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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667487/pre-colonization-with-the-commensal-fungus-candida-albicans-reduces-murine-susceptibility-to-clostridium-difficile-infection
#1
Laura Markey, Lamyaa Shaban, Erin R Green, Katherine P Lemon, Joan Mecsas, Carol A Kumamoto
Clostridium difficile is a major nosocomial pathogen responsible for close to half a million infections and 27,000 deaths annually in the U.S. Preceding antibiotic treatment is a major risk factor for C. difficile infection (CDI) leading to recognition that commensal microbes play a key role in resistance to CDI. Current antibiotic treatment of CDI is only partially successful due to a high rate of relapse. As a result, there is interest in understanding the effects of microbes on CDI susceptibility to support treatment of patients with probiotic microbes or entire microbial communities (e...
April 18, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666764/evaluation-of-a-therapy-for-idiopathic-chronic-enterocolitis-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-and-linked-microbial-community-correlates
#2
Joshua M Taylor, Erik L Clarke, Kate Baker, Abigail Lauder, Dorothy Kim, Aubrey Bailey, Gary D Wu, Ronald G Collman, Lara Doyle-Meyers, Kasi Russell-Lodrigue, James Blanchard, Frederic D Bushman, Rudolf Bohm
Idiopathic chronic enterocolitis (ICE) is one of the most commonly encountered and difficult to manage diseases of captive rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ). The etiology is not well understood, but perturbations in gut microbial communities have been implicated. Here we evaluated the effects of a 14-day course of vancomycin, neomycin, and fluconazole on animals affected with ICE, comparing treated, untreated, and healthy animals. We performed microbiome analysis on duodenal and colonic mucosal samples and feces in order to probe bacterial and/or fungal taxa potentially associated with ICE...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666650/bacterial-community-of-the-rice-floodwater-using-cultivation-independent-approaches
#3
Michele Pittol, Erin Scully, Daniel Miller, Lisa Durso, Lidia Mariana Fiuza, Victor Hugo Valiati
In agricultural systems, interactions between plants and microorganisms are important to maintaining production and profitability. In this study, bacterial communities in floodwaters of rice fields were monitored during the vegetative and reproductive stages of rice plant development using 16S amplicon sequencing. The study was conducted in the south of Brazil, during the crop years 2011/12 and 2012/13. Comparative analyses showed strong differences between the communities of floodwaters associated with the two developmental stages...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666288/microbiota-and-metatranscriptome-changes-accompanying-the-onset-of-gingivitis
#4
Emily M Nowicki, Raghav Shroff, Jacqueline A Singleton, Diane E Renaud, Debra Wallace, Julie Drury, Jolene Zirnheld, Brock Colleti, Andrew D Ellington, Richard J Lamont, David A Scott, Marvin Whiteley
Over half of adults experience gingivitis, a mild yet treatable form of periodontal disease caused by the overgrowth of oral microbes. Left untreated, gingivitis can progress to a more severe and irreversible disease, most commonly chronic periodontitis. While periodontal diseases are associated with a shift in the oral microbiota composition, it remains unclear how this shift impacts microbiota function early in disease progression. Here, we analyzed the transition from health to gingivitis through both 16S v4-v5 rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing of subgingival plaque samples from individuals undergoing an experimental gingivitis treatment...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666229/drought-delays-development-of-the-sorghum-root-microbiome-and-enriches-for-monoderm-bacteria
#5
Ling Xu, Dan Naylor, Zhaobin Dong, Tuesday Simmons, Grady Pierroz, Kim K Hixson, Young-Mo Kim, Erika M Zink, Kristin M Engbrecht, Yi Wang, Cheng Gao, Stephanie DeGraaf, Mary A Madera, Julie A Sievert, Joy Hollingsworth, Devon Birdseye, Henrik V Scheller, Robert Hutmacher, Jeffery Dahlberg, Christer Jansson, John W Taylor, Peggy G Lemaux, Devin Coleman-Derr
