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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814231/hiv-type-1-integrase-natural-polymorphisms-in-viral-variants-circulating-in-fsu-countries
#1
Ilya Lapovok, Vita Laga, Elena Kazennova, Marina Bobkova
BACKGROUND: Natural variability of integrase (IN) across HIV-1 variants may influence the emergence of resistant viruses. The most apparent explanation of these fact is the IN polymorphism and the associated differences in codon usage, which, in turn, influence the probability and the terms of DRMs acquisition. Possible mechanisms by which polymorphisms affect DRMs emergence remain disputed and should still be clarified because these substitutions may be associated with a reduced activity of some INSTIs and may impact on ART regimen choice depending of HIV-1 subtype...
August 15, 2017: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809444/circannual-variation-of-mitotane-and-its-metabolites-plasma-levels-in-patients-with-adrenocortical-carcinoma
#2
Jessica Cusato, Silvia De Francia, Sarah Allegra, Simona Carrella, Elisa Pirro, Francesca Maria Piccione, Francesca De Martino, Anna Ferrero, Fulvia Claudia Daffara, Massimo Terzolo, Alfredo Berruti, Francesco Di Carlo, Marco Tampellini, Antonio D'Avolio
OBJECTIVES: Mitotane is the reference drug for the adrenocortical carcinoma treatment; its pharmacological activity seems to depend on drug transformation in two active metabolites: o,p'-DDE (dichlorodiphenylethene) and o,p'-DDA (dichlorodiphenylacetate). Mitotane and metabolites are lipophilic agents; thus, they tend to accumulate into adipose tissues (white and brown), which change their prevalence seasonally. Aim of the work was to evaluate mitotane and metabolites plasma levels variation over the year, in adrenocortical cancer patients treated with Lysodren(®) for at least 6 months...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806676/occurrence-and-air-soil-exchange-of-organochlorine-pesticides-and-polychlorinated-biphenyls-at-a-cawnet-background-site-in-central-china-implications-for-influencing-factors-and-fate
#3
Lingxi Zhan, Tian Lin, Zuwu Wang, Zhineng Cheng, Gan Zhang, Xiaopu Lyu, Hairong Cheng
Ambient air and soil samples were collected between March 2012 and March 2013 at Jinsha, a regional background site in central China, to measure the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The average concentrations of total OCPs and total PCBs were 191 ± 107 and 39.4 ± 27.1 pg/m(3) in air (gaseous and particulate phase) and 0.585 ± 0.437 and 0.083 ± 0.039 ng/g in soil, respectively. The higher concentrations of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) and p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE ratios in the soil indicated recent p,p'-DDT input to the soil...
August 4, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803433/distribution-of-serum-levels-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-heterocyclic-aromatic-amine-theoretical-intake-and-nutritional-cofactors-in-a-semi-rural-island-population
#4
Daniel Carrizo, Sarah F Brennan, Olivier P Chevallier, Jayne Woodside, Kevin M Cooper, Marie M Cantwell, Geraldine Cuskelly, Christopher T Elliott
Persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure is strongly associated with negative health effects in humans. Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAAs) are formed during high temperature cooking of foods (i.e. meat and fish). Human exposure to HAA is through food consumption and from similar food groups to POPs. A study of serum samples for POPs in a non-occupational exposed population (n = 149, age range 18-80 years, recruited in 2012) and comparison with estimated HAA daily intake calculations based on food diaries were undertaken...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795076/intraoperative-radiation-exposure-during-hip-arthroscopy
#5
John P Salvo, Jake Zarah, Zaira S Chaudhry, Kirsten L Poehling-Monaghan
BACKGROUND: The frequency of hip arthroscopy for the treatment of acute and chronic chondrolabral pathology and femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) has increased exponentially over the past decade. While surgeon and patient radiation exposure has been well documented in other areas of the orthopaedic literature, little is known about the procedure-specific and cumulative doses affecting the hip arthroscopist. PURPOSE: To determine the mean annual radiation exposure to the hip arthroscopist and the mean surgeon exposure per case...
