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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932085/development-of-a-sensitive-and-false-positive-free-pma-qpcr-viability-assay-to-quantify-vbnc-escherichia-coli-and-evaluate-disinfection-performance-in-wastewater-effluent
#1
Richard Kibbee, Banu Örmeci
The detection and quantification of viable Escherichia coli cells in wastewater treatment plant effluent is very important as it is the main disinfection efficacy parameter for assessing its public health risk and environmental impact. The aim of this study was to develop a sensitive and false-positive free propidium monoazide-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PMA-qPCR) assay to quantify the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) E. coli present in secondary wastewater effluent after chlorine disinfection. The qPCR target was the E...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930269/lysobacter-humi-sp-nov-a-novel-species-isolated-from-soil-in-south-korea
#2
Dongwook Lee, Jun Hyeong Jang, Seho Cha, Taegun Seo
A yellow-pigmented and strictly aerobic bacterial strain, designated FJY8T, was isolated from the soil of Goyang, South Korea. The cells of FJY8T are Gram-negative, non-motile rods. Colonies were circular, convex and transparent. Strain FJY8T grew optimally at 30°C, 0 % (w/v) NaCl and pH 8. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of FJY8T revealed a clear affiliation of this bacterium to the family Lysobacteraceae and it was related to members of the genus Lysobacter, Lysobacter xinjiangensis KCTC 22558T being its closest relative (98...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923650/3d-printed-microfluidic-magnetic-preconcentrator-for-the-detection-of-bacterial-pathogen-using-an-atp-luminometer-and-antibody-conjugated-magnetic-nanoparticles
#3
Chanyong Park, Jinyeop Lee, Yonghee Kim, Jaewon Kim, Jinkee Lee, Sungsu Park
Various types of microfluidic systems have been developed to detect bacterial pathogens. However, most of these require enrichment steps that take at least several hours when detecting bacteria that are present with a low number of cells and, in addition, fabrication requires complicated assembly steps. In this study, we report the development of 3D microfluidic magnetic preconcentrator (3DμFMP) made of plastic via 3D printing without the need for any assembly. 3DμFMP could selectively preconcentrate enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in 100mL by a factor of 700 within 1h using antibody-conjugated magnetic nanoparticles (Ab-MNPs)...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920425/generation-of-mutation-hotspots-in-ageing-bacterial-colonies
#4
Agnieszka Sekowska, Sofie Wendel, Emil C Fischer, Morten H H Nørholm, Antoine Danchin
How do ageing bacterial colonies generate adaptive mutants? Over a period of two months, we isolated on ageing colonies outgrowing mutants able to use a new carbon source, and sequenced their genomes. This allowed us to uncover exquisite details on the molecular mechanism behind their adaptation: most mutations were located in just a few hotspots in the genome, and over time, mutations increasingly were consistent with the involvement of 8-oxo-guanosine, formed exclusively on the transcribed strand. This work provides strong support for retromutagenesis as a general process creating adaptive mutations during ageing...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919649/maldi-tof-ms-identification-of-species-from-the-acinetobacter-baumannii-ab-group-revisited-inclusion-of-the-novel-a-seifertii-and-a-dijkshoorniae-species
#5
Marta Marí-Almirall, Clara Cosgaya, Paul G Higgins, Ado Van Assche, Murat Telli, Geert Huys, Bart Lievens, Harald Seifert, Lenie Dijkshoorn, Ignasi Roca, Jordi Vila
OBJECTIVES: Rapid identification of Acinetobacter species is critical since members of the A. baumannii (Ab) group differ in antibiotic susceptibility and clinical outcomes. A. baumannii, A. pittii and A. nosocomialis can be identified by MALDI-TOF/MS, while the novel species A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae cannot. Low identification rates for A. nosocomialis have also been reported. We evaluated the use of MALDI-TOF/MS to identify isolates of A. seifertii and A. dijkshoorniae and revisited the identification of A...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916588/genotoxicity-evaluation-of-hwanglyeonhaedok-tang-an-herbal-formula
#6
Seong Eun Jin, Mee-Young Lee, Chang-Seob Seo, Hyekyung Ha, Ji-Young Kim, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hwanglyeonhaedok-tang (Huanglianjiedu-tang, Orengedoku-to), a traditional herbal formula, is used for the treatment of inflammatory, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic potential of Hwanglyeonhaedok-tang water extract (HLHDT). METHODS: A genotoxicity test was conducted using a bacterial reverse mutation test (Ames test), an in vitro chromosome aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells, and an in vivo micronucleus test using ICR mouse bone marrow...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916373/antibiotic-releasing-microspheres-prevent-mesh-infection-in%C3%A2-vivo
#7
Kevin T Grafmiller, Sean T Zuckerman, Clayton Petro, Lijia Liu, Horst A von Recum, Michael J Rosen, Julius N Korley
