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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036477/a-single-active-site-in-the-mariner-transposase-cleaves-dna-strands-of-opposite-polarity
#1
Corentin Claeys Bouuaert, Ronald Chalmers
The RNase H structural fold defines a large family of nucleic acid metabolizing enzymes that catalyze phosphoryl transfer reactions using two divalent metal ions in the active site. Almost all of these reactions involve only one strand of the nucleic acid substrates. In contrast, cut-and-paste transposases cleave two DNA strands of opposite polarity, which is usually achieved via an elegant hairpin mechanism. In the mariner transposons, the hairpin intermediate is absent and key aspects of the mechanism by which the transposon ends are cleaved remained unknown...
September 19, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034408/occurrence-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-a-tropical-lake-basin
#2
Zati Sharip, Norbaya Hashim, Saim Suratman
This study investigates the presence and distribution of organochlorine pesticides in streams and the lake in the Sembrong Lake Basin in Malaysia. The catchment of Sembrong Lake has been converted to agricultural areas over the past 30 years, with oil palm plantations and modern agricultural farming being the main land use. Surface water samples were collected from eight sites comprising the stream and lake and analysed for 19 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). In situ measurement of temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and conductivity were also undertaken at each site...
October 15, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032526/micro-pollutants-in-sediment-samples-in-the-middle-danube-region-serbia-occurrence-and-risk-assessment
#3
Biljana D Škrbić, Kiwao Kadokami, Igor Antić, Grigorije Jovanović
This is the first comprehensive study on the occurrence of 940 semi-volatile organic compounds including sterols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, plasticizers, and other emerging compounds in 10 river and canal sediments collected in northern Serbia. For quantification of investigated compounds GC-MS-MS (selected reaction monitoring) and GC-MS (using both selected ion monitoring and total ion monitoring) methods were used. The number of detected compounds was in the range of 85-117, while the sum of the concentrations varied from 959 μg/kg dry-wt to 84,445 μg/kg dry-wt...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032525/determinants-of-serum-organochlorine-pesticide-and-polychlorinated-biphenyl-levels-in-middle-aged-korean-adults
#4
Jun-Tae Kim, Jung-Ho Kang, Yoon-Seok Chang, Duk-Hee Lee, Sung-Deuk Choi
The serum levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in a middle-aged Korean population and investigated associations with age, gender, body mass index (BMI), metabolic syndrome (MS), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and dietary habits. The median concentrations of 22 OCPs and 34 PCBs in the serum samples were 483 and 216 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The most abundant compound was p,p'-DDE, followed by PCB 153, β-HCH, PCB 118, and PCB 180. The results of multiple linear regression and other statistical analyses revealed that serum OCP and PCB levels were higher in women and were positively correlated with age...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017533/persistent-organic-pollutants-and-mortality-in-the-united-states-nhanes-1999-2011
#5
Kristiann Fry, Melinda C Power
BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, data on the associations between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the U.S. population is limited. Our objective was to determine if higher exposure to POPs is associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality...
October 10, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988413/oral-health-of-children-and-adolescents-with-mucopolysaccharidosis-and-mother-s-sense-of-coherence
#6
Natália Cristina Ruy Carneiro, Tahyná Duda Deps, Esdras Campos França, Eugênia Ribeiro Valadares, Isabela Almeida Pordeus, Ana Cristina Borges-Oliveira
AIMS: The purpose of this study is assess the association between mother's Sense of Coherence (SOC) and the oral health status of children with and without mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with 29 children/adolescents with MPS and 29 children/adolescents without MPS, and their mothers in Brazil. Mothers completed the Antonovsky's SOC instrument (SOC-13) and their children's oral cavity had been examined for developmental defects of enamel (DDE), occlusal problems, dental caries (DMFT/dmft) and oral hygiene...
October 8, 2017: Special Care in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988099/chlorinated-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-serum-of-new-zealand-adults-2011-2013
#7
J Coakley, P Bridgen, M N Bates, J Douwes, A 't Mannetje
A national survey was conducted in 2011-2013 to assess serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in adult New Zealanders. Participants were randomly selected from the 2010 Electoral Roll within 64 demographic strata according to 4 age groups, 4 regions, 2 ethnic groups (Māori/non-Māori) and gender. Eligible subjects (n=734) donated up to 30ml of blood, after which serum was pooled (n=49) according to demographic strata prior to analysis by GC-HRMS. Associations between demographic variables (age, region, ethnicity, gender) and serum POPs were assessed using linear regression...
