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Hua Fang, Yanfei Deng, Qiqing Ge, Jiajia Mei, Houpu Zhang, Huifang Wang, Yunlong Yu
The biodegradability and ecological safety assessment of the previously isolated DDT-degrading bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas sp. DDT-1 were investigated in the DDT-contaminated soil under laboratory and field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, the degradation rates of fresh p,p'-DDT in soil were enhanced by 2.0-3.0-fold with the introduction of the strain DDT-1 compared to those of the control treatments. A similar enhancement in the dissipation of DDTs (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDT) in the aged DDT-contaminated field plot soils resulted from the inoculation with this strain...
April 18, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chiu-Ju Lin, Lin Wang, Gail S K Wolkowicz
We study an alternative single species logistic distributed delay differential equation (DDE) with decay-consistent delay in growth. Population oscillation is rarely observed in nature, in contrast to the outcomes of the classical logistic DDE. In the alternative discrete delay model proposed by Arino et al. (J Theor Biol 241(1):109-119, 2006), oscillatory behavior is excluded. This study adapts their idea of the decay-consistent delay and generalizes their model. We establish a threshold for survival and extinction: In the former case, it is confirmed using Lyapunov functionals that the population approaches the delay modified carrying capacity; in the later case the extinction is proved by the fluctuation lemma...
April 19, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Rehnuma Haque, Tsukasa Inaoka, Miho Fujimura, Chiho Watanabe, Akhtar Sk Ahmad, Risa Kakimoto, Momoko Ishiyama, Daisuke Ueno
This research was conducted in order to propose ways to reduce human exposure to DDT, especially for women of reproductive age in Bangladesh, and to find a relation between DDT exposure levels in serum and questionnaire information including sociodemographic and food frequency (FFQ). In this study, a significant relationship was found between the education level and BMI, and the serum p,p'-DDE concentration. This result suggests that people with higher education (relating to higher income) and BMI in Bangladesh actively buy expensive foodstuff, like meat and/or fatty fish, which relates to a higher fat intake...
April 18, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Darya Dabiri, George J Eckert, Yihong Li, Kim Seow, Robert J Schroth, John Warren, J Timothy Wright, Shi Zhao, Margherita Fontana
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess dentists' ability to correctly identify and classify development defects of enamel (DDE). METHODS: The modified DDE (MDDE) index was used to classify enamel defects into two types: (1) enamel hypoplasia-pitted, grooved, or missing enamel; or (2) enamel opacity-translucency of enamel not caused by dental caries or fluorosis (can be either demarcated or diffuse). A panel of six experts selected and scored 36 images using the MDDE, and the consensus score was used as the gold standard score in the evaluation of survey respondents...
March 15, 2018: Pediatric Dentistry
C Citti, E Dordet-Frisoni, L X Nouvel, C H Kuo, E Baranowski
The class Mollicutes (trivial name "mycoplasma") is composed of wall-less bacteria with reduced genomes whose evolution was long thought to be only driven by gene losses. Recent evidences of massive horizontal gene transfer (HGT) within and across species provided a new frame to understand the successful adaptation of these minimal bacteria to a broad range of hosts. Mobile genetic elements are being identified in a growing number of mycoplasma species, but integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) are emerging as pivotal in HGT...
April 12, 2018: Current Issues in Molecular Biology
Brenda Eskenazi, Sookee An, Stephen A Rauch, Eric S Coker, Angelina Maphula, Muvhulawa Obida, Madelein Crause, Katherine R Kogut, Riana Bornman, Jonathan Chevrier
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and pyrethroids effectively controls malaria, it potentially increases human exposure to these insecticides. Previous studies suggest that prenatal exposure to these insecticides may impact human neurodevelopment. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to estimate the effects of maternal insecticide exposure and neurodevelopment of toddlers living in a malaria-endemic region currently using IRS...
April 6, 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Juan Pedro Arrebola, Argelia Castaño, Marta Esteban, Mónica Bartolomé, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Juan José Ramos
Diet is considered the main source of Persistent Organic Pollutant (POP) exposure in the general population, although there are still several gaps of knowledge regarding the differential contribution of main food groups. The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns that contribute to human exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs). Study population (n=1880, 18-65years old) was recruited during 2009-2010 in all the main geographical areas of Spain...