July 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791578/protective-role-of-antioxidants-capacity-of-hyrtios-aff-erectus-sponge-extract-against-mixture-of-persistent-organic-pollutants-pops-induced-hepatic-toxicity-in-mice-liver-biomarkers-and-ultrastructural-study
#6
Nehad M Abd El-Moneam, Mohamed A Shreadah, Samy A El-Assar, Asmaa Nabil-Adam
The current study investigates the hepatoprotective effect of Hyrtios aff. Erectus sponge extract against POPs intoxication on endogenous antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation in mice liver tissue. In the present study, the mice BALB/C were assigned into four groups: group I: received saline subcutaneously for 7 days and served as negative control; group II: received subcutaneously for 7 days, 130.6 mg/100 g/b. w/day POPs mixture(mixture of PCB 28, PCB 52,, PCB 101, PCB 118, PCB 153, PCB 138 and PCB 180, alpha-Hexachlorocyclohexane, beta-Hexachloro-cyclohexane, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, Aldrin, O,P'-DDE, Dieldrin, P,p DDE, O,P DDD, Endrin, P,p DDD and P,pDDT were extracted from sediments collected from Lake Mariout), and served as induced group; group III: pretreated with Hyrtios aff...
August 8, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780637/selected-organochlorines-in-human-blood-and-urine-in-the-south-of-the-russian-far-east
#7
Vasiliy Yu Tsygankov, Nadezhda K Khristoforova, Olga N Lukyanova, Margarita D Boyarova, Pavel F Kiku, Marina V Yarygina
The trace OCP concentrations, such as α-, β-, and γ-HCH, DDT and its metabolites (DDD and DDE) in blood and urine of residents from the south of the Russian Far East was revealed. A large range of OCPs was found in the urine: α- and γ-isomers of HCH, DDT and DDE. The only β-HCH was detected in the blood; this indicates its persistence and the difficulty of excretion this substance from the organism. The total trace OCP concentration, found in the biological fluids of residents of the south of the Russian Far East, providing further evidence that these organic contaminants persist in the environment...
August 5, 2017: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780451/laboratory-versus-field-soil-aging-impact-on-dde-bioavailability-and-sorption
#8
L Škulcová, Sarah E Hale, J Hofman, L Bielská
Solid-phase microextraction (SPME), XAD, and the sequential supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were used to assess the influence of aging of p,p'-DDE in a laboratory contaminated soil for up to 730 days. The end points determined were the freely dissolved concentration (Cfree) using SPME, the potentially bioaccessible fraction (FXAD, %) and the distribution of p,p'-DDE among fast, moderate, and slow desorbing soil sites determined by three sequentially stronger SFE conditions. Cfree and FXAD decreased during the first 35 days of aging by up to 40%...
August 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767384/distributed-differential-evolution-based-on-adaptive-mergence-and-split-for-large-scale-optimization
#9
Yong-Feng Ge, Wei-Jie Yu, Ying Lin, Yue-Jiao Gong, Zhi-Hui Zhan, Wei-Neng Chen, Jun Zhang
Nowadays, large-scale optimization problems are ubiquitous in many research fields. To deal with such problems efficiently, this paper proposes a distributed differential evolution with adaptive mergence and split (DDE-AMS) on subpopulations. The novel mergence and split operators are designed to make full use of limited population resource, which is important for large-scale optimization. They are adaptively performed based on the performance of the subpopulations. During the evolution, once a subpopulation finds a promising region, the current worst performing subpopulation will merge into it...
