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Rachel E Ellsworth, Paul J Kostyniak, Lai-Har Chi, Craig D Shriver, Nicholas S Costantino, Darrell L Ellsworth
Agricultural pesticides are abundant environmental contaminants worldwide, prompting interest in studying their possible detrimental health effects. We examined organochlorine residues by quadrant (n = 245) in breast adipose tissues from 51 women with various stages of breast health to determine patterns of bioaccumulation within the breast and to assess relationships with patient clinical characteristics. Three organochlorine residues-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and mirex-assayed by high resolution gas chromatography were abundant in breast tissue...
June 19, 2018: Environmental Toxicology
Joan Forns, Hein Stigum, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Isabelle Sioen, Eva Sovcikova, Nikola Nowack, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Mònica Guxens, Jesús Ibarluzea, Matias Torrent, Jürgen Wittsiepe, Eva Govarts, Tomas Trnovec, Cecile Chevrier, Gunnar Toft, Martine Vrijheid, Nina Iszatt, Merete Eggesbø
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is increasing worldwide for reasons largely unknown and environmental chemicals with neurotoxic properties, such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have been proposed to play a role. We investigated the association between prenatal and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl-153 (PCB-153), p-p´-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p-p'-DDE) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and ADHD in childhood. Methods: We pooled seven European birth cohort studies encompassing 4437 mother-child pairs from the general population with concentrations of PCB-153, p-p´-DDE and HCB measured in cord blood, maternal blood or milk...
April 17, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jonathan Huang, Brenda Eskenazi, Riana Bornman, Stephen Rauch, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Indoor residual spraying (IRS) of insecticides, conducted in low- and middle-income countries to control malaria, may result in high exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its breakdown product dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), or pyrethroids. Animal studies suggest in utero exposure to these chemicals may increase childhood infection frequency. OBJECTIVES: We investigated associations between maternal DDT/E and pyrethroid metabolite concentration and child infection associations in an IRS setting in which susceptibility factors are common and infections are leading causes of child morbidity and mortality...
June 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Antonio Canale, Daniele Durante, David B Dunson
There is wide interest in studying how the distribution of a continuous response changes with a predictor. We are motivated by environmental applications in which the predictor is the dose of an exposure and the response is a health outcome. A main focus in these studies is inference on dose levels associated with a given increase in risk relative to a baseline. In addressing this goal, popular methods either dichotomize the continuous response or focus on modeling changes with the dose in the expectation of the outcome...
June 12, 2018: Biometrics
Aina Jansen, Anuschka Polder, Mette H B Müller, Eystein Skjerve, Jan Aaseth, Jan L Lyche
BACKGROUND: With the growing prevalence of obesity, an increased number of bariatric surgeries are being performed. Lipophilic persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are stored in adipose tissue, and an increased release of lipophilic POPs into the blood circulation may occur following rapid weight loss such as after bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate and compare POP levels in serum before and after bariatric surgery, and to assess if the POP levels exceeded health based guideline values, with particular focus on women of childbearing age (WCBA)...
May 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Moustafa Mohamed Saleh Abbassy
The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution pattern of persistent organic pollutants in water, sediment and aquatic biota represented by Oreochromis niloticus and Donax trunculus at the Rosetta Nile branch estuary. α-HCH, p,p'-DDE and polychlorinated biphenyls were the predominant compounds detected at ranges of 0.54-4.90 ng/l water, 0.75-2.41 ng/g, d. wt. sediment and 2.19-28.11 ng/g, fresh wt. biota. β and γ-HCHs, endosulfan compounds, heptachlor and heptachlor epoxide were at low detection frequencies...
June 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
M B Romero, P Polizzi, L Chiodi, S Medici, M Blando, M Gerpe
The change towards intensive agriculture has led to an increase in the use of pesticides. In addition, legacy pesticides, such as organochlorines are still present in the environment. Ten Franciscana dolphins were accidentally killed by netting in a coastal area of Argentina in Buenos Aires province. From these animals, organochlorine, organophosphate and pyrethroid pesticides were analyzed in liver, bubbler and melon tissues. The concentrations of Σendosulfan ranged from not detectable values (nd) to 3539 ng g-1 lw, with the maximum level in melon tissue...
