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Bacterial colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321991/atomic-layer-deposition-of-a-silver-nanolayer-on-advanced-titanium-orthopedic-implants-inhibits-bacterial-colonization-and-supports-vascularized-de-novo-bone-ingrowth
#1
Aine Devlin-Mullin, Naomi M Todd, Zahra Golrokhi, Hua Geng, Moritz A Konerding, Nigel G Ternan, John A Hunt, Richard J Potter, Chris Sutcliffe, Eric Jones, Peter D Lee, Christopher A Mitchell
Joint replacement surgery is associated with significant morbidity and mortality following infection with either methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or Staphylococcus epidermidis. These organisms have strong biofilm-forming capability in deep wounds and on prosthetic surfaces, with 10(3) -10(4) microbes resulting in clinically significant infections. To inhibit biofilm formation, we developed 3D titanium structures using selective laser melting and then coated them with a silver nanolayer using atomic layer deposition...
March 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318115/microbial-players-and-processes-involved-in-phytoplankton-bloom-utilization-in-the-water-column-of-a-fast-flowing-river-dominated-estuary
#2
Maria W Smith, Lydie Herfort, Caroline S Fortunato, Byron C Crump, Holly M Simon
Fueled by seasonal phytoplankton blooms, the Columbia River estuary is a natural bioreactor for organic matter transformations. Prior metagenome analyses indicated high abundances of diverse Bacteroidetes taxa in estuarine samples containing phytoplankton. To examine the hypothesis that Bacteroidetes taxa have important roles in phytoplankton turnover, we further analyzed metagenomes from water collected along a salinity gradient at 0, 5, 15, 25, and 33 PSU during bloom events. Size fractions were obtained by using a 3-μm prefilter and 0...
March 20, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317568/oral-bacterial-infections-diagnosis-and-management
#3
REVIEW
Glendee Reynolds-Campbell, Alison Nicholson, Camille-Ann Thoms-Rodriguez
The human oral cavity contains more than 500 different bacterial species. These organisms belong to several phyla including Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Tenericutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Euryarchaeota, Chlamydiae, and Spirochaetes. Many of these have the ability to colonize the gingival crevices and the outer surface of the tooth forming biofilms often leading to dental plaque formation. These bacteria produce acid that erode teeth causing cavities or infections. The diagnosis of these infections is often clinical and antibiotics are used empirically to treat some infections or as prophylaxis...
April 2017: Dental Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317091/staphylococcus-aureus-colonization-in-atopic-eczema-and-its-association-with-filaggrin-gene-mutations
#4
M-L Clausen, S M Edslev, P S Andersen, K Clemmensen, K A Krogfelt, T Agner
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with significant impact on physical health and quality of life. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) has been directly correlated to disease severity, and may also be a contributing causal factor in the pathogenesis of AD. The primary aim of the present study was to assess differences in S. aureus colonization in AD patients with and without filaggrin gene (FLG) mutations. Secondarily, to assess disease severity in relation to S. aureus colonization...
March 19, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316967/the-role-of-mucosal-immunity-in-the-pathogenesis-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#5
REVIEW
Zerina Hodzic, Alexa M Bolock, Misty Good
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity. Although the precise cause is not well understood, the main risk factors thought to contribute to NEC include prematurity, formula feeding, and bacterial colonization. Recent evidence suggests that NEC develops as a consequence of intestinal hyper-responsiveness to microbial ligands upon bacterial colonization in the preterm infant, initiating a cascade of aberrant signaling events, and a robust pro-inflammatory mucosal immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316093/morphology-heterogeneity-within-a-campylobacter-jejuni-helical-population-the-use-of-calcofluor-white-to-generate-rod-shaped-c-jejuni-81-176-clones-and-the-genetic-determinants-responsible-for-differences-in-morphology-within-11168-strains
#6
Emilisa Frirdich, Jacob Biboy, Steven Huynh, Craig T Parker, Waldemar Vollmer, Erin C Gaynor
Campylobacter jejuni helical shape is important for colonization and host interactions with straight mutants having altered biological properties. Passage on calcofluor white (CFW) resulted in C. jejuni 81-176 isolates with morphology changes: either a straight morphology from frameshift mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms in peptidoglycan hydrolase genes pgp1 or pgp2 or a reduction in curvature due a frameshift mutation in cjj81176_1105, a putative peptidoglycan endopeptidase. Shape defects were restored by complementation...