Drought stress is a major obstacle to crop productivity, and the severity and frequency of drought are expected to increase in the coming century. Certain root-associated bacteria have been shown to mitigate the negative effects of drought stress on plant growth, and manipulation of the crop microbiome is an emerging strategy for overcoming drought stress in agricultural systems, yet the effect of drought on the development of the root microbiome is poorly understood. Through 16S rRNA amplicon and metatranscriptome sequencing, as well as root metabolomics, we demonstrate that drought delays the development of the early sorghum root microbiome and causes increased abundance and activity of monoderm bacteria, which lack an outer cell membrane and contain thick cell walls...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664968/water-system-is-a-controlling-variable-modulating-bacterial-diversity-of-gastrointestinal-tract-and-performance-in-rainbow-trout
#6
Omolola C Betiku, Carl J Yeoman, T Gibson Gaylord, Benjamin Americus, Sarah Olivo, Glenn C Duff, Wendy M Sealey
A two-phase feeding study evaluating performance of rainbow trout and comparing luminal and mucosal gastrointestinal tract (GIT) bacterial community compositions when fed two alternative protein diets in two rearing systems was conducted. Alternative protein diets (animal protein and plant protein diets) balanced with crystalline amino acids: lysine, methionine and threonine or unbalanced, were fed to rainbow trout in two separate water systems (recirculating (RR) and flow-through (FF)) for a period of 16 weeks...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662471/maize-endophytic-bacterial-diversity-as-affected-by-soil-cultivation-history
#7
David Correa-Galeote, Eulogio J Bedmar, Gregorio J Arone
The bacterial endophytic communities residing within roots of maize ( Zea mays L.) plants cultivated by a sustainable management in soils from the Quechua maize belt (Peruvian Andes) were examined using tags pyrosequencing spanning the V4 and V5 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA. Across four replicate libraries, two corresponding to sequences of endophytic bacteria from long time maize-cultivated soils and the other two obtained from fallow soils, 793 bacterial sequences were found that grouped into 188 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs, 97% genetic similarity)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661933/interleukin-22-immunotherapy-during-severe-influenza-enhances-lung-tissue-integrity-and-reduces-secondary-bacterial-systemic-invasion
#8
Adeline Barthelemy, Valentin Sencio, Daphnée Soulard, Lucie Deruyter, Christelle Faveeuw, Ronan Le Goffic, François Trottein
Severe bacterial (pneumococcal) infections are commonly associated with influenza and are significant contributors to the excess morbidity and mortality of influenza. Disruption of lung tissue integrity during influenza participates in bacterial pulmonary colonization and dissemination out of the lungs. Interleukin (IL)-22 has gained considerable interest in anti-inflammatory and anti-infection immunotherapy over the last decade. In the current study, we investigated the effect of exogenous IL-22 delivery on the outcome of pneumococcal superinfection post-influenza...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661932/-chlamydia-muridarum-genital-and-gastrointestinal-infection-tropism-is-mediated-by-distinct-chromosomal-factors
#9
Sandra G Morrison, Amanda M Giebel, Evelyn C Toh, Horace J Spencer, David E Nelson, Richard P Morrison
Some members of the genus Chlamydia , including the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis , infect multiple tissues including the genital and gastrointestinal (GI) tracts. However, it is unknown if bacterial targeting to these sites is mediated by multifunctional or distinct chlamydial factors. We previously showed that disruption of individual large clostridial toxin homologs encoded within the Chlamydia muridarum plasticity zone were not critical for murine genital tract infection. Here, we assessed if cytotoxin genes contribute to C...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661931/the-role-of-neuraminidase-producing-bacteria-in-exposing-cryptic-carbohydrate-receptors-for-streptococcus-gordonii-adherence
#10
Alex Wong, Margaret A Grau, Anirudh K Singh, Shireen A Woodiga, Samantha J King