BACKGROUND: Infection remains a dreaded complication after implantation of surgical prosthetics, particularly after hernia repair with synthetic mesh. We previously demonstrated the ability of a newly developed polymer to provide controlled release of an antibiotic in a linear fashion over 45 d. We subsequently showed that coating mesh with the drug-releasing polymer prevented a Staphylococcus aureus (SA) infection in vivo. To broaden the applicability of this technology, the polymer was synthesized as isolated "microspheres" and loaded with vancomycin (VM) before conducting a noninferiority analysis...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911402/utilizing-the-ethylene-releasing-compound-2-chloroethylphosphonic-acid-as-a-tool-to-study-ethylene-response-in-bacteria
#8
Richard V Augimeri, Andrew J Varley, Janice L Strap
Ethylene (C2H4) is a gaseous phytohormone that is involved in numerous aspects of plant development, playing a dominant role in senescence and fruit ripening. Exogenous ethylene applied during early plant development triggers the triple response phenotype; a shorter and thicker hypocotyl with an exaggerated apical hook. Despite the intimate relationship between plants and bacteria, the effect of exogenous ethylene on bacteria has been greatly overlooked. This is partly due to the difficulty of controlling gaseous ethylene within the laboratory without specialized equipment...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911388/high-throughput-real-time-dual-readout-testing-of-intracellular-antimicrobial-activity-and-eukaryotic-cell-cytotoxicity
#9
Lucius Chiaraviglio, Yoon-Suk Kang, James E Kirby
Traditional measures of intracellular antimicrobial activity and eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity rely on endpoint assays. Such endpoint assays require several additional experimental steps prior to readout, such as cell lysis, colony forming unit determination, or reagent addition. When performing thousands of assays, for example, during high-throughput screening, the downstream effort required for these types of assays is considerable. Therefore, to facilitate high-throughput antimicrobial discovery, we developed a real-time assay to simultaneously identify inhibitors of intracellular bacterial growth and assess eukaryotic cell cytotoxicity...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911082/necrotizing-and-haemorrhagic-hepatitis-and-enteritis-in-commercial-layer-pullets
#10
Yuko Sato, William L Wigle, Tsang Long Lin, Eric Gingerich, Patricia S Wakenell
This case report describes an episode of recurring severe necrotizing and haemorrhagic hepatitis and enteritis experienced in a flock of commercial layer pullets at 12 weeks of age and again at 18 weeks of age in Indiana. Pullets had been vaccinated at 10 weeks old using a trivalent Salmonella Enteritidis (SE)/Newcastle disease/infectious bronchitis oil-emulsion-inactivated vaccine. The pullets were found dead at 12 weeks with firm but friable, enlarged, haemorrhagic livers, enlarged spleens, and necrohaemorrhagic intestines...
December 2, 2016: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903820/agent-based-modelling-in-synthetic-biology
#11
REVIEW
Thomas E Gorochowski
Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903273/a-novel-quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-method-for-detecting-toxigenic-pasteurella-multocida-in-nasal-swabs-from-swine
#12
Simone Scherrer, Daniel Frei, Max Michael Wittenbrink
BACKGROUND: Progressive atrophic rhinitis (PAR) in pigs is caused by toxigenic Pasteurella multocida. In Switzerland, PAR is monitored by selective culture of nasal swabs and subsequent polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening of bacterial colonies for the P. multocida toxA gene. A panel of 203 nasal swabs from a recent PAR outbreak were used to evaluate a novel quantitative real-time PCR for toxigenic P. multocida in porcine nasal swabs. RESULTS: In comparison to the conventional PCR with a limit of detection of 100 genome equivalents per PCR reaction, the real-time PCR had a limit of detection of 10 genome equivalents...
December 1, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902784/dynamic-in-vivo-mutations-within-the-ica-operon-during-persistence-of-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-airways-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#13
Bianca Schwartbeck, Johannes Birtel, Janina Treffon, Lars Langhanki, Alexander Mellmann, Devika Kale, Janina Kahl, Nina Hirschhausen, Claudia Neumann, Jean C Lee, Friedrich Götz, Holger Rohde, Hanae Henke, Peter Küster, Georg Peters, Barbara C Kahl
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is associated with chronic bacterial airway infections leading to lung insufficiency and decreased life expectancy. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most prevalent pathogens isolated from the airways of CF patients. Mucoid colony morphology has been described for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most common pathogen in CF, but not for S. aureus. From the airways of 8 of 313 CF patients (2.5%) mucoid S. aureus isolates (n = 115) were cultured with a mean persistence of 29 months (range 1 month, 126 months)...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902252/flectobacillus-fontis-sp-nov-isolated-from-a-freshwater-spring
#14
Wen-Ming Chen, Kai-Rou Lin, Chiu-Chung Young, Shih-Yi Sheu
A bacterial strain, designated MIB-4T, was isolated from a freshwater spring in Taiwan and characterized using a polyphasic taxonomy approach. Cells of strain MIB-4T were Gram-staining-negative, aerobic, non-motile rods that formed pale pink-colored colonies. Growth occurred at 15-30 oC (optimum, 25 °C), at pH 7-8 (optimum, pH 7) and with 0-0.5 % NaCl (optimum, 0 %). Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MIB-4T belonged to the genus Flectobacillus and was most closely related to Flectobacillus lacus CL-GP79T with sequence similarity of 98...