April 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
John E Elliott, David Anthony Kirk, Pamela A Martin, Laurie K Wilson, Gabriela Kardosi, Sandi Lee, Tana McDaniel, Kimberley D Hughes, Barry D Smith, Abde Miftah Idrissi
The concept of the Anthropocene, that humans are now re-engineering global ecosystems, is in part evidenced by the pervasive pollution by persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Certain POPs are hormone mimics and can disrupt endocrine and hence reproductive processes, shown mainly by laboratory studies with model species. There are, in contrast, fewer confirmations of such disruption from eco-epidemiological studies of wild mammals. Here we used the American mink (Neovison vison) as a sentinel species for such a study...
April 6, 2018: Ecotoxicology
Rafael Ogaz-González, Ángel Mérida-Ortega, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Lourdes Schnaas, César Hernández-Alcaraz, Mariano E Cebrián, Stephen J Rothenberg, Rosa María García-Hernández, Lizbeth López-Carrillo
BACKGROUND: Maternal 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (DDE) serum levels during pregnancy have been negatively linked to child neurodevelopment in contrast to intake of omega-3 and -6 (ω-3 and ω-6) fatty acids. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether maternal dietary intake of ω-3 and ω-6 during pregnancy modifies the association between exposure to DDE and child neurodevelopment from age 42-60 months. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with 142 mother-child pairs performed in Mexico...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Mia V Gallo, Julia Ravenscroft, David O Carpenter, Lawrence M Schell, Akwesasne Task Force On The Environment
Although several recent studies suggest endocrine disrupting compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p,p', DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), target different organs and systems in the body, their impact on female reproductive function in humans is not well characterized. We seek to determine the relationship between several known endocrine disrupting compounds and a marker of ovarian responsivity, the FSH:LH ratio (higher ratio indicates less ovarian responsivity)...
April 2, 2018: Environmental Research
Eva Govarts, Nina Iszatt, Tomas Trnovec, Marijke de Cock, Merete Eggesbø, Lubica Palkovicova Murinova, Margot van de Bor, Mònica Guxens, Cécile Chevrier, Gudrun Koppen, Marja Lamoree, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Aitana Lertxundi, Joan O Grimalt, Maties Torrent, Fernando Goñi-Irigoyen, Roel Vermeulen, Juliette Legler, Greet Schoeters
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: There is evidence that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have developmental effects at environmental concentrations. We investigated whether some EDCs are associated with the adverse birth outcome Small for Gestational Age (SGA). METHODS: We used PCB 153, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFOS and PFOA measured in maternal, cord blood or breast milk samples of 5446 mother-child pairs (subset of 693 for the perfluorinated compounds) from seven European birth cohorts (1997-2012)...
March 29, 2018: Environment International
Jennifer C Hartle, Ronald S Cohen, Pauline Sakamoto, Dana Boyd Barr, Suzan L Carmichael
BACKGROUND: Environmental contaminants ranging from legacy chemicals like p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) to emerging chemicals like phthalates are ubiquitous. Research aims/questions: This research aims to examine the presence and co-occurrence of contaminants in human milk and effects of pasteurization on human milk chemical contaminants. METHODS: We analyzed human milk donated by 21 women to a milk bank for 23 chemicals, including the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) isomers that are known to sequester in adipose tissue, along with the current-use and nonpersistent pesticides chlorpyrifos and permethrin, phthalates, and bisphenol A (BPA)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Pablo Zapata, Rubèn Ballesteros-Cano, Pere Colomer, Albert Bertolero, Paula Viana, Silvia Lacorte, Francisco Javier Santos
The aim of the present work was to comparatively assess the occurrence and impact of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in nine natural and national parks from Spain and Portugal using gull eggs (Larus michahellis and L. audouinii) as bioindicators of environmental contamination. Sampling was performed during the breeding season of 2016. Compounds studied include polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorinated pesticides (OC pesticides), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and were analyzed using mass spectrometric based techniques...
