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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679527/effects-of-a-new-chlorhexidine-varnish-on-streptococcus-mutans-biofilm-formation-in-vitro
#1
Ali Hayati, Farhud Najafi, Fahimeh Sadat Tabatabaei
BACKGROUND: Local sustained-release drug delivery systems increase the substantivity of drugs in the oral environment and subsequently enhance their therapeutic effects. This study sought to compare the effects of two commercially available varnishes and one experimental chlorhexidine (CHX) varnish on formation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The solubility rates of the varnishes were evaluated as well. METHODS: Standard acrylic discs were fabricated and divided into groups based on the varnish applied to the disc surfaces, namely, V-varnish, Pascal, and experimental CHX varnish...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679390/clinically-applicable-irreversible-electroporation-for-eradication-of-microorganisms
#2
Maya Korem, Nahum S Goldberg, Amos Cahan, Matan J Cohen, Isaac Nissenbaum, Allon E Moses
Irreversible electroporation (IRE) damages cell membranes and is used in medicine for non-thermal ablation of malignant tumors. Our aim was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of IRE. The pathogenic microorganisms, S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans were subjected to IRE. Survival was measured as a function of voltage and the number of pulses applied. Combined use of IRE and oxacillin for eradication of S. aureus was also tested. Log10 reduction of microorganisms positively correlated with the number of applied pulses...
April 21, 2018: Letters in Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678920/imidacloprid-decreases-honey-bee-survival-but-does-not-affect-the-gut-microbiome
#3
Kasie Raymann, Erick V S Motta, Catherine Girard, Ian M Riddington, Jordan A Dinser, Nancy A Moran
Accumulating evidence suggests that pesticides have played a role in the increased rate of honeybee colony loss. One of the most commonly used pesticides in the US is the neonicotinoid imidacloprid. Although the primary mode of action of imidacloprid is the insect nervous system, it has also been shown to cause changes insects' digestive physiology, and alter the microbiota of Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The honey bee gut microbiome plays a major role in bee health. Although many studies have shown that imidacloprid affects honey bee behavior, its impact on the microbiome has not been fully elucidated...
April 20, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675672/low-virulence-bacterial-infections-in-cervical-intervertebral-discs-a-prospective-case-series
#4
Yilei Chen, Xianjun Wang, Xuyang Zhang, Hong Ren, Bao Huang, Jian Chen, Junhui Liu, Zhi Shan, Zhihai Zhu, Fengdong Zhao
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cross-sectional case series study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of low virulence disc infection and its associations with characteristics of patients or discs in the cervical spine. BACKGROUND: Low virulence bacterial infections could be a possible cause of intervertebral disc degeneration and/or back pain. Controversies are continuing over whether these bacteria, predominantly Propionibacterium acnes (P...
April 19, 2018: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675263/micro-ct-x-ray-imaging-exposes-structured-diffusion-barriers-within-biofilms
#5
Alona Keren-Paz, Vlad Brumfeld, Yaara Oppenheimer-Shaanan, Ilana Kolodkin-Gal
In nature, bacteria predominantly exist as highly structured biofilms, which are held together by extracellular polymeric substance and protect their residents from environmental insults, such as antibiotics. The mechanisms supporting this phenotypic resistance are poorly understood. Recently, we identified a new mechanism maintaining biofilms - an active production of calcite minerals. In this work, a high-resolution and robust µCT technique is used to study the mineralized areas within intact bacterial biofilms...
2018: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674830/efficacy-of-titanium-dioxide-nanoparticle-spray-to-disinfect-mobile-phones-used-by-endodontist-a-bacteriological-study
#6
Udayakumar Palaniswamy, Aisha Habeeb, Mohammed Mohsin
Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the bacterial contamination of the mobile phones that were used by the endodontist in comparison with the general dentist and also to determine the usefulness of titanium dioxide nanospray (TiO2 NS) in mobile phone decontamination. Materials and Methods: Samples from the 60 mobile phones were taken using moist sterile swabs before, 10 min, and 1 week after the use of TiO2 NS. Before collection of the swabs, the participants' informed consent was obtained...
