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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107612/hemin-binding-by-porphyromonas-gingivalis-strains-is-dependent-on-the-presence-of-a-lps
#1
Minnie Rangarajan, Joseph Aduse-Opoku, Nikolay A Paramonov, Ahmed Hashim, Michael A Curtis
Porphyromonas gingivalis is a Gram-negative black pigmenting anaerobe unable to synthesise haem (Fe (II)-protoporphyrin IX) or hemin (Fe(III)-protoporphyrin IX-Cl) which are important growth/virulence-factors, and must therefore derive them from the host P. gingivalis expresses several proteinaceous hemin -binding-sites which are important in the binding/ transport of haem/hemin from the host. P. gingivalis also synthesises several virulence factors, namely cysteine-proteases Arg- and Lys-gingipains and two lipopolysaccharides (LPS), O-LPS and A-LPS...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Oral Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101334/implementation-of-short-incubation-maldi-tof-ms-identification-from-positive-blood-cultures-in-routine-diagnostics-and-effects-on-empiric-antimicrobial-therapy
#2
Robin Köck, Jörg Wüllenweber, Dagmar Horn, Christian Lanckohr, Karsten Becker, Evgeny A Idelevich
BACKGROUND: Results of blood culture (BC) diagnostics should be swiftly available to guide treatment of critically ill patients. Conventional BC diagnostics usually performs species identification of microorganisms from mature solid medium colonies. Species identification might be speed up by using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) of biomass from shortly incubated solid media. METHODS: This single-center analysis compared the applicability of MALDI-TOF-based species identification from shortly incubated cultures in laboratory routine vs...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100594/rapid-aminoglycoside-np-test-for-rapid-detection-of-multiple-aminoglycoside-resistance-in-enterobacteriaceae
#3
Patrice Nordmann, Aurélie Jayol, Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel
The Rapid Aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The Rapid Aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl, adenyl and phospho transferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099388/valproic-acid-mitigates-the-inflammatory-response-and-prevents-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-in-a-murine-model-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-at-the-expense-of-bacterial-clearance
#4
George Kasotakis, Manuel Galvan, Elizabeth King, Beda Sarkar, Arthur Stucchi, Joseph P Mizgerd, Peter A Burke, Daniel Remick
BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACI) are members of a family of epigenetic modifying agents with broad anti-inflammatory properties. These anti-inflammatory properties may have important therapeutic implications in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). However, administration of HDACI may create an immunosuppressive environment conducive to bacterial growth. Accordingly, the aim of the current study is to investigate the effect of HDACI Valproic Acid (VPA) on host inflammatory response and bacterial burden in a murine model of E...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092165/recommendations-for-best-disinfectant-practices-to-reduce-the-spread-of-infection-via-wrestling-mats
#5
Linda Mull Young, Vicki Abram Motz, Emily R Markey, Suzanne C Young, Ronald E Beaschler
CONTEXT:  At the request of the National Wrestling Coaches Association and the head wrestling coach at our university, we conducted a study of infection transmission in collegiate wrestlers. OBJECTIVE:  To examine disinfectant effectiveness and develop best-practice guidelines for minimizing the spread of skin infections via wrestling mats. DESIGN:  Controlled laboratory study and crossover study. SETTING:  Laboratory and two 15-college wrestling invitational meets...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091587/bacillus-volatiles-adversely-affect-the-physiology-and-ultra-structure-of-ralstonia-solanacearum-and-induce-systemic-resistance-in-tobacco-against-bacterial-wilt
#6
Hafiz Abdul Samad Tahir, Qin Gu, Huijun Wu, Yuedi Niu, Rong Huo, Xuewen Gao
Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by various bacteria have significant potential to enhance plant growth and to control phytopathogens. Six of the most effective antagonistic Bacillus spp. were used in this study against Ralstonia solanacearum (Rsc) TBBS1, the causal agent of bacterial wilt disease in tobacco. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 and Bacillus artrophaeus LSSC22 had the strongest inhibitory effect against Rsc. Thirteen VOCs produced by FZB42 and 10 by LSSC22 were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088343/first-confirmed-report-of-a-bacterial-brood-disease-in-stingless-bees
#7
Jenny Lee Shanks, Anthony Mark Haigh, Markus Riegler, Robert Neil Spooner-Hart