March 18, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315860/determinants-and-duration-of-impact-of-early-gut-bacterial-colonization
#7
Christine Ann Edwards
BACKGROUND: An increasing number of studies show low diversity of the gut microbiome in those with chronic diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and allergy. Manipulation of the microbiota may promote health. However, the adult microbiota is stable and may be difficult to change. Understanding the fixed and modifiable factors, which determine colonization in early life, may provide strategies for acquisition of a health-promoting microbiome. SUMMARY: Not enough is known about the long-term effects of established determinants of gut colonization, including delivery mode, perinatal antibiotics, and infant diet...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315387/functional-role-of-ompf-and-ompc-porins-in-pathogenesis-of-avian-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#8
Hassan M A Hejair, Yingchu Zhu, Jiale Ma, Yue Zhang, Zihao Pan, Wei Zhang, Huochun Yao
Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causes systemic infections in avian species and large economic losses in poultry industry worldwide. The functional role of porins during the infection and their mechanisms of interaction with host tissues for adhesion to and invasion are poorly understood. However, whether porins play a role in infection remains unclear. In this study we evaluated the potential of ompF and ompC outer membrane porins in the pathogenesis of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain TW-XM...
March 14, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315144/monitoring-antimicrobial-resistance-amr-using-cusum-control-charts
#9
L Righi, R Amarsy, M-Q Picat, M Thuillier, E Cambau, L Raskine, S Chevret, R Flicoteaux
We evaluated the use of the Cumulative Summation (CUSUM) control chart methodology for detection of an excessive increase in antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) bacteria acquisition. We used administrative, clinical and bacteriological data from all 157,570 patients hospitalized for at least 48 h from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2015 in a 654-bed university teaching hospital in Paris, France. Monthly computed CUSUM were evaluated for the detection of out-of-control situations, defined as incidence rates of acquired AMR bacterial colonization exceeding acceptable thresholds at the hospital and ward levels (based on six selected wards) for AMR bacteria overall and Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), specifically...
March 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314902/potential-factors-enabling-human-body-colonization-by-animal-streptococcus-dysgalactiae-subsp-equisimilis-strains
#10
Marcin Ciszewski, Eligia M Szewczyk
Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) is a pyogenic, Lancefield C or G streptococcal pathogen. Until recently, it has been considered as an exclusive animal pathogen. Nowadays, it is responsible for both animal infections in wild animals, pets, and livestock and human infections often clinically similar to the ones caused by group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes). The risk of zoonotic infection is the most significant in people having regular contact with animals, such as veterinarians, cattlemen, and farmers...
March 18, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303535/hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-coating-does-not-affect-bone-apposition-at-the-implant-surface-in-a-rabbit-model
#11
W Boot, D Gawlitta, P G J Nikkels, B Pouran, M H P van Rijen, W J A Dhert, H Ch Vogely
BACKGROUND: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics for prophylaxis or treatment of infection may be toxic for osteoblasts and could impair bone growth. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this animal study, we investigated the effect of a commercially available hydrogel, either unloaded or loaded with 2% vancomycin...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303388/the-impact-of-antibiotic-stewardship-programs-in-combating-quinolone-resistance-a-systematic-review-and-recommendations-for-more-efficient-interventions
#12
REVIEW
Vasiliki Pitiriga, Georgia Vrioni, George Saroglou, Athanasios Tsakris
Quinolones are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide. A clear relationship has been demonstrated between excessive quinolone use and the steady increase in the incidence of quinolone-resistant bacterial pathogens, both in hospital and community sites. In addition, exposure to quinolones has been associated with colonization and infection with healthcare-associated pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Clostridium difficile in hospitalized patients. Therefore, the management of quinolone prescribing in hospitals through antibiotic stewardship programs is considered crucial...
March 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303121/identification-of-lama-glama-as-reservoirs-for-acinetobacter-lwoffii
#13
Martín M Ledesma, Ailén M Díaz, Claudia Barberis, Carlos Vay, Marcela A Manghi, Juliana Leoni, Marisa S Castro, Alejandro Ferrari
South American Camelids have an increasing relevance in local economies, worldwide. These animals are bred for their meat, fur and as companion and therapy animals. Thus, their sanitary status should be well-established. According to the OIE (World Organization for Animal Health), respiratory infections mainly produced by Pasteurella spp. have been reported for camelids. It has been stated that this microorganism causes a mild disease, although many authors report it is an important cause of mortality among alpacas...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302989/bacterial-microbiota-associated-with-the-glacier-ice-worm-is-dominated-by-both-worm-specific-and-glacier-derived-facultative-lineages
#14
Takumi Murakami, Takahiro Segawa, Roman Dial, Nozomu Takeuchi, Shiro Kohshima, Yuichi Hongoh
The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species...
