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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453625/effects-of-feedstock-and-co-culture-of-lactobacillus-fermentum-and-wild-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strain-during-fuel-ethanol-fermentation-by-the-industrial-yeast-strain-pe-2
#1
Vanda R Reis, Ana Paula G Bassi, Bianca C Cerri, Amanda R Almeida, Isis G B Carvalho, Reinaldo G Bastos, Sandra R Ceccato-Antonini
Even though contamination by bacteria and wild yeasts are frequently observed during fuel ethanol fermentation, our knowledge regarding the effects of both contaminants together is very limited, especially considering that the must composition can vary from exclusively sugarcane juice to a mixture of molasses and juice, affecting the microbial development. Here we studied the effects of the feedstock (sugarcane juice and molasses) and the co-culture of Lactobacillus fermentum and a wild Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain (rough colony and pseudohyphae) in single and multiple-batch fermentation trials with an industrial strain of S...
February 16, 2018: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448366/growth-mediated-autochemotactic-pattern-formation-in-self-propelling-bacteria
#2
Mrinmoy Mukherjee, Pushpita Ghosh
Bacteria, while developing a multicellular colony or biofilm, can undergo pattern formation by diverse intricate mechanisms. One such route is directional movement or chemotaxis toward or away from self-secreted or externally employed chemicals. In some bacteria, the self-produced signaling chemicals or autoinducers themselves act as chemoattractants or chemorepellents and thereby regulate the directional movements of the cells in the colony. In addition, bacteria follow a certain growth kinetics which is integrated in the process of colony development...
January 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445038/quantitative-modelling-of-nutrient-limited-growth-of-bacterial-colonies-in-microfluidic-cultivation
#3
Raphael Hornung, Alexander Grünberger, Christoph Westerwalbesloh, Dietrich Kohlheyer, Gerhard Gompper, Jens Elgeti
Nutrient gradients and limitations play a pivotal role in the life of all microbes, both in their natural habitat as well as in artificial, microfluidic systems. Spatial concentration gradients of nutrients in densely packed cell configurations may locally affect the bacterial growth leading to heterogeneous micropopulations. A detailed understanding and quantitative modelling of cellular behaviour under nutrient limitations is thus highly desirable. We use microfluidic cultivations to investigate growth and microbial behaviour of the model organism Corynebacterium glutamicum under well-controlled conditions...
February 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442627/studies-on-mechanical-biocompatibility-and-antibacterial-activity-of-plasma-sprayed-nano-micron-ceramic-bilayered-coatings-on-ti-6al-4v-alloy-for-biomedical-application
#4
Suganthan Veerachamy, Pearlin Hameed, Dwaipayan Sen, Sitaram Dash, Geetha Manivasagam
Ceramic oxides such as alumina and zirconia are used to fabricate dental and orthopedic implants. However, their usage is limited as they fail due to low fracture toughness. To overcome this issue, ceramic coatings on metallic implants is attempted to have a combined effect of ceramics and metallic materials. This paper reports on the microstructure, phase analysis, mechanical properties, osseointegration and antibacterial activity of three different wear-resistant coatings developed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy which is used widely as orthopedic and dental implants...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435256/specific-plasmid-patterns-and-high-rates-of-bacterial-co-occurrence-within-the-coral-holobiont
#5
Deborah C A Leite, Joana F Salles, Emiliano N Calderon, Jan D van Elsas, Raquel S Peixoto
Despite the importance of coral microbiomes for holobiont persistence, the interactions among these are not well understood. In particular, knowledge of the co-occurrence and taxonomic importance of specific members of the microbial core, as well as patterns of specific mobile genetic elements (MGEs), is lacking. We used seawater and mucus samples collected from Mussismilia hispida colonies on two reefs located in Bahia, Brazil, to disentangle their associated bacterial communities, intertaxa correlations, and plasmid patterns...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433835/towards-automated-detection-semi-quantification-and-identification-of-microbial-growth-in-clinical-bacteriology-a-proof-of-concept
#6
Antony Croxatto, Raphaël Marcelpoil, Cédrick Orny, Didier Morel, Guy Prod'hom, Gilbert Greub
BACKGROUND: Automation in microbiology laboratories impacts management, workflow, productivity and quality. Further improvements will be driven by the development of intelligent image analysis allowing automated detection of microbial growth, release of sterile samples, identification and quantification of bacterial colonies and reading of AST disk diffusion assays. We investigated the potential benefit of intelligent imaging analysis by developing algorithms allowing automated detection, semi-quantification and identification of bacterial colonies...
