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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720301/a-quantitative-swab-is-a-good-non-invasive-alternative-to-a-quantitative-biopsy-for-quantifying-bacterial-load-in-wounds-healing-by-second-intention-in-horses
#1
L L Van Hecke, K Hermans, M Haspeslagh, K Chiers, E Pint, F Boyen, A M Martens
The aim of this study was to evaluate different techniques for diagnosing wound infection in wounds healing by second intention in horses and to assess the effect of a vortex and sonication protocol on quantitative bacteriology in specimens with a histologically confirmed biofilm. In 50 wounds healing by second intention, a clinical assessment, a quantitative swab, a semi-quantitative swab, and a swab for cytology were compared to a quantitative tissue biopsy (reference standard). Part of the biopsy specimen was examined histologically for evidence of a biofilm...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#2
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717311/using-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction-as-an-alternative-rapid-method-for-enumeration-of-colony-count-in-live-brucella-vaccines
#3
Waleed S Shell, Mahmoud L Sayed, A A Samy, Ghada Mohamed Al-Sadek, Gina Mohamed Mohamed Abd El-Hamid, Abdel Hakam M Ali
AIM: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count...
June 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716748/a-transparent-wound-dressing-based-on-bacterial-cellulose-whisker-and-poly-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate
#4
Zeng Di, Zhijun Shi, Muhammad Wajid Ullah, Sixiang Li, Guang Yang
The current study was aimed to develop a transparent wound dressing comprised of bacterial cellulose (BC) and poly (2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) hydrogel coated with silver (Ag) nanoparticles. Briefly, different concentrations of BC whiskers (BCWs) were added into the HEMA solution to form PHEMA/BCWs hydrogel with volume ratio of monomer HEMA and BCWs as 7:3 and 1:1. The addition of BCWs into PHEMA matrix improved its equilibrium water content and light transmittance about 20%-40% and 10%, respectively...
July 14, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716079/the-human-jejunum-has-an-endogenous-microbiota-that-differs-from-those-in-the-oral-cavity-and-colon
#5
Olof H Sundin, Antonio Mendoza-Ladd, Mingtao Zeng, Diana Diaz-Arévalo, Elisa Morales, B Matthew Fagan, Javier Ordoñez, Philip Velez, Nishaal Antony, Richard W McCallum
BACKGROUND: The upper half of the human small intestine, known as the jejunum, is the primary site for absorption of nutrient-derived carbohydrates, amino acids, small peptides, and vitamins. In contrast to the colon, which contains 10(11)-10(12) colony forming units of bacteria per ml (CFU/ml), the normal jejunum generally ranges from 10(3) to 10(5) CFU per ml. Because invasive procedures are required to access the jejunum, much less is known about its bacterial microbiota. Bacteria inhabiting the jejunal lumen have been investigated by classical culture techniques, but not by culture-independent metagenomics...
July 17, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715297/cross-contamination-are-hospital-gloves-reservoirs-for-nosocomial-infections
#6
Vicki Moran, Rita Heuertz
Use of disposable nonsterile gloves in the hospital setting is second only to proper hand washing in reducing contamination during patient contact. Because proper handwashing is not consistently practiced, added emphasis on glove use is warranted. There is a growing body of evidence that glove boxes and dispensers available to healthcare workers are contaminated by daily exposure to environmental organisms. This finding, in conjunction with new and emerging antibiotic-resistant bacteria, poses a threat to patients and healthcare workers alike...
July 17, 2017: Hospital Topics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714889/staphylococcus-aureus-regulator-sigma-b-is-important-to-develop-chronic-infections-in-hematogenous-murine-osteomyelitis-model
#7
Lorena Tuchscherr, Jennifer Geraci, Bettina Löffler
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen causing bone infections that can become chronic and difficult to treat. Recently, we described the mechanism employed by S. aureus to switch to small colony variants (SCVs) and trigger intracellular bacterial persistence through the global stress regulator SigB. Here, we studied the role of SigB in the formation of chronic osteomyelitis. We used a murine hematogenous osteomyelitis model, where the mice were infected via the tail vein and subsequently developed chronic osteomyelitis...
July 15, 2017: Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713788/microorganisms-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-of-oncorhynchus-mykiss-produce-antagonistic-substances-against-bacteria-contaminating-food-and-causing-disease-in-humans
#8
Olga Lobos, Andrea Barrera, Carlos Padilla
The objective was to analyse the antibacterial ability of members of the intestinal microbiota of Oncorhynchus mykiss specimens on several bacterial target strains that contaminate food and cause disease in humans. Bacterial colonies from an intestinal portion of the 20 specimens of O. mykiss were obtained in different culture media. Several of the colonies showed antibacterial action on different target strains. The bacterial species with the highest antagonistic capacity were Hafnia alvei and Lactococcus lactis and the more susceptible target strains were Aeromonas hydrophila, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli...