Streptococcus gordonii is an early colonizer of the oral cavity. Although a variety of S. gordonii adherence mechanisms have been described, current dogma is that the major receptor for S. gordonii is sialic acid. However, as many bacterial species in the oral cavity produce neuraminidase that can cleave terminal sialic acid, it is unclear whether S. gordonii relies on sialic acid for adherence to oral surfaces or if this species has developed alternative binding strategies. Previous studies have examined adherence to immobilized glycoconjugates and identified binding to additional glycans; but no prior studies have defined the contribution of these different glycan structures in adherence to oral epithelial cells...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661188/molecular-and-clinical-analyses-of-helicobacter-pylori-colonization-in-inflamed-dental-pulp
#11
Ryota Nomura, Yuko Ogaya, Saaya Matayoshi, Yumiko Morita, Kazuhiko Nakano
BACKGROUND: Recently, dental pulp has been considered a possible source of infection of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in children. We previously developed a novel PCR system for H. pylori detection with high specificity and sensitivity using primer sets constructed based on the complete genome information for 48 H. pylori strains. This PCR system showed high sensitivity with a detection limit of 1-10 cells when serial dilutions of H. pylori genomic DNA were used as templates. However, the detection limit was lower (102 -103 cells) when H...
April 16, 2018: BMC Oral Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661123/pathological-and-microbiological-study-of-mortality-in-a-captive-breeding-colony-of-the-endangered-lord-howe-island-stick-insect-dryococelus-australis
#12
Christine Bayley, Christina Cheng, Michael Lynch
The authors describe pathological and microbiological features of mortalities in a captive breeding colony of Lord Howe Island stick insects ( Dryococelus australis) over a period of 18 months. There were 2 peaks of mortality in this period. In the first, insects presented dead with minimal premonitory signs of illness. In the second, affected insects were ataxic with contracted limbs and inability to climb or right themselves. Gross lesions were uncommon but included pigmented plaques on the gut and cloacal prolapse...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658991/novel-de-novo-synthesized-phosphate-carrier-compound-aba-peg20k-pi20-suppresses-collagenase-production-in-enterococcus-faecalis-and-prevents-colonic-anastomotic-leak-in-an-experimental-model
#13
M Wiegerinck, S K Hyoju, J Mao, A Zaborin, C Adriaansens, E Salzman, N H Hyman, O Zaborina, H van Goor, J C Alverdy
BACKGROUND: Previous work has demonstrated that anastomotic leak can be caused by collagenolytic bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis via an effect on wound collagen. In humans, E. faecalis is the organism cultured most commonly from a leaking anastomosis, and is not routinely eliminated by standard oral or intravenous antibiotics. Novel strategies are needed to contain the virulence of this pathogen when present on anastomotic tissues. METHODS: Polyphosphorylated polymer ABA-PEG20k-Pi20 was tested in mice for its ability to prevent anastomotic leak caused by collagenolytic E...
April 16, 2018: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658820/umbilical-microbiome-and-laparoscopic-surgery-a-descriptive-clinical-study
#14
Alberto Aiolfi, Emanuele Asti, Elena Costa, Davide Ferrari, Gianluca Bonitta, Paola Gaia, Milvana Tedaja, Luigi Bonavina
BACKGROUND: The human skin microbiome consists of colonizing and pathogen germs. The umbilical dimple is a humid environment prone to bacterial colonization and growth. In the laparoscopic era, the umbilicus has become the most common site of entrance into the peritoneum. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of umbilical microflora before antiseptic skin preparation. METHODS: Descriptive single-center study. A series of patients who underwent laparoscopic/open and elective/urgent abdominal surgery over a 2-month period were included...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658476/-microbiota-establishment-an-in-utero-colonization-decisive-for-future-health
#15
Rémi Gschwind, Thierry Fournier, Marie-José Butel, Sandra Wydau-Dematteis
Some diseases seem to have a developmental origin. Today, the microbiota is recognized as a determinant in health and diseases and one important step is its establishment in the neonate. Some variations in its composition including an imbalance (also called dysbiosis) have been associated to several pathologies. Recent studies suggest a bacterial colonization in the non-pregnant uterus, in the amniotic fluid and in the placenta, which were previously thought sterile. So, during deve-lopmental phases, the fetus could have encounter bacteria in utero...