December 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429621/rampant-host-switching-shaped-the-termite-gut-microbiome
#7
Thomas Bourguignon, Nathan Lo, Carsten Dietrich, Jan Šobotník, Sarah Sidek, Yves Roisin, Andreas Brune, Theodore A Evans
The gut microbiota of animals exert major effects on host biology [1]. Although horizontal transfer is generally considered the prevalent route for the acquisition of gut bacteria in mammals [2], some bacterial lineages have co-speciated with their hosts on timescales of several million years [3]. Termites harbor a complex gut microbiota, and their advanced social behavior provides the potential for long-term vertical symbiont transmission, and co-evolution of gut symbionts and host [4-6]. Despite clear evolutionary patterns in the gut microbiota of termites [7], a consensus on how microbial communities were assembled during termite diversification has yet to be reached...
February 2, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428923/content-analysis-of-commercially-available-probiotics
#8
Pankaj Yadav, Pankaj Sharma, Rohit Arora
We carried out content analysis of 4 batches each of 3 commercially available probiotic formulations proposed to be containing Bacillus clausii. Species identification was done using MALDI-TOF-MS technique while bacterial count was done using plate colony count. Only one of the three probiotic formulation analyzed was found to have homogeneous population of B. clausii while none was found to have the exact viable bacterial count as suggested on the label.
February 9, 2018: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428064/automatic-hemolysis-identification-on-aligned-dual-lighting-images-of-cultured-blood-agar-plates
#9
Mattia Savardi, Alessandro Ferrari, Alberto Signoroni
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The recent introduction of Full Laboratory Automation systems in clinical microbiology opens to the availability of streams of high definition images representing bacteria culturing plates. This creates new opportunities to support diagnostic decisions through image analysis and interpretation solutions, with an expected high impact on the efficiency of the laboratory workflow and related quality implications. Starting from images acquired under different illumination settings (top-light and back-light), the objective of this work is to design and evaluate a method for the detection and classification of diagnostically relevant hemolysis effects associated with specific bacteria growing on blood agar plates...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426401/guinea-pig-infection-with-the-intracellular-pathogen-rhodococcus-equi
#10
Angela I Bordin, Leticia T Gressler, Ellen Ruth C Alexander, Preeti Sule, Jeffrey D Cirillo, John F Edwards, Noah D Cohen
Rhodococcus equi is an opportunistic, intracellular pathogen that causes pyogranulomatous pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised people. Currently, there is no experimental model of R. equi pneumonia other than intra-bronchial experimental infection of foals with R. equi, which is labor-intensive and costly. This study's objective was to develop a guinea pig (GP) model of R. equi pneumonia that would facilitate development of novel approaches for controlling and preventing this disease. Guinea pigs were infected with either 101, 102, 103, or 104 colony forming units (CFUs) of a virulent strain of R...
February 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425052/regulatory-t-cells-subvert-mycobacterial-containment-in-patients-failing-extensively-drug-resistant-tb-treatment
#11
Malika Davids, Anil S Pooran, Elize Pietersen, Helen C Wainwright, Anke Binder, Robin Warren, Keertan Dheda
RATIONALE: The advent of extensively (XDR-TB) and totally drug-resistant TB, with limited or no treatment options, has facilitated renewed interest in host directed immunotherapy, particularly for therapeutically destitute patients. However, the selection and utility of such approaches depend upon understanding the host immune response in XDR-TB, which hitherto remains unexplored. OBJECTIVES: To determine the host immunological profile in patients with XDR-TB, compared to drug-sensitive TB, using peripheral blood and explanted lung tissue...
February 9, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424055/characterization-of-swedish-campylobacter-coli-clade-2-and-clade-3-water-isolates
#12
Anna Nilsson, Astrid Skarp, Cecilia Johansson, René Kaden, Lars Engstrand, Hilpi Rautelin
Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are important bacterial enteropathogens. Poultry is the best-known reservoir for Campylobacter infection but natural bodies of water have also been shown to be important pathways for transmission. Campylobacter can survive in cold water but most of the studies have focused on C. jejuni only. In this paper, we take a closer look at the biology and water survival strategies of C. coli. Eight C. coli isolates cultivated from raw (incoming) surface water at water plants in Sweden were characterized using whole-genome sequencing and phenotypical assays...
