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Bacterial colonization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452293/genetic-diversity-and-functional-analysis-of-oipa-gene-in-association-with-other-virulence-factors-among-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-iranian-patients-with-different-gastric-diseases
#1
Nastaran Farzi, Abbas Yadegar, Hamid Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Yoshio Yamaoka, Mohammad Reza Zali
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most genetically diverse bacterial pathogens that persistently colonizes the human gastric epithelium. This remarkable genomic plasticity may act as a driving force for successful adaptation and persistence of the bacteria in the harsh gastric environment. Outer inflammatory protein A (OipA) encoded by oipA gene (HP0638/hopH) is a member of the outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of H. pylori involved in induction of IL-8 secretion and is associated with development of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer...
February 13, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452244/does-saline-enema-during-the-first-stage-of-labour-reduce-the-incidence-of-clostridium-difficile-colonization-in-neonates-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Adel M Nada, Reham A Mohsen, Yosra M Hassan, Amira Sabry, Noha S Soliman
BACKGROUND: Maternal rectal enemas may reduce neonatal bacterial exposure during labour; this may reduce the risk of neonatal colonization with Clostridium difficile. The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a saline enema during the first stage of labour in reducing neonatal colonization with C. difficile. METHODS: The study was conducted in Cairo University Hospital from January 2016 to July 2016. Asymptomatic mothers with uncomplicated vaginal delivery and their neonates without diarrhea were included...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452199/establishment-of-the-nasal-microbiota-in-the-first-18-months-of-life-correlation-with-early-onset-rhinitis-and-wheezing
#3
Le Duc Huy Ta, Gaik Chin Yap, Carina Jing Xuan Tay, Alicia Shi Min Lim, Chiung Hui Huang, Collins Wenhan Chu, Paola Florez De Sessions, Lynette P Shek, Anne Goh, Hugo P S Van Bever, Oon Hoe Teoh, Jian Yi Soh, Biju Thomas, Mahesh Babu Ramamurthy, Daniel Y T Goh, Christophe Lay, Shu-E Soh, Yiong Huak Chan, Seang-Mei Saw, Kenneth Kwek, Yap-Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, Martin Lloyd Hibberd, Bee Wah Lee
BACKGROUND: The dynamic establishment of the nasal microbiota in early life influences local mucosal immune responses and the susceptibility to childhood respiratory disorders. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this case-control study was to monitor, evaluate and compare the development of the nasal microbiota of infants who developed rhinitis and wheeze in the first 18 months of life with those of healthy controls. METHODS: Anterior nasal swabs of 122 subjects belonging to the GUSTO birth cohort were collected longitudinally over seven time points in the first 18 months of life...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450193/a-method-for-quantification-of-epithelium-colonization-capacity-by-pathogenic-bacteria
#4
Rune M Pedersen, Rasmus B Grønnemose, Kristian Stærk, Cecilie A Asferg, Thea B Andersen, Hans J Kolmos, Jakob Møller-Jensen, Thomas E Andersen
Most bacterial infections initiate at the mucosal epithelium lining the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital tracts. At these sites, bacterial pathogens must adhere and increase in numbers to effectively breach the outer barrier and invade the host. If the bacterium succeeds in reaching the bloodstream, effective dissemination again requires that bacteria in the blood, reestablish contact to distant endothelium sites and form secondary site foci. The infectious potential of bacteria is therefore closely linked to their ability to adhere to, colonize, and invade epithelial and endothelial surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449832/rhizosphere-competence-and-biocontrol-effect-of-pseudomonas-sp-ru47-independent-from-plant-species-and-soil-type-at-the-field-scale
#5
Susanne Schreiter, Doreen Babin, Kornelia Smalla, Rita Grosch
Biocontrol inoculants often show inconsistency in their efficacy at field scale and the reason for this remains often unclear. A high rhizosphere competence of inoculant strains is assumed to be a key factor for successful biocontrol effects as the biocontrol strain has to compete with the indigenous microbial community in the rhizosphere. It is known that many factors, among them plant species and soil type shape the rhizosphere microbial community composition. However, microbial community composition in the rhizosphere can also be influenced by the presence of a pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449198/a-rare-colonization-in-the-peritonitis-following-blunt-abdominal-trauma
#6
Oana Bulat, Cristian Bulat, Mihaela Blaj, Ioana Lupusoru, Viorel Scripcariu
BACKGROUND: Schewanella spp. is Gram-negative bacteria, saprophytes and rarely pathogenic. Initially isolated in 193, these belong to the marine environment; Schewanella (Pseudomonas) putrefaciens was found in water, soil and animal sources and produces hydrogen sulphide. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the well-known yeast used for fermentation in industry and in molecular biology for research. In humans, it is a very rare pathogen which colonises the digestive tract and its utility has been linked to the treatment and prevention of diarrhoea associated with Clostridium difficile...