Susceptibility to brood pathogens in eusocial stingless bees (Meliponini), alternative pollinators to honey bees, is unknown. Brood losses in managed colonies of the Australian stingless bee, Tetragonula carbonaria, were studied over 20 months. We isolated a disease-causing bacterium, Lysinibacillus sphaericus (Firmicutes, Bacillaceae), from worker and queen larvae, brood cell provisions and honey stores. Pathogenicity experiments confirmed this bacterium as the causal organism. It took 22 days from infection to first appearance of brood disease symptoms...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087297/inhibition-of-streptococcal-biofilm-by-hydrogen-water
#8
Jinkyung Kim, Heon-Jin Lee, Su-Hyung Hong
OBJECTIVES: The accumulation of oral bacterial biofilm is the main etiological factor of oral diseases. Recently, electrolyzed hydrogen-rich water (H-water) has been shown to act as an effective antioxidant by reducing oxidative stress. In addition to this general health benefit, H-water has antibacterial activity for disease-associated oral bacteria. However, little is known about the effect of H-water on oral bacterial biofilm. The objective of this study was to confirm the effect of H-water on streptococcal biofilm formation...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081148/characterization-of-multi-drug-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-isolated-from-cephalic-recording-chambers-in-research-macaques-macaca-spp
#9
Stephanie E Woods, Mia T Lieberman, Francois Lebreton, Elise Trowel, César de la Fuente-Núñez, Joanne Dzink-Fox, Michael S Gilmore, James G Fox
Nonhuman primates are commonly used for cognitive neuroscience research and often surgically implanted with cephalic recording chambers for electrophysiological recording. Aerobic bacterial cultures from 25 macaques identified 72 bacterial isolates, including 15 Enterococcus faecalis isolates. The E. faecalis isolates displayed multi-drug resistant phenotypes, with resistance to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, bacitracin, and erythromycin, as well as high-level aminoglycoside resistance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081123/yersinia-enterocolitica-a-neglected-cause-of-human-enteric-infections-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#10
Daniel Saraka, Cyril Savin, Stephane Kouassi, Bakary Cissé, Eugène Koffi, Nicolas Cabanel, Sylvie Brémont, Hortense Faye-Kette, Mireille Dosso, Elisabeth Carniel
BACKGROUND: Enteropathogenic Yersinia circulate in the pig reservoir and are the third bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal infections in Europe. In West Africa, reports of human yersiniosis are rare. This study was conducted to determine whether pathogenic Yersinia are circulating in pig farms and are responsible for human infections in the Abidjan District. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From June 2012 to December 2013, pig feces were collected monthly in 41 swine farms of the Abidjan district...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075408/time-course-exo-metabolomic-profiling-in-the-green-marine-macroalga-ulva-chlorophyta-for-identification-of-growth-phase-dependent-biomarkers
#11
Taghreed Alsufyani, Anne Weiss, Thomas Wichard
The marine green macroalga Ulva (Chlorophyta) lives in a mutualistic symbiosis with bacteria that influence growth, development, and morphogenesis. We surveyed changes in Ulva's chemosphere, which was defined as a space where organisms interact with each other via compounds, such as infochemicals, nutrients, morphogens, and defense compounds. Thereby, Ulva mutabilis cooperates with bacteria, in particular, Roseovarius sp. strain MS2 and Maribacter sp. strain MS6 (formerly identified as Roseobacter sp. strain MS2 and Cytophaga sp...
January 10, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074414/spontaneous-remission-of-subcutaneous-scedosporiosis-caused-by-scedosporium-dehoogii-in-a-psoriatic-patient
#12
Fang-Gu Li, Yan-Ping Yang, Wei Li, Ping Sheng, Wen Li, Wen-Ming Huang, Yi-Ming Fan
To date, only one case of post-traumatic endophthalmitis caused by Scedosporium dehoogii has been reported, but its contamination or colonization might not be precluded due to the absence of pathogenic isolation and/or pathological examination. We report the first case to our knowledge of S. dehoogii-induced subcutaneous scedosporiosis in a psoriatic patient. A 58-year-old man with 5-year history of psoriasis vulgaris and immunosuppressant therapy developed pyrexia and multiple subcutaneous abscesses on both knees...
January 10, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072611/baby-shampoo-versus-povidone-iodine-or-isopropyl-alcohol-in-reducing-eyelid-skin-bacterial-load
#13
Giancarlo A Garcia, Christine V Nguyen, Marc A Yonkers, Jeremiah P Tao
PURPOSE: Baby shampoo is used as an alternative surgical skin preparation, but the evidence supporting its use is scarce with no descriptions of efficacy in the periocular region. The authors compare the efficacy of baby shampoo, povidone-iodine (PI, Betadine) and isopropyl alcohol (IA) in reducing eyelid skin bacterial load. METHODS: Prospective, randomized, comparative, and interventional trial. Bacterial load on adult, human eyelid skin was quantitated before and after cleansing with 1) dilute baby shampoo, 2) 10% PI, or 3) 70% IA...