October 27, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902241/description-of-lactobacillus-colini-sp-nov-isolated-from-northern-bobwhite-colinus-virginianus
#15
Michael Z Zhang, Ming Yang, Hongwen Su, Dale Rollins, Shuping Zhang
Biochemical and molecular studies were performed on five unknown bacterial strains isolated from the intestinal contents of Northern Bobwhites (Colinus virginianus) collected from western Texas, USA. The strains were Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, non-spore-forming rods arranged in single cells, pairs or short chains. Colonies on Columbia blood agar are circular, flat, entire, approximately 0.5 - 1.5 mm in diameter and surrounded with a zone of alpha hemolysis at 48 h incubation at 37 °C. Colonies on MRS agar are umbonate with irregular edge, opaque and approximately 1 - 1...
October 28, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902211/flavobacterium-eburneum-sp-nov-isolated-from-reclaimed-saline-land-soil
#16
Woon Mo Hwang, Dohak Kim, Keunsoo Kang, Tae-Young Ahn
A novel Gram-stain-negative, motile by gliding, and aerobic bacterial strain, designated SA31T, was isolated from reclaimed saline land soil near a lake in Taean-gun, South Korea. Cells of the isolate formed ivory-colored colonies. Growth occurred at 10-35 ºC (optimum 25-30 ºC), pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0-7.5), and 0-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0 %). Based on similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences, strain SA31T was mostly affiliated with the genus Flavobacterium, exhibiting the highest sequence similarities with Flavobacterium palustre S44T (96...
October 12, 2016: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897378/subcellular-clustering-of-a-putative-c-di-gmp-dependent-exopolysaccharide-machinery-affecting-macro-colony-architecture-in-bacillus-subtilis
#17
Patricia Bedrunka, Peter L Graumann
The structure of bacterial biofilms is predominantly established through the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). We show that Bacillus subtilis contains an operon (ydaJ-N) whose induction leads to increased Congo Red staining of biofilms and strongly altered biofilm architecture, suggesting that it mediates the production of an unknown exopolysaccharide. Supporting this idea, overproduction of YdaJKLMN leads to cell clumping during exponential growth in liquid culture, and also causes colony morphology alterations in wild type cells, as well as in a mutant background lacking the major exopolysaccharide of B...
November 29, 2016: Environmental Microbiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891476/anti-bacterial-effectiveness-of-electro-chemically-activated-eca-water-as-a-root-canal-irrigant-an-in-vitro-comparative-study
#18
S Lata, Soumya Kanta Mohanty, Prasanti Kumari Pradhan, Gaurav Patri, Sachidananda Prasad Sinha, Pratik Agrawal
INTRODUCTION: Sodium hypochlorite, is the irrigant of choice for many clinicians, but its strong toxic and damaging effects on vital periapical tissues is always a matter of concern. So, the search for a root canal irrigant with a broad antimicrobial spectrum yet with a limited toxicity on vital tissues is always desirable. AIM: The study evaluated antimicrobial efficacy of Electro-Chemically Activated (ECA) water as a root canal irrigant against E. faecalis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty eight single rooted human teeth were decoronated to a length of 15mm...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#19
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890730/cathodic-voltage-controlled-electrical-stimulation-of-titanium-for-prevention-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-biofilm-infections
#20
Mary Canty, Nicole Luke-Marshall, Anthony Campagnari, Mark Ehrensberger
: Antibiotic resistance of bacterial biofilms limits available treatment methods for implant-associated orthopaedic infections. This study evaluated the effects of applying cathodic voltage-controlled electrical stimulations (CVCES) of -1.5V and -1.8V (vs. Ag/AgCl) to coupons of commercially pure titanium (cpTi) incubated in cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) as a method of preventing bacterial attachment. Stimulations were applied for 2, 4, and 8 hours and coupon-associated and planktonic colony-forming units (CFU) were enumerated following stimulation...
November 24, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
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