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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050018/root-surface-biofilms-and-caries
#1
Thuy Do, Nailê Damé-Teixeira, Monika Naginyte, Philip D Marsh
Following gingival recession, which increases with age, the root surface becomes exposed, creating new environments for microbial colonization and biofilm formation. The formation of root surface biofilms is influenced by the availability and composition of saliva and gingival crevicular fluid; they provide components for the conditioning film (acquired root surface pellicle) and also act as a source of nutrients. The early bacterial colonizers of the root surface are similar to those found on the enamel, and Gram-positive species such as Streptococcus sanguinis, S...
2017: Monographs in Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049404/low-complexity-microbiota-in-the-duodenum-of-children-with-newly-diagnosed-ulcerative-colitis
#2
Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Barkman, Intawat Nookaew, Sofia Östman, Ingegerd Adlerberth, Robert Saalman, Agnes E Wold
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by gut dysbiosis. To date, the large bowel microbiota has been in focus. However, the microbiota of the small intestine may also be of importance, as the small bowel is a site for the induction and control of mucosal immune responses, which can be modulated by constituents of the local microbiota. METHODS: Duodenal fluids were collected during diagnostic work-up of treatment-naïve children who were suspected of having IBD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048477/the-role-of-toxins-in-clostridium-difficile-infection
#3
Ramyavardhanee Chandrasekaran, D Borden Lacy
Clostridium difficile is a bacterial pathogen that is the leading cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis worldwide. The incidence, severity, mortality and healthcare costs associated with C. difficile infection (CDI) are rising, making C. difficile a major threat to public health. Traditional treatments for CDI involve use of antibiotics such as metronidazole and vancomycin, but disease recurrence occurs in about 30% of patients, highlighting the need for new therapies...
October 18, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048473/use-of-taurolidine-in-lung-transplantation-for-cystic-fibrosis-and-impact-on-bacterial-colonization
#4
Mohamed Zeriouh, Anton Sabashnikov, Nikhil P Patil, Bastian Schmack, Barlomiej Zych, Prashant N Mohite, Diana García Sáez, Achim Koch, Ashham Mansur, Simona Soresi, Alexander Weymann, Nandor Marczin, Thorsten Wahlers, Fabio De Robertis, André Rüdiger Simon, Aron-Frederik Popov
OBJECTIVES: The presence of bacterial colonization that causes chronic pulmonary infections in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients remains a key issue before lung transplantation. We sought to assess the impact of intraoperative taurolidine lavage on bacterial colonization and long-term outcomes following lung transplantation in CF patients. METHODS: Between 2007 and 2013, 114 CF patients underwent lung transplantation at our institute, and taurolidine 2% bronchial lavage was applied in a substantial proportion of patients (n = 42)...
October 18, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047150/rebamipide-alleviates-radiation-induced-colitis-through-improvement-of-goblet-cell-differentiation-in-mice
#5
Hyosun Jang, Sunhoo Park, Janet Lee, Jae Kyung Myung, Won-Suk Jang, Sun-Joo Lee, Hyunwook Myung, Changsun Lee, Hyewon Kim, Seung-Sook Lee, Young-Woo Jin, Sehwan Shim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Radiation-induced colitis is a common clinical problem associated with radiotherapy and accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Goblet cells play a pivotal role in the intestinal barrier against pathogenic bacteria. Rebamipide, anti-gastric ulcer drug, has the effects to promote goblet cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether radiation-induced colonic injury could be alleviated by rebamipide. METHODS: We orally administered rebamipide for 6 days to mice, which were subjected to 13 Gy abdominal irradiation, to evaluate the therapeutic effects of rebamipide against radiation-induced colitis...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046665/boeravinone-b-a-novel-dual-inhibitor-of-nora-bacterial-efflux-pump-of-staphylococcus-aureus-and-human-p-glycoprotein-reduces-the-biofilm-formation-and-intracellular-invasion-of-bacteria
#6
Samsher Singh, Nitin P Kalia, Prashant Joshi, Ajay Kumar, Parduman R Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Sandip B Bharate, Inshad A Khan