April 13, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713776/modulation-of-trehalose-dimycolate-and-immune-system-by-rv0774c-protein-enhanced-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-in-human-macrophages-cell-line
#9
Arbind Kumar, Varinder Saini, Anjani Kumar, Jasbinder Kaur, Jagdeep Kaur
Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv0774c protein was reported previously to express under stress conditions. Therefore, Rv0774c gene was cloned and expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis, a surrogate host, to determine its role in bacterial persistence and immune modulation in natural environment. The bacterial colonies expressing Rv0774c (Ms_rv0774c) were larger, smoother, more moist, and flatter than the control ones (Ms_ve). Enhanced survival of Ms_rv0774c after treatment with streptomycin was observed when compared with control...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713275/probiotics-supplementation-therapy-for-pathological-neonatal-jaundice-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Lingli Zhang, Linan Zeng, Xiaoyan Yang, Lucan Jiang, Ge Gui, Zuojie Zhang
Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712376/grape-pomace-improves-performance-antioxidant-status-fecal-microbiota-and-meat-quality-of-piglets
#11
I Kafantaris, D Stagos, B Kotsampasi, A Hatzis, A Kypriotakis, K Gerasopoulos, S Makri, N Goutzourelas, C Mitsagga, I Giavasis, K Petrotos, S Kokkas, P Goulas, V Christodoulou, D Kouretas
In the present study, grape pomace (GP) was used as feed additive in the diet of weaned piglets in order to develop innovative feedstuffs and to investigate their potential beneficial effects on welfare, productivity and meat quality. For examining the antioxidant capacity of the experimental feeds, 24 piglets of 20 days old were assigned to two experimental groups receiving standard or experimental diet for 30 days. Blood and tissues collections were performed at four different time-points, 2, 20, 35 and 50 days post birth...
July 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712037/introduction-of-sample-tubes-with-sodium-azide-as-a-preservative-for-ethyl-glucuronide-in-urine
#12
Marc Luginbühl, Wolfgang Weinmann, Ali Al-Ahmad
Ethyl glucuronide (EtG) is a direct alcohol marker, which is widely used for clinical and forensic applications, mainly for abstinence control. However, the instability of EtG in urine against bacterial degradation or the post-collectional synthesis of EtG in contaminated samples may cause false interpretation of EtG results in urine samples. This study evaluates the potential of sodium azide in tubes used for urine collection to hinder degradation of ethyl glucuronide by bacterial metabolism taking place during growth of bacterial colonies...
July 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711629/randomized-comparison-of-3-high-level-disinfection-and-sterilization-procedures-for-duodenoscopes
#13
Graham M Snyder, Sharon B Wright, Anne Smithey, Meir Mizrahi, Michelle Sheppard, Elizabeth B Hirsch, Ram Chuttani, Riley Heroux, David S Yassa, Lovisa B Olafsdottir, Roger B Davis, Anastasiou Jiannis, Vijay Bapat, Kiran Bidari, Douglas K Pleskow, Daniel Leffler, Benjamin Lane, Alice Chen, Howard S Gold, Anthony Bartley, Aleah D King, Mandeep S Sawhney
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Duodenoscopes have been implicated in the transmission of multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDRO). We compared the frequency of duodenoscope contamination with MDRO or any other bacteria after disinfection or sterilization by 3 different methods. METHODS: We performed a single-center prospective randomized study in which duodenoscopes were randomly reprocessed by standard high-level disinfection (sHLD), double high-level disinfection (dHLD), or standard high-level disinfection followed by ethylene oxide gas sterilization (HLD/ETO)...
July 12, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709686/toxicologic-evaluations-of-recombinant-liver-targeting-interferon-ifn-csp-genotoxicity-and-tegenicratoity
#14
Wenting Zeng, Chunxu Wu, Jie Wang, Lingjie Cao, Xiaobao Jin, Jiayong Zhu, Xuemei Lu
Interferon alpha as the one of FDA recommended drugs for Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection has many side effects. Targeting IFNα to the liver may be a strategy to increase its efficacy locally and may increase efficacy of IFNα-based therapy of HBV infection. We have prepared a novel liver-targeting fusion interferon (IFN-CSP) combining IFN α2b with plasmodium region I peptide and have revealed it may be an excellent candidate as a liver-targeting anti-HBV agent. In this study, we investigated the genotoxic and teratogenic effects of IFN-CSP...