October 5, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988083/high-resolution-sedimentary-records-of-some-organochlorine-pesticides-in-yamzho-yumco-lake-of-the-tibetan-plateau-concentration-and-composition
#8
Yong Sun, Guo-Li Yuan, Jun Li, Jianhui Tang, Gen-Hou Wang
Sediment cores from lakes have been used to reconstruct the historic deposition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), especially in remote alpine areas. To reconstruct the deposition history of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the Tibetan Plateau (TP), two sediment cores from Yamzho Yumco Lake were drilled and dated with high-resolution, from which 23 OCPs were analyzed in greater detail. Regarding several legacy compounds, concentration peaks in the cores were observed in the 1970s, corresponding to the heavy usage of these compounds around the world...
October 4, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986081/blood-concentrations-of-pcbs-and-ddts-in-an-avian-predator-endemic-to-southern-africa-associations-with-habitat-electrical-transformers-and-diet
#9
Marie-Sophie Garcia-Heras, Beatriz Arroyo, Robert E Simmons, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Francois Mougeot
Persistent pollutants such as organochlorine compounds (OCs) have been highlighted as a cause of population decline in avian predators. Understanding patterns of OCs contamination can be crucial for the conservation of affected species, yet little is known on these threats to African raptors. Here we report on OC concentrations in an endangered predator endemic to southern Africa, the Black Harrier Circus maurus. Blood samples were collected in 2012-2014 from wild nestlings (n = 90) and adults (n = 23) in south-western South Africa, where agriculture and urbanization have developed rapidly since the 1950s...
October 4, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975520/genetic-damage-in-rhinella-marina-populations-in-habitats-affected-by-agriculture-in-the-middle-region-of-the-sin%C3%A3%C2%BA-river-colombia
#10
Ángel Cruz-Esquivel, Jose Viloria-Rivas, Jose Marrugo-Negrete
Contamination with pesticide residues affects the environmental health of agroecosystems, especially the amphibian fauna that lives in these environments. The objective of the present study was to determine pesticides concentrations in sediments of agroecosystems and to evaluate genetic damage in Rhinella marina populations living in these zones. A total of 91 individuals were collected, 51 in the group exposed in different areas of the middle region of the Sinú River (Irrigation District of Mocari 16, Irrigation District of Aguas Negras 21, Irrigation District of Cerete 14) and 40 in a control group; at the same time, 36 subsamples of sediments were taken at each sampled station to determine pesticides organochlorine by means of chromatography coupled with ISQ Thermo Scientific mass spectrometer...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974479/prenatal-and-postnatal-pcb-153-and-p-p-dde-exposures-and-behavior-scores-at-5-9-years-of-age-among-children-in-greenland-and-ukraine
#11
Aske Hess Rosenquist, Birgit Bjerre Høyer, Jordi Julvez, Jordi Sunyer, Henning Sloth Pedersen, Virissa Lenters, Bo A G Jönsson, Jens Peter Bonde, Gunnar Toft
BACKGROUND: Studies have reported some evidence of adverse effects of organochlorine exposures on child development, but the results have been inconsistent, and few studies have evaluated associations with child behavior. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between prenatal and early-life exposures to 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and behaviors in children between 5 and 9 y of age...
October 3, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968410/distinguishing-neuronal-from-astrocytic-subcellular-microstructures-using-in-vivo-double-diffusion-encoded-1h-mrs-at-21-1-t
#12
Noam Shemesh, Jens T Rosenberg, Jean-Nicolas Dumez, Samuel C Grant, Lucio Frydman
Measuring cellular microstructures non-invasively and achieving specificity towards a cell-type population within an interrogated in vivo tissue, remains an outstanding challenge in brain research. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) provides an opportunity to achieve cellular specificity via the spectral resolution of metabolites such as N-Acetylaspartate (NAA) and myo-Inositol (mI), which are considered neuronal and astrocytic markers, respectively. Yet the information typically obtained with MRS describes metabolic concentrations, diffusion coefficients or relaxation rates rather than microstructures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959635/organochlorine-pesticide-residues-in-dried-cocoa-beans-obtained-from-cocoa-stores-at-ondo-and-ile-ife-southwestern-nigeria
#13
J A O Oyekunle, O A Akindolani, M B Sosan, A S Adekunle
Levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in dried cocoa beans obtained from cocoa produce stores at Ondo and Ile-Ife, Southwestern Nigeria. Cocoa beans samples were sun dried to a constant weight, pulverized and soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane to obtain the OCPs. Qualitative identification and quantitative evaluation of the extracted OCPs after clean-up on silica gel were accomplished with the aid of a Gas Chromatography coupled with an Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD). Levels of OCPs in cocoa beans from Ondo had a mean range of ND (p, p'-DDE) to 82...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955675/pesticide-exposure-and-head-and-neck-cancers-a-case-control-study-in-an-agricultural-region
#14
Maryam Amizadeh, Mohammad Safari-Kamalabadi, Ghasem Askari-Saryazdi, Marzieh Amizadeh, Hamed Reihani-Kermani
INTRODUCTION: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs) are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study...
