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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219541/spatiotemporal-self-organization-of-fluctuating-bacterial-colonies
#1
Tobias Grafke, Michael E Cates, Eric Vanden-Eijnden
We model an enclosed system of bacteria, whose motility-induced phase separation is coupled to slow population dynamics. Without noise, the system shows both static phase separation and a limit cycle, in which a rising global population causes a dense bacterial colony to form, which then declines by local cell death, before dispersing to reinitiate the cycle. Adding fluctuations, we find that static colonies are now metastable, moving between spatial locations via rare and strongly nonequilibrium pathways, whereas the limit cycle becomes almost periodic such that after each redispersion event the next colony forms in a random location...
November 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219279/use-of-photodynamic-inactivation-for-in-vitro-reduction-of-prevalent-bacteria-in-fournier-s-gangrene
#2
Nalisson Marques Pereira, Luciano Santos Feitosa, Ricardo Scarparo Navarro, Dora Inés Kozusny-Andreani, Naacia Marques Pereira Carvalho
Fournier's Gangrene (FG) is an infectious disease caused by several synergic microbes, with high morbidity and mortality rates; therefore, the search for new less invasive and mutilating treatments, with faster recovery, has been proposed. Surgical intervention, the use of several systemic and topic antibiotics, and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are currently the best approach for the treatment of these patients. The use of Photodynamic Inactivation (PDI) aims to lower morbidity and mortality, by reducing bacterial microbiota and speeding wound healing...
December 11, 2017: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218843/potential-of-saprophage-diptera-to-acquire-culturable-livestock-associated-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#3
S M Russell, V A Chittick, D T Sangweme, E C Lampert
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance among bacteria is one of the most intractable challenges in 21st-century public health. Dipterans that associate with livestock, livestock waste products and cadavers have the potential to acquire livestock-associated antibiotic-resistant bacteria (LA-ARB) and transmit them to humans. In this study, piglet cadavers were used to attract saprophage dipterans from the environment and those dipterans were sampled for the presence of LA-ARB. In the first trial, culturable microbes resistant to both aminoglycoside and β-lactam antibiotics were found in all cadavers and masses of dipteran larvae, and in three-quarters of adult dipterans...
December 8, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218793/anti-proliferation-effect-of-blue-light-emitting-diodes-against-antibiotic-resistant-helicobacter-pylori
#4
Jianwei Ma, Takahiro Hiratsuka, Tsuyoshi Etoh, Junko Akada, Hajime Fujishima, Norio Shiraishi, Yoshio Yamaoka, Masafumi Inomata
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Infection by Helicobacter pylori is implicated in a wide range of upper gastrointestinal diseases. Owing to the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H. pylori, the development of novel treatment modalities for antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection is a key priority. Blue light-emitting diodes (LED) may represent a unique option owing to their antimicrobial effect. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-proliferative effect of blue LED against antibiotic-resistant H...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217269/bacterial-and-fungal-composition-profiling-of-microbial-based-cleaning-products
#5
R M Subasinghe, A D Samarajeewa, M Meier, G Coleman, H Clouthier, J Crosthwait, A F Tayabali, R Scroggins, P S Shwed, L A Beaudette
Microbial based cleaning products (MBCPs) are a new generation of cleaning products that are gaining greater use in household, institutional, and industrial settings. Little is known about the exact microbial composition of these products because they are not identified in detail on product labels and formulations are often proprietary. To gain a better understanding of their microbial and fungal composition towards risk assessment, the cultivable microorganisms and rDNA was surveyed for microbial content in five different MBCPs manufactured and sold in North America...
December 4, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216517/go-agcl-ag-nanocomposites-with-enhanced-visible-light-driven-catalytic-properties-for-antibacterial-and-biofilm-disrupting-applications
#6
Xinhuan Wang, Qiusen Han, Ning Yu, Tian Wang, Chen Wang, Rong Yang
Nanomaterials with visible light-driven photocatalytic activity have attracted much attention due to their excellent abilities in degradation of various organic pollutants as well as inactivating bacteria. Herein, graphene oxide (GO) enwrapped silver chloride/silver (AgCl/Ag) nanocomposites with high visible light absorption were designed and fabricated as efficient antibacterial agents. AgCl NPs were synthesized in the presence of GO first and Ag NPs were coated on AgCl surface by heat reduction to form GO-AgCl/Ag nanocomposites...