This study elucidated the role of boeravinone B, a NorA multidrug efflux pump inhibitor, in biofilm inhibition. The effects of boeravinone B plus ciprofloxacin, a NorA substrate, were evaluated in NorA-overexpressing, wild-type, and knocked-out Staphylococcus aureus (SA-1199B, SA-1199, and SA-K1758, respectively). The mechanism of action was confirmed using the ethidium bromide accumulation and efflux assay. The role of boeravinone B as a human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor was examined in the LS-180 (colon cancer) cell line...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045678/enterococcus-faecalis-modulates-immune-activation-and-slows-healing-during-wound-infection
#7
Kelvin Kian Long Chong, Wei Hong Tay, Baptiste Janela, Adeline Mei Hui Yong, Tze Horng Liew, Leigh Madden, Damien Keogh, Timothy Mark Sebastian Barkham, Florent Ginhoux, David Laurence Becker, Kimberly A Kline
Enterococcus faecalis is one of most frequently isolated bacterial species in wounds yet little is known about its pathogenic mechanisms in this setting. Here, we used a mouse wound excisional model to characterize the infection dynamics of E. faecalis and show that infected wounds result in two different states depending on the initial inoculum. Low dose inocula were associated with short term, low titer colonization whereas high dose inocula were associated with acute bacterial replication and long term persistence...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045670/impact-of-age-related-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-exercise-on-intestinal-microbiota-composition
#8
David Houghton, Christopher J Stewart, Craig Stamp, Andrew Nelson, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Anil Wipat, Michael I Trenell, Douglass M Turnbull, Laura C Greaves
Mitochondrial dysfunction is prevalent in the ageing gastrointestinal tract. We investigated whether mitochondrial function in ageing colonic crypts and exercise influence microbial gut communities in mice. Twelve PolgAmut/mut mice were randomly divided into a sedentary and exercise group at 4 months. Seven aged matched PolgA+/+ mice remained sedentary throughout. Stool samples were collected at 4, 7 and 11 months, and bacterial profiling was achieved through 16S rDNA sequencing profiling. Mitochondrial enzyme activity was assessed in colonic epithelial crypts at 11 months for PolgAmut/mut and PolgA+/+ mice...
October 16, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044521/influence-of-tongue-brushing-and-scraping-on-the-oral-microflora-of-periodontitis-patients
#9
I Laleman, R Koop, W Teughels, C Dekeyser, M Quirynen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of tongue cleaning with a tongue scraper (TS) or toothbrush (TB) in patients with periodontitis. BACKGROUND: The tongue is a possible reservoir for bacterial (re)colonization of the periodontal tissues in patients with periodontitis. To date, it is not known what the influence of tongue cleaning is on the tongue coating of patients with periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighteen systemically healthy, untreated moderate to severe adult patients with periodontitis with some degree of tongue coating were randomly assigned to the use of a TS or TB for cleaning the tongue...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044376/pectobacterium-atrosepticum-exopolysaccharides-identification-molecular-structure-formation-under-stress-and-in-planta-conditions
#10
Vladimir Gorshkov, Bakhtiyar Islamov, Polina Mikshina, Olga Petrova, Gennady Burygin, Elena Sigida, Alexander Shashkov, Amina Daminova, Marina Ageeva, Bulat Idiyatullin, Vadim Salnikov, Yuriy Zuev, Tatyana Gorshkova, Yuri Gogolev
In the present study, we identified exopolysaccharides of the harmful phytopathogenic bacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043 and characterized the molecular structure of these polymers. The synthesis of the target polysaccharides was shown to be induced under starvation conditions. Moreover, intensive accumulation of exopolysaccharides occurred during the colonization by bacteria of the xylem vessels of infected plants, where microorganisms formed specific 3D "multicellular" structures-bacterial emboli...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044233/corrigendum-nlrp12-attenuates-colon-inflammation-by-maintaining-colonic-microbial-diversity-and-promoting-protective-commensal-bacterial-growth
#11
Liang Chen, Justin E Wilson, Mark J Koenigsknecht, Wei-Chun Chou, Stephanie A Montgomery, Agnieszka D Truax, W June Brickey, Christopher D Packey, Nitsan Maharshak, Glenn K Matsushima, Scott E Plevy, Vincent B Young, R Balfour Sartor, Jenny P-Y Ting
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/ni.3690.