February 15, 2018: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447696/strain-tracking-reveals-the-determinants-of-bacterial-engraftment-in-the-human-gut-following-fecal-microbiota-transplantation
#7
Christopher S Smillie, Jenny Sauk, Dirk Gevers, Jonathan Friedman, Jaeyun Sung, Ilan Youngster, Elizabeth L Hohmann, Christopher Staley, Alexander Khoruts, Michael J Sadowsky, Jessica R Allegretti, Mark B Smith, Ramnik J Xavier, Eric J Alm
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) from healthy donor to patient is a treatment for microbiome-associated diseases. Although the success of FMT requires donor bacteria to engraft in the patient's gut, the forces governing engraftment in humans are unknown. Here we use an ongoing clinical experiment, the treatment of recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, to uncover the rules of engraftment in humans. We built a statistical model that predicts which bacterial species will engraft in a given host, and developed Strain Finder, a method to infer strain genotypes and track them over time...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447695/cervicovaginal-microbiota-and-reproductive-health-the-virtue-of-simplicity
#8
REVIEW
Melis N Anahtar, David B Gootenberg, Caroline M Mitchell, Douglas S Kwon
Cervicovaginal microbiota play a critical role in women's health and reproductive outcomes. Despite being one of the simplest commensal bacterial communities in the human body, we are only beginning to appreciate its complex dynamic nature and important role in host immune modulation. In this review, we discuss the "optimal" cervicovaginal bacterial community composition, the impact of microbiota on gynecologic and obstetric outcomes, and the hurdles to developing a deeper mechanistic understanding of the function of the cervicovaginal microbiome...
February 14, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447471/anti-infection-silver-nanoparticle-immobilized-biomaterials-facilitated-by-argon-plasma-grafting-technology
#9
Ashwin Ambi, Nisharg Parikh, Carolina Vera, Krystal Burns, Naidel Montano, Leonard Sciorra, Jessica Epstein, Debing Zeng, Christian Traba
Many research groups have attained slow, persistent, continuous release of silver ions through careful experimental design using existing methods. Such methods effectively kill planktonic bacteria and therefore prevent surface adhesion of pathogens. However, the resultant modified coatings cannot provide long-term antibacterial efficacy due to sustained anti-microbial release. In this study, the anti-infection activity of AgNP immobilized biomaterials was evaluated, facilitated by argon plasma grafting technology and activated by bacterial colonization...
February 15, 2018: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447287/strain-specific-quantification-of-root-colonization-by-plant-growth-promoting-rhizobacteria-bacillus-firmus-i-1582-and-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-qst713-in-non-sterile-soil-and-field-conditions
#10
Hajeewaka C Mendis, Varghese P Thomas, Patrick Schwientek, Rauf Salamzade, Jung-Ting Chien, Pramuditha Waidyarathne, Joseph Kloepper, Leonardo De La Fuente
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens QST713 and B. firmus I-1582 are bacterial strains which are used as active ingredients of commercially-available soil application and seed treatment products Serenade® and VOTiVO®, respectively. These bacteria colonize plant roots promoting plant growth and offering protection against pathogens/pests. The objective of this study was to develop a qPCR protocol to quantitate the dynamics of root colonization by these two strains under field conditions. Primers and TaqMan® probes were designed based on genome comparisons of the two strains with publicly-available and unpublished bacterial genomes of the same species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447210/functional-imaging-of-the-interaction-between-gut-microbiota-and-the-human-host-a-proof-of-concept-clinical-study-evaluating-novel-use-for-18f-fdg-pet-ct
#11
Ben Boursi, Thomas J Werner, Saeid Gholami, Sina Houshmand, Ronac Mamtani, James D Lewis, Gary D Wu, Abass Alavi, Yu-Xiao Yang
Recent data comparing germ-free to conventionally-raised mice demonstrated that energy homeostasis of colonocytes is dependent on gut microbiota through regulation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and glucose utilization. We sought to evaluate 18F-FDG PET-CT as a novel technique for functional imaging of alterations in glucose metabolism as a result of the interaction between the gut microbiota and the human host. We conducted a prospective study in healthy humans that underwent 18F-FDG PET-CT and sampling of the gut microbiota before and after orally administered broad-spectrum antibiotics...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#12
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446491/characterization-of-morphological-conversions-of-helicobacter-pylori-under-anaerobic-conditions
#13
Sayaka Hirukawa, Hiroshi Sagara, Satoshi Kaneto, Tomoyo Kondo, Kotaro Kiga, Takahito Sanada, Hiroshi Kiyono, Hitomi Mimuro
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram-negative microaerophilic bacterial pathogen which colonizes the stomach of more than half the human population, and is linked to chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric cancer. Spiral-shaped H. pylori undergo morphologic conversion to the viable but not culturable (VBNC) coccoid form as they transit from the microaerobic stomach into the anaerobic intestinal tract. However, little is known about the morphological and pathogenic characteristics of H. pylori under prolonged anaerobic conditions...