March 9, 2017: Microbes and Environments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299479/l-glutamine-and-l-arginine-protect-against-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-infection-via-intestinal-innate-immunity-in-mice
#15
Gang Liu, Wenkai Ren, Jun Fang, Chien-An Andy Hu, Guiping Guan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jie Yin, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Shuai Chen, Yuanyi Peng, Yulong Yin
Dietary glutamine (Gln) or arginine (Arg) supplementation is beneficial for intestinal health; however, whether Gln or Arg may confer protection against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection is not known. To address this, we used an ETEC-infected murine model to investigate the protective effects of Gln and Arg. Experimentally, we pre-treated mice with designed diet of Gln or Arg supplementation prior to the oral ETEC infection and then assessed mouse mortality and intestinal bacterial burden. We also determined the markers of intestinal innate immunity in treated mice, including secretory IgA response (SIgA), mucins from goblet cells, as well as antimicrobial peptides from Paneth cells...
March 15, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298822/comparison-the-efficacy-of-herbal-mouthwash-with-chlorhexidine-on-gingival-index-of-intubated-patients-in-intensive-care-unit
#16
Sahra Rezaei, Korosh Rezaei, Mohaddese Mahboubi, Mohammad Hossein Jarahzadeh, Ehsan Momeni, Mostafa Bagherinasab, Mehrdad Gaffari Targhi, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh
BACKGROUND: Intubated patients in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) are not able to take care of their mouth health, so they are at risk of bacterial colonization and dental plaques formation that can lead to systemic diseases such as pneumonia and gingivitis. AIMS: In randomized, double-blind clinical study, the efficacy of natural herbal mouthwash containing Salvadora persica ethanol extract and Aloe vera gel was compared with chlorhexidine on gingival index (GI) of intubated patients in ICU...
July 2016: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294281/mice-exposed-to-infant-formula-enriched-with-polyamines-impact-on-host-transcriptome-and-microbiome
#17
Carlos Gómez-Gallego, María García Romo, Rafael Frías, María Jesús Periago, Gaspar Ros, Seppo Salminen, Maria C Collado
Previous studies using a BALB/cOlaHsd model have shown the impact that the supplementation of infant formula with polyamines has on the modulation of microbial colonization and immune system development. To contribute to deciphering and identifying new complex interactions underlying the host response to polyamines, a systems biology approach integrating data from microbiota along the gastrointestinal tract, lymphocyte populations and immune system gene expression analysis of a lactating mice model fed different diets was carried out...
March 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293542/whole-genome-sequence-and-phylogenetic-analysis-show-helicobacter-pylori-strains-from-latin-america-have-followed-a-unique-evolution-pathway
#18
Zilia Y Muñoz-Ramírez, Alfonso Mendez-Tenorio, Ikuko Kato, Maria M Bravo, Cosmeri Rizzato, Kaisa Thorell, Roberto Torres, Francisco Aviles-Jimenez, Margarita Camorlinga, Federico Canzian, Javier Torres
Helicobacter pylori (HP) genetics may determine its clinical outcomes. Despite high prevalence of HP infection in Latin America (LA), there have been no phylogenetic studies in the region. We aimed to understand the structure of HP populations in LA mestizo individuals, where gastric cancer incidence remains high. The genome of 107 HP strains from Mexico, Nicaragua and Colombia were analyzed with 59 publicly available worldwide genomes. To study bacterial relationship on whole genome level we propose a virtual hybridization technique using thousands of high-entropy 13 bp DNA probes to generate fingerprints...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293236/interferon-lambda-modulating-immunity-in-infectious-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Mohammedyaseen Syedbasha, Adrian Egli
Interferon lambdas (IFN-λs; IFNL1-4) modulate immunity in the context of infections and autoimmune diseases, through a network of induced genes. IFN-λs act by binding to the heterodimeric IFN-λ receptor (IFNLR), activating a STAT phosphorylation-dependent signaling cascade. Thereby hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes are induced, which modulate various immune functions via complex forward and feedback loops. When compared to the well-characterized IFN-α signaling cascade, three important differences have been discovered...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293229/fungal-root-microbiome-from-healthy-and-brittle-leaf-diseased-date-palm-trees-phoenix-dactylifera-l-reveals-a-hidden-untapped-arsenal-of-antibacterial-and-broad-spectrum-antifungal-secondary-metabolites
#20
Fedia B Mefteh, Amal Daoud, Ali Chenari Bouket, Faizah N Alenezi, Lenka Luptakova, Mostafa E Rateb, Adel Kadri, Neji Gharsallah, Lassaad Belbahri
In this study, we aimed to explore and compare the composition, metabolic diversity and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi colonizing internal tissues of healthy and brittle leaf diseased (BLD) date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera L.) widely cultivated in arid zones of Tunisia. A total of 52 endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy and BLD roots of date palm trees, identified based on internal transcribed spacer-rDNA sequence analysis and shown to represent 13 species belonging to five genera. About 36...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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