June 1, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Kafiye Eroğlu, Yavuz Kürşad Daş, Zehra Gölbaşi, Zeynep Şimşek, Fatma Koruk, Enes Atmaca
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective descriptive study aimed to investigate organochlorine compounds in women who breastfeed and work as a seasonal agricultural worker (SAW). METHODS: It was carried out on 100 woman working as SAW. Data were collected with a questionnaire by face-to-face interview and analyzed the residues of 27 items of organochlorine pesticides, Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) metabolites and polychlorinated biphenyls, from persistent organic pollutants in mothers'50 mL breast milk...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Salvatore Cotronei, Karla Pozo, Ondřej Audy, Petra Přibylová, Simonetta Corsolini
DDT isomers were detected in all the liver and muscle samples of Greenland sharks Somniosus microcephalus (n = 15) caught in Greenland seawaters. The mean concentrations of ΣDDTs (sum of o,p' and p,p' DDT, DDD, and DDE isomers) were 1094 ± 818 ng/g lipid weight (lw) in the muscle and 761 ± 416 ng/g lw in the liver. The p,p'-DDE accounted for 48% ± 41% and 53% ± 54% of the total DDT residue in the white muscle and liver, respectively. The lipid content was 48% ± 10% in the muscle and 43% ± 17% in the liver...
May 29, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Senrong Fan, Hang Liu, Guomao Zheng, Yilin Wang, Shuran Wang, Yong Liu, Xueqin Liu, Yi Wan
Plants play an important role as sinks for or indicators of semivolatile organic pollutants, however most studies have focused on terrestrial plants and insufficient information has been obtained on aquatic plants to clarify the accumulation of organic pollutants via air-to-leaf vs. water-to-leaf pathways. The presence of p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 9 substituted PAHs (s-PAHs), including oxy-PAHs and sulfur-PAHs, in 10 submerged and emergent plants collected from Lake Dianchi was analyzed in this study...
May 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Daniel S Ellis, Caio V Z Cipro, Camden A Ogletree, Kathryn E Smith, Richard B Aronson
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been spreading to Antarctica for over half a century. Penguins are effective indicators of pelagic concentrations of POPs. We synthesized the literature on penguins to assess temporal trends of pelagic contamination in Antarctica, using fat and eggs to monitor changes from 1964 to 2011. DDT/DDE ratios suggest long-range atmospheric transport...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Barnett A Rattner, Rebecca S Lazarus, Thomas G Bean, Peter C McGowan, Carl R Callahan, Richard A Erickson, Robert C Hale
A study of ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) nesting in the coastal Inland Bays of Delaware, and the Delaware Bay and Delaware River in 2015 examined spatial and temporal trends in contaminant exposure, food web transfer and reproduction. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), coplanar PCB toxic equivalents, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants in sample eggs were generally greatest in the Delaware River. Concentrations of legacy contaminants in 2015 Delaware Bay eggs were lower than values observed in the 1970s through early 2000s...
May 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Christopher J Schmitt, Kathy R Echols, Paul H Peterman, Carl E Orazio, K Christiana Grim, Shirlee Tan, Nora E Diggs, Peter P Marra
Northern Cardinal eggs from six neighborhoods near Washington DC were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides and PCBs. All compounds were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in more heavily urbanized neighborhoods. DDT (mostly as p,p'-DDE) was detected in all neighborhoods. p,p'-DDT was typically 0.5‒16 ng/g (ww) in most suburban neighborhoods but was not detected (< 0.1 ng/g) in more rural areas; however, p,p'-DDT was 127‒1130 ng/g in eggs from two suburban Maryland nests and comprised 65...