March 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674703/difference-in-virulence-and-composition-of-a-cariogenic-biofilm-according-to-substratum-direction
#7
Minh-Huy Dang, Ji-Eun Jung, Hyeon-Mi Choi, Jae-Gyu Jeon
The aim of this study was to investigate the difference in composition and virulence of Streptococcus mutans biofilms according to substratum direction. S. mutans biofilms (46-h-old) were formed on three different saliva-coated hydroxyapatite (sHA) disc direction groups: downward (discs placed in the direction of gravity), vertical (discs placed parallel to gravity direction), and upward (discs placed opposite to gravity). The 46-h-old biofilms on sHA discs in the upward direction showed the highest biofilm accumulation, colony forming unit (CFU) count, and extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) amount, followed by those in the vertical and downward directions...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669886/evolutionary-plasticity-of-amrz-regulation-in-pseudomonas
#8
David A Baltrus, Kevin Dougherty, Beatriz Diaz, Rachel Murillo
amrZ encodes a master regulator protein conserved across pseudomonads, which can be either a positive or negative regulator of swimming motility depending on the species examined. To better understand plasticity in the regulatory function of AmrZ, we characterized the mode of regulation for this protein for two different motility-related phenotypes in Pseudomonas stutzeri As in Pseudomonas syringae , AmrZ functions as a positive regulator of swimming motility within P. stutzeri , which suggests that the functions of this protein with regard to swimming motility have switched at least twice across pseudomonads...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667111/propofol-specifically-suppresses-il-1%C3%AE-secretion-but-increases-bacterial-survival-in-staphylococcus-aureus-infected-raw264-7-cells
#9
Ming-Shan Chen, Wen-Chun Lin, Hsuan-Te Yeh, Chia-Lin Hu, Shew-Meei Sheu
Anesthetics have immunomodulatory effects, but the use of different assay systems has contributed to inconsistent results in the literature. IL-1β and reactive oxygen species (ROS) secreted by phagocytes are important factors that protect against Staphylococcus aureus infection. In this study, the effects of four intravenous anesthetics (propofol, thiamylal sodium, midazolam, and ketamine) on IL-1β secretion, ROS, and bacterial survival in S. aureus-infected RAW264.7 cells were evaluated. S. aureus-infected RAW264...
April 17, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663554/implant-associated-bacterial-biofilm-and-quorum-sensing-in-periprosthetic-joint-infections
#10
Jake A Mooney, Eric M Pridgen, Robert Manasherob, Gina Suh, Helen E Blackwell, Annelise E Barron, Paul L Bollyky, Stuart B Goodman, Derek F Amanatullah
Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) continues to be a common complication after total knee arthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty leading to severe morbidity and mortality. With an aging population and increasing prevalence of total joint replacement procedures, the burden of PJI will be felt not only by individual patients, but in increased healthcare costs. Current treatment of PJI is inadequate resulting in incredibly high failure rates. This is believed to be largely mediated by the presence of bacterial biofilms...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662082/hadd-a-novel-fatty-acid-synthase-type-ii-protein-is-essential-for-alpha-and-epoxy-mycolic-acid-biosynthesis-and-mycobacterial-fitness
#11
Cyril Lefebvre, Richard Boulon, Manuelle Ducoux, Sabine Gavalda, Françoise Laval, Stevie Jamet, Nathalie Eynard, Anne Lemassu, Kaymeuang Cam, Marie-Pierre Bousquet, Fabienne Bardou, Odile Burlet-Schiltz, Mamadou Daffé, Annaïk Quémard
Mycolic acids (MAs) have a strategic location within the mycobacterial envelope, deeply influencing its architecture and permeability, and play a determinant role in the pathogenicity of mycobacteria. The fatty acid synthase type II (FAS-II) multienzyme system is involved in their biosynthesis. A combination of pull-downs and proteomics analyses led to the discovery of a mycobacterial protein, HadD, displaying highly specific interactions with the dehydratase HadAB of FAS-II. In vitro activity assays and homology modeling showed that HadD is, like HadAB, a hot dog folded (R)-specific hydratase/dehydratase...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661869/moxifloxacin-replacement-in-contemporary-tuberculosis-drug-regimens-is-ineffective-against-persistent-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-novel-insights-from-the-cornell-mouse-model
#12
Yingjun Liu, Henry Pertinez, Geraint R Davies, Stephen H Gillespie, Anthony R Coates, Yanmin Hu
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains a leading killer worldwide, and disease control is hampered by ineffective control of persistent infections. Substitution of moxifloxacin for isoniazid or ethambutol in standard TB regimens reduces treatment duration and relapse rates in animal studies and four-month regimens were not non-inferior in clinical trials. Resuscitation promoting factor (RPF) dependent bacilli have recently been implicated in M. tuberculosis persistence. We aimed to investigate the therapeutic effects of moxifloxacin substitution in the standard drug regimen for eradicating colony forming count (CFU) positive and RPF-dependent persistent M...