September 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934091/association-between-exposure-to-p-p-ddt-and-its-metabolite-p-p-dde-with-obesity-integrated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
German Cano-Sancho, Andrew G Salmon, Michele A La Merrill
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing in all countries, becoming a substantial public health concern worldwide. Increasing evidence has associated obesity with persistent pollutants such as the pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to systematically review the literature on the association between exposure to the pesticide DDT and its metabolites and obesity to develop hazard identification conclusions. METHODS: We applied a systematic review-based strategy to identify and integrate evidence from epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro studies...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918287/steroid-hormones-and-persistent-organic-pollutants-in-plasma-from-north-eastern-atlantic-pilot-whales
#16
Katrin S Hoydal, Bjarne Styrishave, Tomasz M Ciesielski, Robert J Letcher, Maria Dam, Bjørn M Jenssen
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are known to have endocrine disruptive effects, interfering with endogenous steroid hormones. The present study examined nine steroid hormones and their relationships with the concentrations of selected POPs in pilot whales (Globicephala melas) from the Faroe Islands, NE Atlantic. The different steroids were detected in 15 to all of the 26 individuals. High concentrations of progesterone (83.3-211.7pmol/g) and pregnenolone (PRE; 4.68-5.69pmol/g) were found in three adult females indicating that they were pregnant or ovulating...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917205/prenatal-ddt-exposure-and-child-adiposity-at-age-12-the-chamacos-study
#17
Marcella Warner, Morgan Ye, Kim Harley, Katherine Kogut, Asa Bradman, Brenda Eskenazi
OBJECTIVE: Using data from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) birth cohort study, we assessed the association of in utero exposure to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and dichlorodiphenylethylene (DDE) with child adiposity at age 12. METHODS: We included 240 children with o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDT, and p,p'-DDE concentrations measured in maternal serum collected during pregnancy (ng/g lipid) and complete 12-year follow-up data...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899906/does-the-doctrine-of-double-effect-apply-to-the-prescription-of-barbiturates-syme-vs-the-medical-board-of-australia
#18
Xavier Symons
The doctrine of double effect (DDE) is a principle of crucial importance in law and medicine. In medicine, the principle is generally accepted to apply in cases where the treatment necessary to relieve pain and physical suffering runs the risk of hastening the patient's death. More controversially, it has also been used as a justification for withdrawal of treatment from living individuals and physician-assisted suicide. In this paper, I will critique the findings of the controversial Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal (VCAT) hearing Syme vs the Medical Board of Australia In that hearing, Dr Rodney Syme, a urologist and euthanasia advocate, was defending his practice of prescribing barbiturates to terminally ill patients...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895192/prevalence-and-extent-of-enamel-defects-in-the-permanent-teeth-of-8-year-old-nigerian-children
#19
Olushola Ibiyemi, Fatemeh V Zohoori, Ruth A Valentine, Simon Kometa, Anne Maguire
OBJECTIVES: Enamel formation is a vulnerable developmental process, susceptible to environmental influences such as excessive systemic fluoride (F) exposure and infant/childhood disease. This study determined prevalence and extent of developmental enamel defects (DDE) and dental fluorosis in 8-year-old Nigerians and explored associations with key predictors. METHODS: A sample of 322 healthy 8-year-olds (155 males, 167 females) from primary schools in lower and higher water F areas of (i) rural and (ii) urban parts of Oyo State in south-west Nigeria (n = 4 areas) (in which the mean (SD) F concentration of community water supplies ranged from 0...
September 11, 2017: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881480/hypomineralised-second-primary-molars-prevalence-defect-characteristics-and-relationship-with-dental-caries-in-melbourne-preschool-children
#20
M L Owen, A Ghanim, D Elsby, D J Manton
BACKGROUND: Dental caries and enamel defects (DDE) are prevalent amongst children. The presence of DDEs, especially enamel hypomineralisation, may increase caries experience in those at increased caries-risk. The reported prevalence of hypomineralised second primary molars (HSPM) is 2.7% - 21.8%, although the occurrence in Australian children remains unknown. These HSPM represent a potential predictive factor for molar-incisor hypomineralisation (MIH). METHODS: In total, 623 three to five-year-old children from 30 randomly selected kindergartens participated...
September 7, 2017: Australian Dental Journal
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