November 26, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216299/recombinant-vaccinia-virus-coded-interferon-inhibitor-b18r-expression-refolding-and-a-use-in-a-mammalian-expression-system-with-a-rna-vector
#7
Yuriy G Kim, Aliya Zh Baltabekova, Erzhan E Zhiyenbay, Altynai S Aksambayeva, Zhadyra S Shagyrova, Rinat Khannanov, Erlan M Ramanculov, Alexandr V Shustov
B18R protein of Vaccinia virus binds to type I interferons and inhibits activation of interferon-mediated signal transduction. Cells which have unimpaired interferon signaling such as primary cell cultures or some industrially important cell lines are capable of development of an antiviral state. An establishment of the antiviral state limits replication of RNA-viruses and can suppress replication of RNA vectors. The interferon inhibitor B18R effectively prevents the establishment of the antiviral state. For this reason, B18R has become a ubiquitous component of protocols for epigenetic reprogramming which use transfections of RNA replicons or mRNA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216085/hybrid-artificial-bee-colony-algorithm-for-parameter-optimization-of-five-parameter-bidirectional-reflectance-distribution-function-model
#8
Qianqian Wang, Jing Zhao, Yong Gong, Qun Hao, Zhong Peng
A hybrid artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm inspired by the best-so-far solution and bacterial chemotaxis was introduced to optimize the parameters of the five-parameter bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model. To verify the performance of the hybrid ABC algorithm, we measured BRDF of three kinds of samples and simulated the undetermined parameters of the five-parameter BRDF model using the hybrid ABC algorithm and the genetic algorithm, respectively. The experimental results demonstrate that the hybrid ABC algorithm outperforms the genetic algorithm in convergence speed, accuracy, and time efficiency under the same conditions...
November 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215731/eucalyptol-protects-lungs-against-bacterial-invasion-through-attenuating-ciliated-cell-damage-and-suppressing-muc5ac-expression
#9
Na Yu, Yi-Tian Sun, Xin-Ming Su, Miao He, Bing Dai, Jian Kang
This study was conducted to investigate whether Eucalyptol plays a role in influencing bacterial growth in cigarette smoke exposed lungs. Rats were exposed to air (control) and cigarette smoke (smoking) in presence and absence of Eucalyptol (260 mg/day). Morphological analysis of lung structures and status of airway mucous production were observed under a microscope. Pathological changes of ciliated columnar epithelium in airways were examined using transmission electron microscopy. MUC5AC protein and mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were determined...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214754/utility-of-conventional-culture-and-maldi-tof-ms-for-identification-of-microbial-communities-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-fluid-in-comparison-with-the-gs-junior-next-generation-sequencing-system
#10
Ji Yeon Sung, Younjee Hwang, Mi Hwa Shin, Moo Suk Park, Sang Hoon Lee, Dongeun Yong, Kyungwon Lee
BACKGROUND: Diverse microbiota exist in the lower respiratory tract. Although next generation sequencing (NGS) is the most widely used microbiome analysis technique, it is difficult to implement NGS in clinical microbiology laboratories. Therefore, we evaluated the performance of conventional culture methods together with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in identifying microbiota in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. METHODS: BAL fluid samples (n=27) were obtained from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy for lung mass evaluation...
March 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212056/fe3-saturated-montmorillonite-effectively-deactivates-bacteria-in-wastewater
#11
Chao Qin, Chaoqi Chen, Chao Shang, Kang Xia
Existing water disinfection practices often produce harmful disinfection byproducts. The antibacterial activity of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite was investigated mechanistically using municipal wastewater effluents. Bacterial deactivation efficiency (bacteria viability loss) was 92±0.64% when a secondary wastewater effluent was mixed with Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite for 30min, and further enhanced to 97±0.61% after 4h. This deactivation efficiency was similar to that when the same effluent was UV-disinfected before it exited a wastewater treatment plant...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211953/the-effect-of-a-toothbrush-handle-design-in-combating-microbial-contamination
#12
Sara H Rosenberg, Cliff Lee, John D Da Silva, George Chen, Shigemi Ishikawa-Nagai, Masazumi Nagai
OBJECTIVES: This study aims to assess the difference in microbial contamination of a toothbrush with a smooth handle versus a toothbrush with a grooved handle design. METHODS: Twenty-six volunteers were randomized into two groups. The first group used a smooth handle toothbrush for two months, followed by a grooved handle toothbrush for two months. The second group had the order reversed. Following the two-month use, the toothbrushes were submitted for microbial analysis...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211886/bicarbonate-induces-high-level-resistance-to-the-human-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-in-staphylococcus-aureus-small-colony-variants
#13
Ping Zhang, John A Wright, Anna Tymon, Sean P Nair
Objectives: Staphylococcus aureus small colony variants (SCVs) cause persistent infections and are resistant to cationic antibiotics. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been suggested as promising alternatives for treating antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the capacity of the human cationic AMP LL-37 to kill SCVs in the presence of physiological concentrations of bicarbonate, which are reported to alter bacterial membrane permeability and change resistance of bacteria to AMPs...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211122/actinomycosis-is-not-frequent-in-the-periapex-but-is-a-persistent-lesion
#14
Lucas Senhorinho Esteves, Águida Cristina Gomes Henriques, Carolina Ávila Varginha de Moraes E Silva, Maria Cristina Teixeira Cangussu, Eduardo Antônio Gonçalves Ramos, Carlos Estrela, Jean Nunes Dos Santos
Periapical actinomycosis caused by a gram-positive anaerobic pathogen characterizes a typical extra-radicular infection. This study determined the frequency and correlated the content of bacteria colonies with the of periapical actinomycosis size. The study comprised a total of 218 periapical lesions (PL) (cysts, granulomas or abscess). The specimens embedded in paraffin were sliced into 4-µm sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gram, Periodic Acid-Schiff (PAS) and Grocott's stain. The presence of bacterial colonies composed of filamentous structures labeled with the histochemical stains were described as Actinomyces, and for each case, the bacterial colonies were counted and measured...