March 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Laura Monclús, Manel Lopez-Bejar, Javier De la Puente, Adrian Covaci, Veerle L B Jaspers
Raptor feathers have been increasingly used to assess pollutants in ecotoxicological monitoring studies. However, the suitability of down feathers to detect pollutants has not yet been investigated. In this study, concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and organophosphate ester flame retardants (OPEs) were assessed in down and juvenile contour feathers of Spanish cinereous vulture (Aegypius monachus) nestlings (circa 73 days old) and contaminant concentrations were compared between both types of feathers from the same individuals...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
N Eevers, J R Hawthorne, J C White, J Vangronsveld, N Weyens
Although the use of the pesticide 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane (DDT) was banned from the mid-1970s, its most abundant and recalcitrant degradation product, 2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloro-ethylene (DDE), is still present in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems worldwide. Zucchini (Cucurbita pepo ssp. pepo) has been shown to accumulate high concentrations of DDE and was proposed for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. We performed a field trial covering a full plant life cycle. C. pepo plants inoculated with the plant growth-promoting endophytic strains Sphingomonas taxi UH1, Methylobacterium radiotolerans UH1, Enterobacter aerogenes UH1, or a consortium combining these 3 strains were grown on a DDE-contaminated field for 100 days...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Tanya M Brown, Sarah I Lord, David W Schindler, John E Elliott
We examined the influence of biological and geographical factors on the levels and patterns of organohalogen contaminants in blood of adult common loons (Gavia immer) collected from 20 lakes in Alberta, Canada. The loons were captured in the 2006 and 2007 breeding seasons over a 900 m elevation gradient across the eastern slope of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. While PCBs dominated the composition of these contaminants in loons at all sites (∑PCBs > p,p'-DDE > ∑PBDEs > ∑Chlordanes > HCB), p,p'-DDE and ∑PBDEs were also important, averaging approximately 50% and 20% of total PCB concentrations, respectively...
March 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Patrice Dufour, Catherine Pirard, Marie-Christine Seghaye, Corinne Charlier
The last decades have seen the increasing prevalence of thyroid disorders. These augmentations could be the consequence of the increasing contamination of the environment by chemicals that may disrupt the thyroid function. Indeed, in vitro studies have shown that many chemicals contaminating our environment and highlighted in human serum, are able to interfere with the thyroid function. Given the crucial importance of thyroid hormones on neurodevelopment in fetus and newborns, the influence of these pollutants on newborn thyroid homeostasis is a major health concern...
March 23, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Harendra K Shah, Muzaffer A Bhat, Tusha Sharma, Basu D Banerjee, Kiran Guleria
Background: Recent studies have shown that there is an increased risk of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer (EOC) with Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs). However, the alteration in the gene expression profile has not been explored so far. The goal of the present study is to understand the probable molecular mechanism of OCPs toxicity towards discovery of dysregulation of signaling pathway associated with differential gene expression and candidate transcriptomic set of markers in the pathophysiology of EOC in OCPs exposed population...
2018: Open Biochemistry Journal
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Olga N Lukyanova, Margarita D Boyarova
Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides by marine organisms is one of the methods of environmental quality. Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (HCH isomers (α-, β-, γ-HCH), p,p'-DDT and its metabolites (p,p'-DDD, p,p'-DDE)) in samples of seabirds (Northern fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, Crested auklet Aethia cristatella, Auklet-crumb Aethia pusilla, Pacific gull Larus schistisagus, and Gray petrel Oceanodroma furcate) and marine mammals (Gray whales Eschrichtius robustus and Pacific walrus Odobenus rosmarus divergens) were measured by a GC-MS...
March 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Zixia Hu, Shenzhi Zhou, Na Zhang, Weiwei Li, Dongju Lin, Ying Peng, Jiang Zheng
Diosbulbin B (DSB), a major component found in herbal medicine Dioscorea bulbifera L. (DB), can be metabolized to an electrophilic intermediate, DSB-derived cis-enedial (DDE). DDE was suggested to contribute to the hepatotoxicity observed in experimental animals and human after exposure to DSB. Our previous work found that DDE reacted with primary amino and/or sulfhydryl groups of hepatic protein. The objective of the study was to develop polyclonal antibodies which can recognize DDE-derived protein adducts...
March 23, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
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