February 15, 2018: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445368/beneficial-oral-biofilms-as-smart-bioactive-interfaces
#14
Beatrice Gutt, Qun Ren, Irmgard Hauser-Gerspach, Piotr Kardas, Stefan Stübinger, Monika Astasov-Frauenhoffer, Tuomas Waltimo
Periodontitis is a very common health problem caused by formation of pathogenic bacterial biofilm that triggers inflammation resulting in either reversible gingivitis or irreversible periodontal hard and soft tissue damages, leading to loss of teeth when left untreated. Commensal bacteria play an important role in oral health in many aspects. Mainly by colonizing oral tissues, they (i) contribute to maturation of immune response, and (ii) foreclose attachment of pathobiont and, therefore, prevent from infection...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445360/the-dynamic-distribution-of-small-tail-han-sheep-microbiota-across-different-intestinal-segments
#15
Hao Zhang, Mingxu Shao, He Huang, Shujuan Wang, Lili Ma, Huining Wang, Liping Hu, Kai Wei, Ruiliang Zhu
The sheep intestinal tract is characterized by a diverse microbial ecosystem that is vital for the host to digest diet material. The importance of gut microbiota (GM) of animals has also been widely acknowledged because of its pivotal roles in the health and well-being of animals. However, there are no relevant studies on GM of small-tail Han sheep, a superior mutton variety domestic in China. In this study, the structure and distribution of gut microflora were studied by high-throughput sequencing technology...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445273/new-bacterial-growth-in-bronchial-secretions-after-bronchoscopic-valve-implantation
#16
Nilab Sarmand, Daniela Gompelmann, Konstantina Kontogianni, Markus Polke, Felix Jf Herth, Ralf Eberhardt
Background: Bronchoscopic valve implantation is an established treatment in selected patients with severe lung emphysema. There is evidence in literature of increased bacterial colonization of various implants. So far, it is unclear if an increased bacterial colonization can also be observed after endoscopic valve therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of patients with examination of the bronchial secretions for presence or change of bacterial growth before and after valve implantation...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443819/chronic-osteomyelitis-with-staphylococcus-aureus-deformation-in-submicron-canaliculi-of-osteocytes-a-case-report
#17
Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Ashlee MacDonald, Edward M Schwarz, Irvin Oh
CASE: A patient presenting with an infected diabetic foot ulcer and Staphylococcus aureus chronic osteomyelitis was studied to validate the clinical importance of bacterial colonization of osteocytic-canalicular networks, as we recently reported in a mouse model. We utilized transmission electron microscopy to describe the deformation of S. aureus, from round cocci to rod-shaped bacteria, in the submicron osteocytic-canalicular networks of amputated bone tissue. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of S...
February 14, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442713/antibacterial-activities-of-bacteriagenic-silver-nanoparticles-against-nosocomial-acinetobacter-baumannii
#18
Richa Singh, Jeet Vora, Shradhda B Nadhe, Sweety A Wadhwani, Utkarsha U Shedbalkar, Balu A Chopade
Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the major nosocomial pathogens implicated in variety of severe infections and mortality. It is rapidly developing multi-drug resistance and also possesses surface colonization ability, which make it most difficult to treat through traditional antibiotics. This is an extensive study to describe the antibacterial activity of bacteriagenic silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against A. baumannii AIIMS 7 in planktonic and biofilm mode. Minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics were in the range of 1 to 4096 μg/ml whereas AgNPs inhibited planktonic bacteria at concentration of 16 μg/ml...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440783/comparative-analysis-of-subgingival-red-complex-bacteria-in-obese-and-normal-weight-subjects-with-and-without-chronic-periodontitis
#19
Snophia Suresh, Jaideep Mahendra, Angabakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep Kumar, Gurdeep Singh, Selvaraj Jayaraman, Roshini Paul
Background: Obesity is one of the systemic conditions which influence the onset and progression of periodontal disease and it is stated that the metabolic changes associated with obesity may contribute to alteration in subgingival microbial flora. Aim: Our study was aimed to quantify and compare the red complex microorganisms in obese or overweight and normal weight participants with and without chronic periodontitis to identify obesity as a risk for the presence of red complex bacteria...
May 2017: Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437375/tailoring-polyelectrolyte-architecture-to-promote-cell-growth-and-inhibit-bacteria-adhesion
#20
Shanshan Guo, Min Yi Kwek, Zi Qian Toh, Dicky Pranantyo, En-Tang Kang, Xian Jun Loh, Xiaoying Zhu, Dominik Jańczewski, Koon-Gee Neoh
An important challenge facing the application of implanted biomaterials for tissue engineering is the need to facilitate desirable tissue interactions with the implant while simultaneously inhibiting bacterial colonization, which can lead to implant-associated infection. In this study, we explore the relevance of physical parameters of polyelectrolyte multilayers, surface charge, wettability and stiffness, in tissue cell/surface and bacteria/surface interactions, and investigate the tuning of the multilayer architecture to differentially control such interactions...
February 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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