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Bacterial colonies

Emanuela Esposito, Michela Campolo, Giovanna Casili, Marika Lanza, Domenico Franco, Alessia Filippone, Alessio F Peritore, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Acute infectious gastroenteritis (GE) and urinary tract infection (UTI) are common diseases and are normally perceived as mild and limiting illnesses. Xyloglucan is a natural plant polymer with protective barrier properties, also known as “mucosal protectors”, which is the main ingredient of medical devices developed for the management of different diseases, such as gastrointestinal diseases, urinary tract infections, or respiratory allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of xyloglucan in association with gelose (also called agar) in an experimental model of bacterial GE and UTI in rats...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Marco Colombo, Alberto Dagna, Domenico Molino, Claudio Poggio, Diego Maiolatesi, Giampiero Pietrocola
Background: Adherence of bacteria to teeth surface is considered an important step in the development of caries and the use of fissure sealants is crucial for the prevention of caries in occlusal surfaces of molars and premolars. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the adherence of Streptococcus mutans to different fissure sealants, after acidic drink exposure. Material and Methods: The tested materials were Fissurit, Fissurit FX, Grandio Seal, Fuji Triage, Constic...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Sanju Kunwar, Fanny Iriarte, Qiurong Fan, Eduardo Evaristo da Silva, Laura Ritchie, Nghi Song Nguyen, Joshua H Freeman, Robert E Stall, Jeffrey B Jones, Gerald V Minsavage, James Colee, Jay Scott, Gary E Vallad, Cyril Zipfel, Diana Horvath, Jack Westwood, Samuel Hutton, Mathews Lal Paret
Field trials were conducted at two locations in Florida to evaluate transgenic tomatoes expressing the EFR gene from Arabidopsis thaliana, the Bs2 gene from pepper, or both Bs2/EFR for managing bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum and bacterial spot caused by Xanthomonas perforans. Expression of EFR or Bs2/EFR, in the susceptible genotype, Fla. 8000, significantly reduced bacterial wilt incidence (50-100%) and increased total yield (57-114%) relative to lines expressing only Bs2 or non-transformed Fla...
June 20, 2018: Phytopathology
Raz Nawzad Mohammad, Sherko Ali Omer
Background and Objectives: Urinary tract infections are common infections that can be caused by many bacterial pathogens. The susceptibility of such pathogens to antimicrobial agents is identified by different methods including disk diffusion test, direct sensitivity testing and determination minimum inhibitory concentration. The present study was conducted to isolate and identify bacteria cultured from urine samples and compare the results of direct sensitivity test (DST) against Kirby-Bauer's disk diffusion antimicrobial sensitivity (AST) with respect to reliability, time and cost...
February 2018: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Amir Arsalan Navabi, Abbas Ali Khademi, Masoud Khabiri, Paridokht Zarean, Parichehr Zarean
Background: Bacteria and their by-products are etiological factors for the failure of endodontic treatment. Reduction of root canal bacterial contamination is one of the chief aims of root canal therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different rotary file tapers and two irrigation fluids on Enterococcus faecalis counts. Materials and Methods: In this ex vivo study Root canals of 72 human upper lateral incisors were enlarged to ISO #20 K-file...
May 2018: Dental Research Journal
Ya Gong, Zheng Zhang, Xiu-Wen Zhou, Mian N Anwar, Xiao-Zhuang Hu, Ze-Shuo Li, Xiao-Jing Chen, Yue-Zhong Li
Due to the high similarity in their requirements for space and food, close bacterial relatives may be each other's strongest competitors. Close bacterial relatives often form visible boundaries to separate their swarming colonies, a phenomenon termed colony-merger incompatibility. While bacterial species are known to have many incompatible strains, it is largely unclear which traits lead to multiple incompatibilities and the interactions between multiple incompatible siblings. To investigate the competitive interactions of closely related incompatible strains, we mutated Myxococcus xanthus DK1622, a predatory bacterium with complex social behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Xuan Zhang, Silin Zhang, Qitong Sun, Wenjun Jiao, Yan Yan, Xuewu Zhang
The ginsenoside compound K (20- O -β-d-glucopyranosyl-20( S )-protopanaxadiol; CK) is an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng protopanaxadiol saponin that has been reported to induce apoptosis in many cancer cells; however, the precise mechanisms of its activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrated that CK inhibited the growth and colony formation of HepG2 and SMMC-7721 cells, phenotypes that were mediated by inducing apoptosis. Meanwhile, CK showed lower toxicity in normal hepatoma cells...