October 18, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044186/an-endophytic-microbe-from-an-unusual-volcanic-swamp-corn-seeks-and-inhabits-root-hair-cells-to-extract-rock-phosphate
#12
Hanan R Shehata, Christopher Dumigan, Sophia Watts, Manish N Raizada
In the animal microbiome, localization of microbes to specific cell types is well established, but there are few such examples within the plant microbiome which includes endophytes. Endophytes are non-pathogenic microbes that inhabit plants. Root hairs are single cells, equivalent to the nutrient-absorbing intestinal microvilli of animals, used by plants to increase the root surface area for nutrient extraction from soil including phosphorus (P). There has been significant interest in the microbiome of intestinal microvilli but less is known about the root hair microbiome...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043249/interactions-between-bacteria-and-bile-salts-in-the-gastrointestinal-and-hepatobiliary-tracts
#13
REVIEW
Verónica Urdaneta, Josep Casadesús
Bile salts and bacteria have intricate relationships. The composition of the intestinal pool of bile salts is shaped by bacterial metabolism. In turn, bile salts play a role in intestinal homeostasis by controlling the size and the composition of the intestinal microbiota. As a consequence, alteration of the microbiome-bile salt homeostasis can play a role in hepatic and gastrointestinal pathological conditions. Intestinal bacteria use bile salts as environmental signals and in certain cases as nutrients and electron acceptors...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042761/understanding-institutional-stakeholders-perspectives-on-multidrug-resistant-bacterial-organism-at-the-end-of-life-a-qualitative-study
#14
Maria Heckel, Franziska A Herbst, Thomas Adelhardt, Johanna M Tiedtke, Alexander Sturm, Stephanie Stiel, Christoph Ostgathe
BACKGROUND: Information lacks about institutional stakeholders' perspectives on management approaches of multidrug-resistant bacterial organism in end-of-life situations. The term "institutional stakeholder" includes persons in leading positions with responsibility in hospitals' multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management. They have great influence on how strategies on multidrug-resistant bacterial organism management approaches in institutions of the public health system are designed...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042502/lipopolysaccharide-from-crypt-specific-core-microbiota-modulates-the-colonic-epithelial-proliferation-to-differentiation-balance
#15
Tomoaki Naito, Céline Mulet, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Azadeh Saffarian, Giulia Nigro, Marion Bérard, Mélanie Clerc, Amy B Pedersen, Philippe J Sansonetti, Thierry Pédron
We identified a crypt-specific core microbiota (CSCM) dominated by strictly aerobic, nonfermentative bacteria in murine cecal and proximal colonic (PC) crypts and hypothesized that, among its possible functions, it may affect epithelial regeneration. In the present work, we isolated representative CSCM strains using selective media based upon our initial 16S rRNA-based molecular identification (i.e., Acinetobacter, Delftia, and Stenotrophomonas). Their tropism for the crypt was confirmed, and their influence on epithelial regeneration was demonstrated in vivo by monocolonization of germfree mice...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042319/photochemical-delivery-of-bleomycin-induces-t-cell-activation-of-importance-for-curative-effect-and-systemic-anti-tumor-immunity
#16
Ole-Jacob Norum, Ane Sofie Viset Fremstedal, Anette Weyergang, Jakub Golab, Kristian Berg
Photochemical internalization (PCI) is a technology to enhance intracellular drug delivery by light-induced translocation of endocytosed therapeutics into the cytosol. The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of PCI-based delivery of bleomycin and the impact on systemic anti-tumor immunity. Mouse colon carcinoma cells (CT26.CL25), stably expressing the bacterial β-galactosidase, were inoculated into the legs of athymic or immuno-competent BALB/c mice strains. The mice were injected with the photosensitizer AlPcS2a and bleomycin (BLM) prior to tumor light exposure from a 670nm diode laser...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040419/high-rates-of-human-fecal-carriage-of-mcr-1-positive-multi-drug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-isolates-emerge-in-china-in-association-with-successful-plasmid-families