June 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Matteo Staderini, Alessia Gambardella, Annamaria Lilienkampf, Mark Bradley
The vinyl ether benzyloxycarbonyl (VeZ) protecting group is selectively cleaved by treatment with tetrazines via an inverse electron-demand Diels-Alder reaction. This represents a new orthogonal protecting group for solid-phase peptide synthesis, with Fmoc-Lys(VeZ)-OH as a versatile alternative to Fmoc-Lys(Alloc)-OH and Fmoc-Lys(Dde)-OH, as demonstrated by the synthesis of two biologically relevant cyclic peptides.
May 23, 2018: Organic Letters
Yasser Abbasi, Chris M Mannaerts
Passive sampling techniques can improve the discovery of low concentrations by continuous collecting the contaminants, which usually go undetected with classic and once-off time-point grab sampling. The aim of this study was to evaluate organochlorine pesticide (OCP) residues in the aquatic environment of the Lake Naivasha river basin (Kenya) using passive sampling techniques. Silicone rubber sheet and Speedisk samplers were used to detect residues of α-HCH, β-HCH, γ-HCH, δ-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, pp-DDE, endrin, dieldrin, α-endosulfan, β-endosulfan, pp-DDD, endrin aldehyde, pp-DDT, endosulfan sulfate, and methoxychlor in the Malewa River and Lake Naivasha...
May 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Luciana Fonseca Pádua Tourino, Patrícia Maria Zarzar, Patrícia Corrêa-Faria, Saul Martins Paiva, Miriam Pimenta Parreira do Vale
This study sought to determine the prevalence of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) among preschool children and investigate associations with sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors and weight status. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 118 children aged 3 to 5 years. Data were collected via clinical examinations and a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents. The diagnosis of DDE was performed using the modified DDE Index. Information on socioeconomic indicators (mother's schooling, monthly income per capita), child's sex and age, and age of mother at the birth of the child were obtained by questionnaire...
May 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Oguzhan Yavuz, Handan Hilal Arslan, Cagatay Esin, Yavuz Kursad Das, Abdurrahman Aksoy
The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
B Jälevik, A Szigyarto-Matei, A Robertson
AIM: To describe the prevalence of different types of developmental defects of the enamel (DDE) in varying age-cohorts and habitations, and to analyse if early trauma to the primary teeth and early subsequent serious health problems were related to DDE in the permanent dentition. Dental fear and anxiety, and aesthetic problems as a consequence of DDE were also investigated. METHODS: DDE was registered over 5 years annually in three age cohorts (796 children). The DDE index (FDI Commision on Oral Health, Research and Epidemiology, Int Dent J 42:411-426, 1992) was used...
May 14, 2018: European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry
Badreddine Barhoumi, Javier Castro-Jiménez, Catherine Guigue, Madeleine Goutx, Richard Sempéré, Abdelkader Derouiche, Amani Achour, Soufiane Touil, Mohamed Ridha Driss, Marc Tedetti
The aim of this study was to assess, for the first time, the concentrations, sources, dry deposition and human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in total suspended particle (TSP) samples collected in Bizerte city, Tunisia (North Africa), during one year (March 2015-January 2016). Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, PCBs and OCPs ranged 0.5-17.8 ng m-3 , 6.7-126.5 ng m-3 , 0.3-11 pg m-3 and 0...
May 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nathan P Skinner, Seung-Yi Lee, Shekar N Kurpad, Brian D Schmit, L Tugan Muftuler, Matthew D Budde
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is a powerful tool for investigating spinal cord injury (SCI), but has limited specificity for axonal damage- the most predictive feature of long-term functional outcome. In this study, a technique designed to detect acute axonal injury, filter-probe double diffusion encoding (FP-DDE) is compared with standard DWI for predicting long-term functional and cellular outcomes. METHODS: This study extends FP-DDE to predict long-term functional and histological outcomes in a rat SCI model of varying severities(n=58)...
May 11, 2018: Annals of Neurology
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