February 9, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422767/acceleration-of-the-formation-of-biofilms-on-contact-lens-surfaces-in-the-presence-of-neutrophil-derived-cellular-debris-is-conserved-across-multiple-genera
#13
Naiya B Patel, Jorge A Hinojosa, Meifang Zhu, Danielle M Robertson
Purpose: We have previously shown that invasive strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exploit the robust neutrophil response to form biofilms on contact lens surfaces and invade the corneal epithelium. The present study investigated the ability of multiple bacterial genera, all commonly recovered during contact lens-related infectious events, to adhere to and form biofilms on contact lens surfaces in the presence of neutrophils. Methods: Five reference strains from the American Type Culture Collection were used: P...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422525/effects-of-water-flow-on-submerged-macrophyte-biofilm-systems-in-constructed-wetlands
#14
Bing Han, Songhe Zhang, Peifang Wang, Chao Wang
The effects of water flow on the leaf-biofilm interface of Vallisneria natans and Hydrilla verticillata were investigated using artificial plants as the control. Water flow inhibited the growth of two species of submerged macrophytes, reduced oxygen concentrations in plant leaves and changed oxygen profiles at the leaf-biofilm interface. The results from confocal laser scanning microscopy and multifractal analysis showed that water flow reduced biofilm thickness, changed biofilm topographic characterization and increased the percentages of single colony-like biofilm patches...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417313/sweetening-inhaled-antibiotic-treatment-for-eradication-of-chronic-respiratory-biofilm-infection
#15
Ching-Yee Loo, Wing-Hin Lee, Gianluca Lauretani, Santo Scalia, David Cipolla, Daniela Traini, Paul Young, Hui Xin Ong
PURPOSE: The failure of chronic therapy with antibiotics to clear persistent respiratory infection is the key morbidity and mortality factor for patients with chronic lung diseases, primarily due to the presence of biofilm in the lungs. It is hypothesised that carbon sources, such as mannitol, could stimulate the metabolic activity of persister cells within biofilms and restore their susceptibility to antibiotics. The aims of the current study are to: (1) establish a representative in vitro model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm lung infection, and (2) investigate the effects of nebulised mannitol on antibiotic efficacy, focusing on ciprofloxacin, in the eradication of biofilm...
February 7, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416279/characteristics-of-bacterial-colonization-after-indwelling-double-j-ureteral-stents-for-different-time-duration
#16
K S Shabeena, Rahul Bhargava, Muhammed A P Manzoor, M Mujeeburahiman
Background: Indwelling Double-J ureteral stenting is commonly used in urological practice and has various complications. This study aimed to assess the frequency of bacterial stent colonization and stent-associated bacteriuria after indwelling it for different time durations and to evaluate the significance of urinary cultures for identification of colonizing microorganisms. Materials and Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. Midstream urine from 72 patients undergoing J stent insertion was investigated microbiologically before stent insertion and on the day of stent removal...
January 2018: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415569/the-adhesins-of-non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae
#17
Karen L Osman, Johanna M Jefferies, Christopher H Woelk, David W Cleary, Stuart C Clarke
Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen of the respiratory tract and the greatest contributor to invasive Haemophilus disease. Additionally, in children, NTHi is responsible for the majority of otitis media (OM) which can lead to chronic infection and hearing loss. In adults, NTHi infection in the lungs is responsible for the onset of acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately, there is currently no vaccine available to protect against NTHi infections...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415409/antibacterial-and-lead-ions-adsorption-characteristics-of-chitosan-manganese-dioxide-bionanocomposite
#18
Yasir Anwar
In the current study, a facile and an eco-friendly manganese oxide nanoparticles dispersed in chitosan (CS-MnO2) nanocomposite was synthesized. A chemical precipitation method was used for the product synthesis. The product characterization was performed using various spectroscopic techniques such as X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and zeta potential which confirmed its successful formation. The CS-MnO2 nanocomposite was evaluated in the Pb2+ ions adsorption from it aqueous solution...
February 2, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414608/investigating-the-effect-of-biosynthesized-silver-nanoparticles-as-antibiofilm-on-bacterial-clinical-isolates
#19
H Z Neihaya, H H Zaman
Silver nanoparticles showed enhanced biofilm inhibitory activity of clinical pathogens. Eleven isolates (45.8%) of E. coli bacteria were obtained from 24 wound specimens. Silver nanoparticles biosynthesized by E. coli culture supernatant with exhibition dark brown color after 24 hr of incubation. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Ag-NPs spherical particles and its size were (14.2-67.8) nm and its average was 33.6 nm. X-ray diffraction shows one high peak at 2ø (32.5°) compared with standard data...
January 31, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410255/antimicrobial-efficacy-of-photodynamic-therapy-and-light-activated-disinfection-on-contaminated-zirconia-implants-an-in-vitro-study
#20
Bleron Azizi, Ana Budimir, Ivona Bago, Blerim Mehmeti, Suzana Jakovljević, Jeta Kelmendi, Aleksandra Presecki Stanko, Dragana Gabrić
BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and light-activated disinfection (LAD) on zirconia dental implants contaminated with three bacterial species and investigate if the PDT and LAD cause implant surface alterations. METHODS: Seventy-two zirconia dental implants were contaminated with a bacterial suspension of Prevotella intermedia, Actinomyces actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The implants were subsequently randomly divided into four groups (n = 12 dental implants/each) according to the decontamination protocol: Group 1 (PDT1) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with toluidine blue; Group 2 (PDT2) - PDT (660 nm, 100 mW) with phenothiazine chloride dye; Group 3 (LAD) - light emitting diode (LED) with toluidine blue; and Group 4 (TB) - toluidine blue without the application of light...
February 1, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
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