July 11, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708321/dynamics-of-culturable-mesophilic-bacterial-communities-of-three-fresh-herbs-and-their-production-environment
#15
Maria-Theresia Gekenidis, Diane Gossin, Mathias Schmelcher, Ulrich Schöner, Mitja N P Remus-Emsermann, David Drissner
AIM: Investigate dynamics of culturable mesophilic bacteria and selected food contaminating bacteria from three herbs and their production environment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Marjoram, basil, and thyme were investigated during one growing season by sampling plants, organic fertilizers, soil, irrigation water, and marketed products. Mesophilic bacteria and selected food contaminating bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp., Bacillus cereus group) were cultured and identified by MALDI biotyping...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708262/characterization-of-spac-type-erysipelothrix-sp-isolates-causing-systemic-disease-in-ornamental-fish
#16
E K Pomaranski, S R Reichley, R Yanong, J Shelley, D B Pouder, J C Wolf, K V Kenelty, B Van Bonn, F Oliaro, B Byrne, K A Clothier, M J Griffin, A C Camus, E Soto
Since 2012, low-to-moderate mortality associated with an Erysipelothrix sp. bacterium has been reported in ornamental fish. Histological findings have included facial cellulitis, necrotizing dermatitis and myositis, and disseminated coelomitis with abundant intralesional Gram-positive bacterial colonies. Sixteen Erysipelothrix sp. isolates identified phenotypically as E. rhusiopathiae were recovered from diseased cyprinid and characid fish. Similar clinical and histological changes were also observed in zebrafish, Danio rerio, challenged by intracoelomic injection...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707872/povidone-iodine-based-polymeric-nanoparticles-for-antibacterial-applications
#17
Tianyi Gao, Hongbo Fan, Xinjie Wang, Yangyang Gao, Wenxin Liu, Wanjun Chen, Alideertu Dong, Yan-Jie Wang
As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I2 as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. Firstly, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i...
July 14, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706760/bactericidal-effect-of-different-anti-microbial-agents-on-fusobacterium-nucleatum-biofilm
#18
Rupa Ashok, Arathi Ganesh, Kandaswamy Deivanayagam
INTRODUCTION: The root canal anatomy of the teeth is very complex. Complete debridement of the root canals is a challenge and is very important for the success of the root canal treatment. Hence, this study was done to find an effective irrigant which can be used during root canal treatment. OBJECTIVE: The bactericidal effect of a potential root canal irrigant was compared with two commonly used root canal irrigants against monoculture biofilm of a commercially available isolate of Fusobacterium nucleatum...
June 11, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705941/tyk2-as-a-target-for-immune-regulation-in-human-viral-bacterial-pneumonia
#19
Johanna Berg, Katja Zscheppang, Diana Fatykhova, Mario Tönnies, Torsten T Bauer, Paul Schneider, Jens Neudecker, Jens C Rückert, Stephan Eggeling, Maria Schimek, Achim D Gruber, Norbert Suttorp, Stefan Hippenstiel, Andreas C Hocke
The severity and lethality of influenza A virus (IAV) infections is frequently aggravated by secondary bacterial pneumonia. However, the mechanisms in human lung tissue that provoke this increase in fatality are unknown and therapeutic immune modulatory options are lacking.We established a human lung ex vivo co-infection model to investigate innate immune related mechanisms contributing to the susceptibility of secondary pneumococcal pneumonia.We revealed that type I and III interferon (IFN) inhibits Streptococcus pneumoniae-induced interleukin (IL)-1β release...
July 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704812/sglt1-deficiency-turns-listeria-infection-into-a-lethal-disease-in-mice
#20
Piyush Sharma, Vishal Khairnar, Ivana Vrhovac Madunić, Yogesh Singh, Aleksandra Pandyra, Madhuri S Salker, Hermann Koepsell, Ivan Sabolić, Florian Lang, Philipp A Lang, Karl S Lang
BACKGROUND: Cellular glucose uptake may involve either non-concentrative glucose carriers of the GLUT family or Na+-coupled glucose-carrier SGLT1, which accumulates glucose against glucose gradients and may thus accomplish cellular glucose uptake even at dramatically decreased extracellular glucose concentrations. SGLT1 is not only expressed in epithelia but as well in tumour cells and immune cells. Immune cell functions strongly depend on their metabolism, therefore we hypothesized that deficiency of SGLT1 modulates the defence against bacterial infection...
July 14, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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