June 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Christopher Ealand, Binayak Rimal, James Chang, Lethabo Mashigo, Melissa Chengalroyen, Lusanda Mapela, Germar Beukes, Edith Machowski, Sung Joon Kim, Bavesh Kana
Resuscitation promoting factors (Rpfs) have previously been shown to act as growth stimulatory molecules via their lysozyme-like activity on peptidoglycan in the bacterial cell wall. In this study, we investigated the ability of Mycobacterium smegmatis strains lacking rpf genes to form biofilms and tested their susceptibility to cell wall targeting agents. M. smegmatis encodes four distinct rpf homologues, namely MSMEG_5700 ( rpfA ), MSMEG_5439 ( rpfB ), MSMEG_4640 ( rpfE2 ) and MSMEG_4643 ( rpfE ). During axenic growth of the wild type strain, all four mRNA transcripts were expressed to varying degrees but MSMEG_4643 was significantly greater during exponential growth...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Inês N Silva, Filipa D Pessoa, Marcelo J Ramires, Mário R Santos, Jörg D Becker, Vaughn S Cooper, Leonilde M Moreira
Bacteria from the Burkholderia cepacia complex grow in different natural and man-made environments and are feared opportunistic pathogens that cause chronic respiratory infections in cystic fibrosis patients. Previous studies showed that Burkholderia mucoid clinical isolates grown under stress conditions give rise to nonmucoid variants devoid of the exopolysaccharide cepacian. Here, we have determined that a major cause of the nonmucoid morphotype involves nonsynonymous mutations and small indels in the ompR gene encoding a response regulator of a two-component regulatory system...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Safa S Almarzoky Abuhussain, Joseph L Kuti, David P Nicolau
The role of inhalational combination therapy when treating carbapenem resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae with newer beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors has not been established. Using a 72 hour in vitro pharmacodynamic chemostat model, we simulated the human exposures achieved in epithelial lining fluid (ELF) following intravenous ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) 2.5g q8h alone and in combination with inhaled amikacin (AMK) 400mg q12h, a reformulated aminoglycoside designed for inhalational administration, against 3 P...
June 18, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Kirk E Anderson, Vincent A Ricigliano, Brendon M Mott, Duan C Copeland, Amy S Floyd, Patrick Maes
BACKGROUND: In social insects, identical genotypes can show extreme lifespan variation providing a unique perspective on age-associated microbial succession. In honey bees, short- and long-lived host phenotypes are polarized by a suite of age-associated factors including hormones, nutrition, immune senescence, and oxidative stress. Similar to other model organisms, the aging gut microbiota of short-lived (worker) honey bees accrue Proteobacteria and are depleted of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, consistent with a suite of host senescence markers...
June 18, 2018: Microbiome
Gea Guerriero, Kjell Sergeant, Sylvain Legay, Jean-Francois Hausman, Henry-Michel Cauchie, Irshad Ahmad, Khawar Sohail Siddiqui
The assumption that cellulose degradation and assimilation can only be carried out by heterotrophic organisms was shattered in 2012 when it was discovered that the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (Cr), can utilize cellulose for growth under CO₂-limiting conditions. Publications of genomes/transcriptomes of the colonial microalgae, Gonium pectorale (Gp) and Volvox carteri (Vc), between 2010⁻2016 prompted us to look for cellulase genes in these algae and to compare them to cellulases from bacteria, fungi, lower/higher plants, and invertebrate metazoans...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Constanze Olms, Maryam Yahiaoui-Doktor, Torsten W Remmerbach, Catalina Suzana Stingu
Currently, there is minimal clinical data regarding biofilm composition on the surface of denture bases and the clinical tissue compatibility. Therefore, the aim of this experimental study was to compare the bacterial colonization and the tissue compatibility of a hypoallergenic polyamide with a frequently used PMMA resin tested intraorally in a randomized split-mouth design. Test specimens made of polyamide ( n = 10) and PMMA ( n = 10) were attached over a molar band appliance in oral cavity of 10 subjects...