April 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658045/potential-of-borojoa-patinoi-cuatrecasas-water-extract-to-inhibit-nosocomial-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-cancer-cell-proliferation-in-vitro
#16
Clemencia Chaves-López, Donatella Usai, Matthew Gavino Donadu, Annalisa Serio, Robert Tulio González-Mina, Maria Chiara Simeoni, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Antonio Pinna, Antonello Paparella
Borojó (Borojoa patinoi Cuatrec.) is a fruit used in Colombian traditional medicine with supposed antihypertensive, antitumoral, diuretic, healing, immunological, anti-inflammatory and aphrodisiac effects. To explore the relative merits in terms of biological activities of borojó aqueous extract (BAE), we investigated in vitro its antimicrobial activity on nosocomial pathogenic and multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6), Staphylococcus aureus (1) and Candida species (6), as well as its cytotoxicity on human conjunctive Wong-Kilbourne derivative (WKD) cells and Caco-2 cells from heterogeneous human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma...
April 16, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657964/vive-la-persistence-engineering-human-microbiomes-in-the-21st-century
#17
Katrine L Whiteson
I imagine a future in which children grow up with healthy microbial communities. Engineering human microbiomes might actually be achievable in the near future, as we enter an era of hunting for human-adapted bacterial strains and phages. Furthermore, breath metabolites could allow us to track whether a probiotic colonizes persistently or a phage has knocked down a microbe of interest. Recent successes with probiotics, such as bifidobacteria that can break down human milk oligosaccharides, are making a future in which infants are intentionally colonized with health-promoting strains seem less unlikely...
March 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657714/non-typeable-haemophilus-influenzae-detection-in-the-lower-airways-of-patients-with-lung-cancer-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Krishna B Sriram, Amanda J Cox, Pathmanathan Sivakumaran, Maninder Singh, Annabelle M Watts, Nicholas P West, Allan W Cripps
Background: Chronic airway inflammation and hypersensitivity to bacterial infection may contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is the most common colonizing bacteria in the lower airways of patients with COPD. The objective of this study was to determine the presence of NTHi and immunoglobulin concentrations in patients with lung cancer, COPD and controls. Methods: Serum and bronchial wash samples were collected from patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoscopy...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656577/efficacy-of-7-benzyloxyindole-and-other-halogenated-indoles-to-inhibit-candida-albicans-biofilm-and-hyphal-formation
#19
Ranjith Kumar Manoharan, Jin-Hyung Lee, Jintae Lee
Certain pathogenic bacteria and yeast form biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces including medical devices and implants. Hence, the development of antibiofilm coating materials becomes relevant. The virulence of those colonizing pathogens can be reduced by inhibiting biofilm formation rather than killing pathogens using excessive amounts of antimicrobials, which is touted as one of the main reasons for the development of drug resistance. Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen, and the transition of yeast cells to hyphal cells is believed to be a crucial virulence factor...
April 15, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652111/actual-diagnosis-of-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#20
Philippe Lehours
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the stomach of half of humanity. The prevalence of this infection is higher among people of low socioeconomic status and from developing countries. In the absence of effective antibiotic treatment, the infection persists decades or even lifetime. The diagnosis of H. pylori can be made by invasive methods when biopsies are obtained: culture, histological examination, polymerase chain reaction or rapid urease test. Non-invasive methods have been developed, including the urea breath test, a test of high reliability, particularly suitable for post treatment monitoring, but also the fecal antigen test, as well as the detection of antibodies in the serum...
April 12, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
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