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Courtney A Waugh, Augustine Arukwe, Veerle L B Jaspers
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and similar environmental contaminants, have been linked to virus outbreaks and increased viral induced mortality since the 1970s. Yet the mechanisms behind this increased susceptibility remain elusive. It has recently been illustrated that the innate immune viral detection system is tightly regulated by small non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs). For virus infections miRNA-155 expression is an important host response against infection, and deregulation of this miRNA is closely associated with adverse outcomes...
March 2018: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
Muhammad Sohail, Syed Ali Musstjab Akber Shah Eqani, Joel Podgorski, Avit Kumar Bhowmik, Adeel Mahmood, Nadeem Ali, Tara Sabo-Attwood, Habib Bokhari, Heqing Shen
In the current study, Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in outdoor dustfall was monitored for the first time along the Indus river system of Pakistan. Among the studied OCPs (ng/g, dry weight), DDTs (0.16-62) were the predominant contaminants identified in deposited dust followed by HCHs (0.1-10.2), HCB (0.09-7.4) and chlordanes (0.1-2.8). The indicative diagnostic ratio for DDTs and HCHs suggested recent emission of DDTs as well as historical emission of both chemicals in regions where they were used for crop protection and malarial control...
November 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Heather J Shipley, Diana Sokoly, Drew W Johnson
PCBs have been banned since the late 1970s, but concentrations still exist in sediments and riverine fish and continue to exceed regulatory limits which can result in negative health effects. This study looks at historical records of PCB and Arochlor concentrations in surface water, sediments, and fish tissue for the Lower Leon Creek, Bexar County in Texas. Temporal analysis on the concentrations of PCBs and Arochlors was conducted for detection and exceedance of selected screening criteria. In addition, the half-lives of select PCB congeners were calculated for 2007-2012 data to ascertain differences in PCB concentrations with their hydrophobicity...
February 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Edwin M Foekema, Maria Lopez Parron, Mekuria T Mergia, Elisa R M Carolus, Johannes H J vd Berg, Christiaan Kwadijk, Quy Dao, AlberTinka J Murk
The present study investigates the likelihood that early life development of marine fish from contaminated areas is affected by maternally transferred persistent organic substances (POPs). The common sole (Solea solea) was used as model species. Fertilized eggs were exposed via the water until hatching, 6 days post fertilization. The newly hatched larvae were allowed to develop further under unexposed conditions until the end of the metamorphosis. Effects on the larvae were determined for the dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl PCB 126, the technical PCB-mixture Arochlor 1254, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), for an artificial mixture of PCBs and PBDEs, and for 'field mixtures' extracted from sole from the North Sea and the contaminated Western Scheldt estuary...
March 2014: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
C Leonzio, F Monaci, M C Fossi, L Lari, N Mattei, S Corsolini
The single and combined effects of methylmercury and Arochlor 1260 were investigated in experimental quail treated chronically with the two compounds at low and high doses. A series of metabolic and biochemical biomarkers were evaluated together with mercury and PCB accumulation to pinpoint the effects of treatment with one or both chemicals. Methylmercury alone was associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol. Less PCBs were accumulated in tissues when Arochlor 1260 was combined with methylmercury than when the former was administered alone...
December 1996: Ecotoxicology
Shuangying Yu, Richard S Halbrook, Donald W Sparling
Concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), Aroclor 1260, and 26 congeners were measured in liver, fat, and eggs of red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans) collected from ponds near or on the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), Kentucky, USA. Concentrations of total PCBs (wet mass) ranged from 0.002 to 0.480 mg/kg, 0.028 to 0.839 mg/kg, and 0.001 to 0.011 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively. Concentrations of Arochlor 1260 did not exceed 0.430, 0.419, and 0.007 mg/kg in liver, fat, and eggs, respectively...
June 2012: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Agung Dhamar Syakti, Laurence Asia, Fehmi Kanzari, Halikkudin Umasangadji, Laure Malleret, Yann Ternois, Gilbert Mille, Pierre Doumenq
INTRODUCTION: The future 'Calanque National Park' coastlines of the Bouches-du-Rhône and Var departments in France, constitute one of the ten biodiversity hot spots identified in the Mediterranean basin that receives industrial and urban wastewaters discharged from Marseille and its suburbs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Organochlorine pesticides (OCs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in sediments collected from 12 sampling sites (C1-C12) of sewage discharge to the sea from the wastewater treatment plant of Cortiou-Marseille...