November 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208979/induction-of-antimicrobial-peptides-secretion-by-il-1%C3%AE-enhances-human%C3%A2-amniotic-membrane-for-regenerative-medicine
#15
Fatemeh A Tehrani, Khashayar Modaresifar, Sara Azizian, Hassan Niknejad
Due to antibacterial characteristic, amnion has been frequently used in different clinical situations. Developing an in vitro method to augment endogenous antibacterial ingredient of amniotic epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells is desirable for a higher efficacy of this promising biomaterial. In this study, epithelial or mesenchymal side dependent effect of amniotic membrane (AM) on antibacterial activity against some laboratory and clinical isolated strains was investigated by modified disk diffusion method and colony count assay...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208792/impact-of-educational-intervention-for-hand-hygiene-on-dental-students-knowledge-attitude-and-bacterial-contamination-level-on-hands
#16
Hanadi Lingawi, Yahia Maher, Ibtesam Afifi
AIM: The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the educational intervention for hand hygiene (HH) on knowledge, attitude, and mean colony-forming bacterial counts and type of bacteria on hands of undergraduate dental students. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 86 dental students from different clinical grades were included in the study. They were divided into two groups, group I (55 students) received onetime educational session for HH at the start of the academic year and group II (31 students) received an extra reenforce-ment session 6 months later...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205959/maintenance-and-assessment-of-cell-viability-in-formulation-of-non-sporulating-bacterial-inoculants
#17
REVIEW
Teresa Berninger, Óscar González López, Ana Bejarano, Claudia Preininger, Angela Sessitsch
The application of beneficial, plant-associated microorganisms is a sustainable approach to improving crop performance in agriculture. However, microbial inoculants are often susceptible to prolonged periods of storage and deleterious environmental factors, which negatively impact their viability and ultimately limit efficacy in the field. This particularly concerns non-sporulating bacteria. To overcome this challenge, the availability of protective formulations is crucial. Numerous parameters influence the viability of microbial cells, with drying procedures generally being among the most critical ones...
December 4, 2017: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202802/histopathology-microbiology-and-the-inflammatory-process-associated-with-sarcoptes-scabiei-infection-in-the-iberian-ibex-capra-pyrenaica
#18
José Espinosa, Arián Ráez-Bravo, Jorge R López-Olvera, Jesús M Pérez, Santiago Lavín, Asta Tvarijonaviciute, Francisco J Cano-Manuel, Paulino Fandos, Ramón C Soriguer, José Enrique Granados, Diego Romero, Roser Velarde
BACKGROUND: Sarcoptic mange has been identified as the most significant infectious disease affecting the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Despite several studies on the effects of mange on ibex, the pathological and clinical picture derived from sarcoptic mange infestation is still poorly understood. To further knowledge of sarcoptic mange pathology, samples from ibex were evaluated from histological, microbiological and serological perspectives. METHODS: Samples of skin, non-dermal tissues and blood were collected from 54 ibex (25 experimentally infected, 15 naturally infected and 14 healthy)...
December 4, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201106/expression-of-tolc-and-organic-solvent-tolerance-of-escherichia-coli-ciprofloxacin-resistant-mutants
#19
Razieh Pourahmad Jaktaji, Farzaneh Zargampoor
AcrAB-TolC is a major efflux pump in Escherichia coli. It was reported that tolC is overexpressed and involves in improving the organic solvent tolerance level in Escherichia colimarR mutants that are resistant to several antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin. Low and intermediate levels resistance did not improve organic solvent tolerance. Thus, it was decided to measure tolC expression and organic solvent tolerance in high level ciprofloxacin resistant mutants. tolC expression was measured by real time PCR and organic solvent tolerance assay was conducted by counting bacterial colonies on LBGMg agar...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199211/membrane-vesicle-protein-pagc-as-a-novel-biomarker-for-detecting-pathogenic-salmonella-in-the-viable-but-not-culturable-state
#20
Jun Xu, Kazuasa Suita, Katsuya Okuno, Akiko Takaya, Tomoko Yamamoto, Emiko Isogai
The viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state is a remarkable survival mechanism in which cells exist in a physiologically inactive state. Bacteria in the VBNC state do not form colonies, and thus, are difficult to detect using colony-based methods. As a result, VBNC bacteria are potentially virulent and can cause widespread contamination during food production. In the present study, we reported a novel biomarker, the membrane vesicle protein PagC, for the detection of VBNC Salmonella. Salmonella cells were chemically induced into the VBNC state by H2O2 treatment...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
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