June 15, 2018: Dentistry journal
Zhiqiang Xiong, Xuejiao Zhang, Siyu Zhang, Lei Lei, Wei Ma, Dengyu Li, Weidong Wang, Qing Zhao, Baoshan Xing
Newly emerged two-dimensional material, black phosphorus (BP) shows promising applications in many fields owing to its superior properties. Despite the biological effects of BP were studied, its environmental impacts have not yet received enough attention. In this study, the bacterial toxicity of exfoliated BP nanosheets was for the first time evaluated against two model bacteria strains, Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis). By monitoring the bacterial growth curve and colony counting, the bacterial toxicity of BP nanosheets was examined...
June 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Thomas E Rams, Jacqueline D Sautter, Chinhua Y Hsiao, Arie J van Winkelhoff
The accuracy of a phenotypic scheme to recognize periodontal Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens group clinical isolates on primary isolation culture plates was assessed with matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). A total of 84 fresh subgingival isolates from 23 chronic periodontitis patients were presumptively recognized on anaerobically-incubated enriched Brucella blood agar primary isolation plates as P. intermedia/nigrescens based on their dark-pigmented colony morphology, brick-red autofluorescence under long-wave ultraviolet light, and a negative fluorescence test for lactose production...
June 15, 2018: Anaerobe
I-Fei Huang, Wei-Yang Lee, Jiun-Ling Wang, Chih-Hsin Hung, Hong-Hsiang Hu, Wan-Yu Hung, Yun-Ju Hung, Wen-Chi Chen, Ying-Tso Shen, Ming-Fang Cheng
BACKGROUND: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli (E. coli), particularly E. coli sequence type ST131, is becoming a global concern. Commensal bacteria, an important reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes, facilitate the spread of such genes to pathogenic bacterial strains. The objective of the study is to investigate the fecal carriage of MDR E. coli and ST131 E. coli in community children in Southern Taiwan. METHODS: In this prospective study, stool samples from children aged 0-18 years were obtained within 3 days of hospitalization from October 2013 to September 2014...
June 15, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Kazuki Nosho, Koji Yasuhara, Yuto Ikehata, Tomohiro Mii, Taichiro Ishige, Shunsuke Yajima, Makoto Hidaka, Tetsuhiro Ogawa, Haruhiko Masaki
Most bacterial cells in nature exhibit extremely low colony-forming activity, despite showing various signs of viability, impeding the isolation and utilization of many bacterial resources. However, the general causes responsible for this state of low colony formation are largely unknown. Because liquid cultivation typically yields more bacterial cell cultures than traditional solid cultivation, we hypothesized that colony formation requires one or more specific gene functions that are dispensable or less important for growth in liquid media...
June 15, 2018: Microbiology
Wen Fu, Jing Zhao, Xinglong Liu, Yongxiang Gao, Chuan Zheng
The 'exterior-interior relationship between the lung and the large intestine' is a classical basic theory in Traditional Chinese Medicine. The present study aimed to investigate the roles of the toll like receptor/nuclear factor‑κB (TLR/NF‑κB) signaling pathway in the mutual interactions between the lung and the large intestine. A rat model of allergic asthma complicated with intestinal flora disorder was established by oral administration of Candida albicans and intraperitoneal injection with ovalbumin...
May 31, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Josiane de Almeida, Bruna Casagrande Cechella, Anarela Vassen Bernardi, Andrea de Lima Pimenta, Wilson Tadeu Felippe
Context: To overcome the challenge imposed by the presence of biofilm and reach significant bacterial reduction of the root canals, many irrigants have been indicated during endodontic treatment, among them nanoparticles solutions. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of experimental solutions containing silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO Np) and conventional endodontic irrigants against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm, in root canals. Methods: Seventy-six extracted human teeth were biomechanically prepared and sterilized...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Naser Owji, Alireza Zareifard
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of conjunctival bacterial flora 1 year after successful dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR). METHODS: Seventy-two consecutive adult patients with successful DCR were enrolled in this study. We obtained conjunctival cultures from the operated eyes, fellow eyes, and nasal mucosa of the operated side 1 year after the operation. After the period of incubation, further evaluation was performed using standard laboratory techniques...
January 2018: Middle East African Journal of Ophthalmology
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