June 2012: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yan Wang, Chun-Ling Luo, Jun Li, Hua Yin, Xiang-Dong Li, Gan Zhang
This study aimed at identifying the levels of PCBs generated from e-waste recycling, and their potential impacts on the soils and vegetations as well. The ΣPCBs concentrations in soil and plant samples ranged from 7.4 to 4000 ng g(-1) and from 6.7 to 1500 ng g(-1), respectively. For the plant samples, Chrysanthemum coronarium L. from vegetable field and the wild plant Bidens pilosa L. from the burning site showed relatively higher PCB concentrations than other species. For the soil samples, the e-waste burning site had relatively higher PCB concentrations than the adjacent areas, and vegetable soils had higher PCB concentrations than paddy soils...
October 2011: Chemosphere
Janelle L Coutts, Robert W Devor, Brian Aitken, Michael D Hampton, Jacqueline W Quinn, Christian A Clausen, Cherie L Geiger
The kinetic rate of dechlorination of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB-151) by mechanically alloyed Mg/Pd was studied for optimization of the bimetallic system. Bimetal production was first carried out in a small-scale environment using a SPEX 8000M high-energy ball mill with 4-μm-magnesium and palladium impregnated on graphite, with optimized parameters including milling time and Pd-loading. A 5.57-g sample of bimetal containing 0.1257% Pd and ball milled for 3 min resulted in a degradation rate of 0.00176 min(-1)g(-1) catalyst as the most reactive bimetal...
September 15, 2011: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Mariëlla E M Kuilman-Wahls, Mònica Sabater Vilar, Lilian de Nijs-Tjon, Roel F M Maas, Johanna Fink-Gremmels
Cyclopiazonic acid and aflatoxin B(1) are mycotoxins which can both be produced by the same moulds. Men can be exposed to these mycotoxins directly via ingestion of plant-derived food, as well as, indirectly via consumption of animal products. Although it is well known that aflatoxin B(1) is mutagenic, contradictory results exist on the mutagenicity of cyclopiazonic acid. Using the Ames test cyclopiazonic acid was not found to be mutagenic either with or without metabolic activation by S9-mix of Arochlor treated rats...
July 2002: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
H J Schmitz, P Behnisch, A Hagenmaier, H Hagenmaier, K W Bock, D Schrenk
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are present in environmental and tissue samples as complex mixtures of dioxin-like and non-dioxin-like congeners. Induction of cytochrome (CYP) P4501A1-catalyzed 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in H4IIE hepatoma cells is widely used as a simple in vitro bioassay for the dioxin receptor-mediated biological action of dioxin-like agonists. Since the results of the assay may be influenced indirectly by abundant non-dioxin-like PCBs, its application to the bioanalysis of complex PCB mixtures was studied...
February 15, 1996: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
T G Altuntas, J W Gorrod
Factors affecting the metabolism of 2-amino-3-methylpyridine (2A3MP) in vitro have been studied and the conditions which allow maximal metabolism established. Ring nuclear and methyl hydroxylation, and 1-N-oxidation of 2A3MP were linear with respect to arochlor 1254 induced rat S9 supernatant (10,000 g fraction) up to 4.86 mg per ml. The results showed that 20 min incubation time was adequate to observe metabolites formed from 2A3MP. The rate of metabolite production increased with increase in substrate concentration up to 2 μmol per incubate...
1997: Drug Metabolism and Drug Interactions
Martha Gayosso-Canales, Fernando J Esparza-García, Rosa M Bermúdez-Cruz, Araceli Tomasini, Graciela M L Ruiz-Aguilar, Refugio Rodríguez-Vázquez
A 2(III)(7-3) fractional factorial experimental design was used to establish 16 culture media, with and without PCBs to enhance the activities of laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and versatile peroxidase (VP) produced by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The culture was added to 10,000 mg L(-1) of transformer oil, containing 71% of the identified Arochlor 1242. The culture conditions were established with eight variables at two values (levels); pH (4 and 6), agitation (100 and 200 rpm), CuSO(4) (150 and 250 mg L(-1)), MnSO(4) (50 and 200 mg L(-1)), Tween 80 (13 and 3500 mg L(-1)), wheat straw (0 and 2...