#17
Lan-Lan Zhong, Hang T T Phan, Cong Shen, Karina Doris-Vihta, Anna E Sheppard, Xi Huang, Kun-Jiao Zeng, Hong-Yu Li, Xue-Fei Zhang, Sandip Patil, Derrick W Crook, A Sarah Walker, Yong Xing, Jia-Lin Lin, Lian-Qiang Feng, Yohei Doi, Yong Xia, Nicole Stoesser, Guo-Bao Tian
Objectives: mcr-1-mediated colistin resistance in Enterobacteriaceae is concerning, as colistin is used in treating multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections. Rates of human mcr-1 gastrointestinal carriage have historically been low. We identified trends in human fecal mcr-1-positivity rates and colonization with mcr-1-positive+third-generation cephalosporin-resistant (3GC-R) Enterobacteriaceae in Guangzhou, China, and investigated the genetic contexts of mcr-1 in a subset of mcr-1-positive+3GC-R strains...
October 10, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038125/modulators-of-enterococcus-faecalis-cell-envelope-integrity-and-antimicrobial-resistance-influence-stable-colonization-of-the-mammalian-gastrointestinal-tract
#18
Ismael L Banla, Sushma Kommineni, Michael Hayward, Marinelle Rodrigues, Kelli L Palmer, Nita H Salzman, Christopher J Kristich
The Gram-positive bacterium Enterococcus faecalis is both a colonizer of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and an agent of serious nosocomial infections. Although typically required for pathogenesis, GIT colonization by E. faecalis is poorly understood. E. faecalis tolerates high concentrations of GIT antimicrobials like cholate and lysozyme, leading us to hypothesize that resistance to intestinal antimicrobials is essential for long-term GIT colonization. Analyses of E. faecalis mutants exhibiting defects in antimicrobial resistance revealed that IreK, a determinant of envelope integrity and antimicrobial resistance, is required for long-term GIT colonization...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038123/lactobacillus-rhamnosus-l34-attenuates-gut-translocation-induced-bacterial-sepsis-in-murine-models-of-leaky-gut
#19
Wimonrat Panpetch, Wiwat Chancharoenthana, Kanthika Bootdee, Sumanee Nilgate, Malcolm Finkelman, Somying Tumwasorn, Asada Leelahavanichkul
Gastrointestinal (GI) bacterial translocation in sepsis is well-known but the role of the probiotics, Lactobacillus spp., is still controversial. We evaluated the therapeutic effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus L34 in a new sepsis model of oral administration of pathogenic bacteria, with GI leakage induced by either an antibiotic cocktail (ATB) and/or dextran sulfate sodium (DSS).GI-leakage with ATB, DSS and DSS+ATB was demonstrated by FITC-dextran translocation to the circulation. Administration of pathogenic bacteria, either Klebsiella pneumoniae or Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, enhanced the translocation...
October 16, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038053/flagellar-motility-extracellular-proteases-and-vibrio-cholerae-detachment-from-abiotic-and-biotic-surfaces
#20
Loree Mewborn, Jorge A Benitez, Anisia J Silva
Vibrio cholerae of serogroups O1 and O139, the causative agent of Asiatic cholera, continues to be a major global health threat. This pathogen utilizes substratum-specific pili to attach to distinct surfaces in the aquatic environment and the human small intestine and detaches when conditions become unfavorable. Both attachment and detachment are critical to bacterial environmental survival, pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the factors that promote detachment are less understood. In this study, we examine the role of flagellar motility and hemagglutinin/protease (HapA) in vibrio detachment from a non-degradable abiotic surface and from the suckling mouse intestine...
October 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
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