April 16, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661123/pathological-and-microbiological-study-of-mortality-in-a-captive-breeding-colony-of-the-endangered-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-dryococelus-australis
#13
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659932/effects-of-bacterial-dose-and-fly-sex-on-persistence-and-excretion-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-from-adult-house-flies-musca-domestica-l-diptera-muscidae
#14
Dana Nayduch, Klara Zurek, Jessica L Thomson, Kathleen M Yeater
Salmonella Typhimurium (Le Minor and Popoff 1987; Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) is a pathogen that causes gastroenteritis in humans and can be harbored by house flies. Factors influencing excretion of S. Typhimurium from infected flies have not been elucidated but are essential for assessing transmission potential. We determined the persistence and excretion of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing strain of S. Typhimurium from house flies. Individual male and female flies were fed either sterile Luria-Bertani (LB) broth (controls) or cultures of "high" (~105 colony forming units [CFU]) or "low" (~104 CFU) doses of bacteria (treatments)...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659363/-late-diagnosis-of-whim-sydrome
#15
María V Paolini, Silvia Danielian, Emma Prieto, María Fernanda Tami, Matías M Oleastro, Diego S Fernández Romero
WHIM syndrome is a primary autosomal dominant immuno deficiency due to CXCR4 mutations characterized by mucocutaneous warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent bacterial infections and myelokathesis. Treatment consists in prophylactic antibiotics, immunoglobulin replacement and granulocyte or granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factors. We present the case of a 21 year old woman who showed leukopenia at 10 months of age and one year later multiple infections with hypogammaglobulinemia requiring intravenous immunoglobulin...
2018: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658991/novel-de-novo-synthesized-phosphate-carrier-compound-aba-peg20k-pi20-suppresses-collagenase-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-and-prevents-colonic-anastomotic-leak-in-an-experimental-model
#16
M Wiegerinck, S K Hyoju, J Mao, A Zaborin, C Adriaansens, E Salzman, N H Hyman, O Zaborina, H van Goor, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that anastomotic leak can be caused by collagenolytic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis via an effect on wound collagen. In humans, E. faecalis is the organism cultured most commonly from a leaking anastomosis, and is not routinely eliminated by standard oral or intravenous antibiotics. Novel strategies are needed to contain the virulence of this pathogen when present on anastomotic tissues. METHODS: Polyphosphorylated polymer ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 was tested in mice for its ability to prevent anastomotic leak caused by collagenolytic E...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657519/antibacterial-effectiveness-of-probiotic-based-experimental-mouthwash-against-cariogenic-pathogen-an-in-vitro-study
#17
Hanaa Elgamily, Osama Mosallam, Hoda El-Sayed, Rania Mosallam
Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of probiotic-experimental-based mouthwash (MW) against Streptococcus mutans in vitro . Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial screening of two active additives (probiotic-zamzam) was tested against S. mutans using disc diffusion method. A total of three MWs; (1) an experimental MW base formula, (2) an experimental MW base formula with the two active additives, and (3) commercial MW (hexitol), were evaluated against S...
January 2018: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657429/isolation-and-identification-of-bacteria-causing-mastitis-in-small-ruminants-and-their-susceptibility-to-antibiotics-honey-essential-oils-and-plant-extracts
#18
Abeer Mostafa Abdalhamed, Gamil Sayed Gamil Zeedan, Hala Abdoula Ahmed Abou Zeina
Aim: The present work aims to isolate and identify bacteria that cause mastitis in small ruminants and evaluates the antibacterial activity of some antibiotics, honey, essential oils, and plant extracts. Materials and Methods: A total of 289 milk samples were collected from udder secretions of sheep (n=189) and goat (n=100) from El-Fayoum, Beni-Suef, and Giza governorates. Screening subclinical mastitis (SCM) was done using California Mastitis Test (CMT); identification of the isolates was achieved using Gram's staining, hemolytic pattern, colony morphology, and biochemical tests using Analytical Profile Index...
March 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657427/antibacterial-activity-of-fig-leaf-ficus-carica-linn-extract-against-enterococcus-faecalis-and-its-cytotoxicity-effects-on-fibroblast-cells
#19
Intan Nirwana, Devi Rianti, R Helal Soekartono, Rr Dwi Listyorini, Desi Putri Basuki
Background: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the bacteria that commonly found in root canal and pulp infection after root canal treatment. Sodium hypochlorite is the most widely used root canal irrigation, but it has toxic properties if exposed to periradicular tissues. It is necessary to develop an alternative for root canal irrigation. Fig leaf ( Ficus carica Linn.) extract contains active substances such as flavonoid, tannin, and terpenoid which have been known for their antibacterial potency...
March 2018: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657417/prevalence-of-american-foulbrood-in-asymptomatic-apiaries-of-kurdistan-iran
#20
M Khezri, M Moharrami, H Modirrousta, M Torkaman, B Rokhzad, H Khanbabaie
Aim: Paenibacillus larvae subsp. larvae is the etiological agent of American foulbrood (AFB), the most virulent bacterial disease of honey bee brood worldwide. In many countries, AFB is a notifiable disease since it is highly contagious, in most cases incurable, and able to kill affected colonies. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of P. larvae subsp . larvae in Kurdistan province apiaries by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 samples were randomly purchased from apiaries in Kurdistan, Iran...
March 2018: Veterinary World
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