2011: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
Ján Krupcík, Janka Mydlová-Memersheimerová, Pavel Májek, Michal Zapadlo, Pat Sandra
The non-modulated transfer (NMT) of the total effluent of the separation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on two columns coupled in series has been studied. A non-polar poly(5%-phenyl-95%-methyl)siloxane column (40 m x 100 microm x 0.1 microm) and a polar 70%-cyanopropyl-polysilphenylene-siloxane column (4 m x 0.1 mm x 0.1 microm) were used as (1)D and (2)D columns, respectively. The effluents from both the (1)D column and the (1)D+(2)D column series were monitored independently by two FIDs. Data from the (1)D and (1)D+(2)D integration reports were used to evaluate the NMT experiment...
March 12, 2010: Journal of Chromatography. A
Seungshic Yum, Seonock Woo, Yoshihiro Kagami, Hong-Seog Park, Jae-Chun Ryu
Differential gene expression profiling was performed with a cDNA microarray in the liver tissue of the medaka fish, Oryzias latipes, after exposure to Arochlor 1260, a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixture, which is used as a coolant and insulating fluid for transformers and capacitors and is classified as a persistent organic pollutant. Twenty-six differentially expressed candidate genes were identified. The expression of 12 genes was up-regulated and that of 14 genes was down-regulated. These genes are associated with the cytoskeleton, development, endocrine/reproduction, immunity, metabolism, nucleic acid/protein binding, and signal transduction, or are uncategorized...
January 2010: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Nadia Abdelouahab, Donna Mergler, Larissa Takser, Claire Vanier, Melissa St-Jean, Mary Baldwin, Philip A Spear, Hing Man Chan
Environmental chemicals can disrupt endocrine balance and in particular thyroid hormone (TH) homeostasis. However, studies differ with respect to thyroid profile changes and gender differences are rarely examined. This study investigated the THs, triodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), in relation to serum organochlorines (OCs), bioindicators of mercury (Hg) and blood lead (Pb) in 211 freshwater fish consumers (124 men and 87 women) from two communities in Canada. Thyroid hormones were within the normal range and the bioindicators of exposure were low compared to other reports on fish consumers...
July 2008: Environmental Research
(no author information available yet)
In the report "Mutagenicity of fly ash particles in Paramecium" by J. Smith-Sonneborn et al. (9 Jan., p. 180), Tables 1 and 2 are printed incorrectly. Significance lines are missing from both tables and "uninduced" should read "induced" in the sixth, eighth, and ninth entries of the first column in Table 1. The tables are reprinted below as they should have appeared. Table 1. Mutagenic effect of fly ash and heat-treated fly ash in Paramecium. Values not connected by the same line are significantly different from each other (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, alpha = ...
February 13, 1981: Science
Michael J Leaver, Joy Wright, Paul Hodgson, Evridiki Boukouvala, Stephen G George
Glucuronidation is an important detoxification pathway for organic pollutants in fish. We report here the isolation and characterisation of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) genes from the closely related marine flatfish, plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and flounder (Platichthys flesus). The deduced amino acid sequences share greater similarity with mammalian UGT1 family genes than UGT2 genes (44-47% and 39-40% amino acid identity, respectively) and have been designated UGT1B. Both plaice and flounder UGT1B mRNAs are expressed in all tissues and are most highly expressed in liver, with high levels in intestine, gill, kidney and adipose tissue and much lower levels in muscle, heart and brain...
October 15, 2007: Aquatic Toxicology
Emese Hadnagy, Linda M Rauch, Kevin H Gardner
The contamination of sediments with polychlorinated organics such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Dioxins) and polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) remains a significant problem in many rivers, harbors, and estuarine areas in the US and around the world. In this work, rapid dechlorination of PCBs, PCNs, and Dioxins by palladium - coated magnesium (0.01% by weight Pd) has been demonstrated in pure solvent systems (10% methanol in distilled water). This reaction was investigated with the goal of developing it as a future sediment treatment method...
May 2007: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A, Toxic/hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering
K E Smith, A P Schwab, M K Banks
Contaminated sediments dredged from navigable waterways often are placed in confined disposal facilities to prevent further spread of the pollutants. Reducing contaminants to acceptable levels would allow for disposal of the sediments and further dredging activity. A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate plant treatments and the addition of an organic amendment to decrease the concentration of PCB congeners found in Arochlor 1260. Sediment treated with the amendment and either low transpiring plants or no plants had the greatest removal of the PCB congeners...
January 2007: Journal of Environmental Quality
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