July 31, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764132/use-of-a-simple-pharmacokinetic-model-to-study-the-impact-of-breast-feeding-on-infant-and-toddler-body-burdens-of-pcb-153-bde-47-and-dde
#10
Matthew Lorber, Leisa-Maree L Toms
Several studies have examined the role of breast milk consumption in the buildup of environmental chemicals in infants, and have concluded that this pathway elevates infant body burdens above what would occur in a formula-only diet. Unique data from Australia provide an opportunity to study this finding using simple pharmacokinetic (PK) models. Pooled serum samples from infants in the general population provided data on PCB 153, BDE 47, and DDE at 6-month increments from birth until 4 years of age. General population breast-feeding scenarios for Australian conditions were crafted and input into a simple PK model which predicted infant serum concentrations over time...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764122/depth-distribution-possible-sources-and-toxic-risk-assessment-of-organochlorine-pesticides-ocps-in-different-river-sediment-cores-affected-by-urbanization-and-reclamation-in-a-chinese-delta
#11
Wei Wang, Junhong Bai, Guangliang Zhang, Xin Wang, Jia Jia, Baoshan Cui, Xinhui Liu
Sediment cores were collected in urban (0-50 cm), rural (0-40 cm) and reclamation-affected river (0-40 cm) environments in the Pearl River Delta. Concentrations of 16 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in all collected samples to identify the depth-distribution, possible sources and ecotoxicological risks of OCPs in river sediments affected by urbanization and reclamation in a Chinese delta. The results showed that the top 10 cm of rural river sediments had slightly lower concentrations of the 16 OCPs compared to urban and reclamation-affected rivers, whereas the 30-40 cm sediment layers in the rural river showed higher levels of the 16 OCPs...
July 27, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763657/organochlorine-pesticides-in-the-indoor-air-of-a-theatre-and-museum-in-the-czech-republic-inhalation-exposure-and-cancer-risk
#12
Eva Holt, Ondřej Audy, Petra Booij, Lisa Melymuk, Roman Prokes, Jana Klánová
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have been used to preserve the integrity of historical buildings or to protect collections of artefacts at potentially large volumes and often without detailed application records. Previous research has focused on the efficiency of remediation at contaminated sites (where identified), as well as improvement of preservation techniques and workplace health and safety. Few studies have assessed the human health risks from occupational exposure to OCPs in buildings of cultural and historical importance...
July 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753526/influence-of-maternal-and-sociodemographic-characteristics-on-the-accumulation-of-organohalogen-compounds-in-argentinian-women-the-emasar-study
#13
Natalia Bravo, Solrunn Hansen, Inger Økland, Mercè Garí, Marisa V Álvarez, Silvina Matiocevich, Jon-Øyvind Odland, Joan O Grimalt
The occurrence of organohalogen compounds in venous serum from post-partum mothers from two Argentinian cities, Salta and Ushuaia, has been investigated (n = 698). 4,4'-DDE was the most abundant compound in these cities, with geometric means of 33 and 67ng/g lipid weight, respectively. City of residence, age and parity were the main determinants of the accumulation of these compounds. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) was the second most abundant pollutant in Ushuaia, 8.7ng/g lipid, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) in Salta, 7...
July 25, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753482/gestational-diabetes-and-offspring-birth-size-at-elevated-environmental-pollutant-exposures
#14
Damaskini Valvi, Youssef Oulhote, Pal Weihe, Christine Dalgård, Kristian S Bjerve, Ulrike Steuerwald, Philippe Grandjean
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with increased availability of glucose and macronutrients in fetal circulation and macrosomia. Therefore, the role of GDM in the association between metabolism-disrupting chemicals and birth size deserves attention. OBJECTIVE: We examined whether GDM may mediate or modify the associations between maternal environmental pollutant exposures and offspring birth size measures. METHODS: We analyzed 604 Faroese pregnant women and their offsprings born in 1997-2000...
July 25, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738509/ambient-sediment-quality-conditions-in-minnesota-lakes-usa-effects-of-watershed-parameters-and-aquatic-health-implications
#15
Judy L Crane
Surficial sediments were collected from 50 randomly selected Minnesota lakes, plus four a priori reference lakes, in 2007. The lakes encompassed broad geographic coverage of the state and included a variety of major land uses in the surrounding watersheds. Sediment samples were analyzed for a suite of metals, metalloids, persistent organic pollutants, total organic carbon, and particle size fractions. In addition, a small fish survey was conducted to assess PBDEs in both whole fish and fish tissues. Sediment quality in this set of lakes ranged from good (43%) to moderate (57%) based on an integrative measure of multiple contaminants...
