four year study of legacy organochlorine pesticides in surface soil and raw foods in four rural areas of Tajikistan. Study areas included the pesticide burial sites of Konibodom and Vakhsh, and family farms of Garm and Chimbuloq villages. These areas were selected to represent a diversity of pesticide disposal histories and to allow assessment of local pesticide contamination in Tajikistan...
February 22, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235828/independent-maternal-and-fetal-genetic-effects-on-mid-gestational-circulating-levels-of-environmental-pollutants
#20
Michela Traglia, Lisa A Croen, Kristen Lyall, Gayle C Windham, Marty Kharrazi, Gerald N DeLorenze, Anthony R Torres, Lauren A Weiss
Maternal exposure to environmental pollutants could affect fetal brain development and increase autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk in conjunction with differential genetic susceptibility. Organohalogen congeners measured in maternal mid-pregnancy blood samples have recently shown significant, but negative associations with offspring ASD outcome. We report the first large scale maternal and fetal genetic study of the mid-pregnancy serum levels of a set of 21 organohalogens in a subset of 790 genotyped women and 764 children collected in California by the Early Markers for Autism (EMA) Project...
February 24, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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