January 6, 2017: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070087/postnatal-changes-in-the-relative-abundance-of-intestinal-lactobacillus-spp-in-newborn-calves
#14
Tadashi Takino, Yuko Kato-Mori, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Tetsuya Iida, Katsuro Hagiwara
The intestinal microbiota of newborn calves changes during the early postnatal period and influences their health and immune function. We studied the compositional changes in the intestinal microbiome of newborn calves during the first week after birth by metagenomic analysis. In feces from newborn calves, we identified 4 bacterial phyla, namely, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria. The relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae significantly increased from day 1 to day 7. We evaluated Lactobacillus spp...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069785/postoperative-mycoplasma-hominis-brain-abscess-keep-it-in-mind
#15
Sarah Maria Bergin, Shehara M Mendis, Barnaby Young, Ezlyn Binti Izharuddin
A temporal lobe abscess was diagnosed in a 57-year-old man. A urethral catheter had been inserted 12 days earlier, just prior to clot evacuation of a subacute haematoma secondary to an arterio-venous malformation. Fever persisted despite debridement and treatment with meropenem and vancomycin. Gram stains of operative samples showed no bacteria. Extended cultures grew pinpoint colonies after 5 days. Meanwhile, sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA from operative specimens had identified Mycoplasma hominis; the bacterial colonies were subsequently similarly identified...
January 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069469/an-improved-protocol-for-harvesting-bacillus-subtilis-colony-biofilms
#16
Felix Matthias Fuchs, Adam Driks, Peter Setlow, Ralf Moeller
Bacterial biofilms cause severe problems in medicine and industry due to the high resistance to disinfectants and environmental stress of organisms within biofilms. Addressing challenges caused by biofilms requires full understanding of the underlying mechanisms for bacterial resistance and survival in biofilms. However, such work is hampered by a relative lack of systems for biofilm cultivation that are practical and reproducible. To address this problem, we developed a readily applicable method to culture Bacillus subtilis biofilms on a membrane filter...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068190/er-yag-laser-irradiation-induces-behavioral-changes-in-v-harveyi
#17
Idan Redenski, Sharonit Sahar-Helft, Adam Stabholz, Doron Steinberg
OBJECTIVES: Laser technologies have many different applications in medical, agricultural, and industrial fields. Studies have shown several effects of laser energy on different bacterial species, in a wide variety of settings. Recent reports have found that one of the unique features of bacteria is their ability to communicate among themselves (quorum sensing). We sought to investigate whether low-energy laser irradiation affects bacterial behavior, which is regulated by quorum sensing...
January 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068182/improvement-of-antibacterial-efficacy-through-synergistic-effect-in-photodynamic-therapy-based-on-thiazinium-chromophores-against-planktonic-and-biofilm-associated-periodontopathogens
#18
Eva-Maria Decker, Valentin Bartha, Christiane von Ohle
OBJECTIVE: Aim of the study was to improve the antibacterial efficacy of toluidine blue (TBO)/methylene blue (MB)-mediated photodynamic systems with light-emitting diode (LED) or laser irradiation administered to planktonic and biofilm-associated periodontopathogens. BACKGROUND DATA: Antibacterial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a common, noninvasive adjunctive clinical method to inactivate microorganisms. So far, the disadvantage of this method has been its limited effectiveness in eliminating pathogens...
January 9, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067461/phagocytosis-and-immune-response-studies-of-macrophage-nanodiamond-interactions-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#19
K-J Huang, C-Y Lee, Y-C Lin, C-Y Lin, E Perevedentseva, S-F Hung, C-L Cheng
The applications of nanodiamond as drug delivery and bio-imaging can require the relinquishing ND-drug conjugate via blood flow, where interaction with immune cells may occur. In this work, we investigated the ND penetration in macrophage and the immune response using the tissue-resident murine macrophages (RAW 264.7). Confocal fluorescence imaging, immunofluorescence analysis of nuclear translocation of interferon regulatory factor IRF-3 and transcriptional factor NF-κΒ, analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines production IL-1β, IL-6 IL-10 with a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction technique were applied...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065625/decreased-bacterial-adherence-biofilm-formation-and-tissue-reactivity-of-barbed-monofilament-suture-in-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-contaminated-wound-model
#20
Michael R Morris, Christopher Bergum, Nancy Jackson, David C Markel
BACKGROUND: Monofilament and barbed monofilament sutures have been shown in in vitro models to have less bacterial adherence than braided suture. This study evaluates bacterial adherence to suture materials and tissue reactivity with an in vivo contaminated wound mouse model. METHODS: Staphylococcus aureus was used to create an in vivo contaminated wound model at 2 amounts (10(6) colony-forming units [CFU] and 10(8) CFU) using a mouse air pouch. Three types of commonly used absorbable suture were evaluated: braided, monofilament, and barbed monofilament...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
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