July 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737099/concentrations-and-human-health-risk-assessment-of-ddt-and-its-metabolites-in-free-range-and-commercial-chicken-products-from-kwazulu-natal-south-africa
#16
L A Thompson, Y Ikenaka, Y B Yohannes, J J van Vuren, V Wepener, N J Smit, W S Darwish, S M M Nakayama, H Mizukawa, M Ishizuka
Organochlorine pesticides such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) have been used in agriculture and for disease control purposes over many decades. Reports suggest that DDT exposure may result in a number of adverse effects in humans. In the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa, DDT is sprayed annually in homes (indoor residual spraying) to control the mosquito vector of malaria. In the northern part of the Province, samples of free-range chicken meat (n = 48) and eggs (n = 13), and commercially-produced chicken meat (n = 6) and eggs (n = 11) were collected and analysed...
July 24, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728131/the-distribution-of-organochlorine-pesticides-in-sediments-from-isimangaliso-wetland-park-ecological-risks-and-implications-for-conservation-in-a-biodiversity-hotspot
#17
Archibold Buah-Kwofie, Marc S Humphries
The iSimangaliso Wetland Park World Heritage site, located on the east coast of South Africa, spans ∼3300 km(2) and constitutes the largest protected estuarine environment for hippopotami, crocodiles and aquatic birds in Africa. Given the ecological importance of this site and continued use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the region, this study focused on the nature, distribution and potential sources of organochlorine contamination within iSimangaliso Wetland Park. OCPs were widely distributed in surface sediment samples obtained from the four main Ramsar wetland systems within the park (Lake St Lucia, Mkhuze, Lake Sibaya and Kosi Bay)...
July 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724247/persistent-organic-pollutants-and-risk-of-diabetes-and-obesity-on-healthy-adults-results-from-a-cross-sectional-study-in-spain
#18
Luis Alberto Henríquez-Hernández, Octavio P Luzardo, Pilar F Valerón, Manuel Zumbado, Lluis Serra-Majem, María Camacho, Ana González-Antuña, Luis D Boada
Environmental exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been reported to be relevant in the population of the Canary Islands (Spain), especially that of organochlorine pesticides. On the other hand, the population of this archipelago presents a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and it has been recently reported that environmental chemical contamination could play a role in the development of this disease. We performed a cross-sectional study in a representative sample from this archipelago to evaluate whether serum levels of selected POPs could be considered as risk factors for diabetes in this population...
July 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715764/ddt-related-compounds-as-non-extractable-residues-in-submarine-sediments-of-the-palos-verdes-shelf-california-usa
#19
S Kucher, J Schwarzbauer
The Palos Verdes Shelf (PVS) and the continental slope off the Palos Verdes Peninsula are highly contaminated by degradation products of the pesticide DDT (1-chloro-4-[2,2,2-trichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethyl]benzene). Sediment samples from two box cores were analyzed to obtain further information about the fate of DDT and its degradation products within the environment. After solvent extraction, an alkaline hydrolysis procedure was applied. A comprehensive screening for 26 DDT compounds revealed that DDT and its degradates contaminate not only the extractable fraction but also the fraction released by alkaline hydrolysis...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696207/levels-and-determinants-of-ddt-and-dde-exposure-in-the-vhembe-cohort
#20
Fraser W Gaspar, Jonathan Chevrier, Lesliam Quirós-Alcalá, Jonah M Lipsitt, Dana Boyd Barr, Nina Holland, Riana Bornman, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Although indoor residual spraying (IRS) is an effective tool for malaria control, its use contributes to high insecticide exposure in sprayed communities and raises concerns about possible unintended health effects. OBJECTIVE: The Venda Health Examination of Mothers, Babies and their Environment (VHEMBE) is a birth cohort study initiated in 2012 to characterize prenatal exposure to IRS insecticides and exposures' impacts on child health and development in rural South Africa...
July 7, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
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