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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821865/identification-of-bacterial-biofilm-and-the-staphylococcus-aureus-derived-protease-staphopain-on-the-skin-surface-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis
#1
Andreas Sonesson, Kornelia Przybyszewska, Sigrid Eriksson, Matthias Mörgelin, Sven Kjellström, Julia Davies, Jan Potempa, Artur Schmidtchen
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by an impaired epidermal barrier, dysregulation of innate and adaptive immunity, and a high susceptibility to bacterial colonization and infection. In the present study, bacterial biofilm was visualized by electron microscopy at the surface of AD skin. Correspondingly, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) isolates from lesional skin of patients with AD, produced a substantial amount of biofilm in vitro. S. aureus biofilms showed less susceptibility to killing by the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 when compared with results obtained using planktonic cells...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818809/differential-oxidative-and-antioxidative-response-of-duckweed-lemna-minor-toward-plant-growth-promoting-inhibiting-bacteria
#2
Hidehiro Ishizawa, Masashi Kuroda, Masaaki Morikawa, Michihiko Ike
Bacteria colonizing the plant rhizosphere are believed to positively or negatively affect the host plant productivity. This feature has inspired researchers to engineer such interactions to enhance crop production. However, it remains to be elucidated whether rhizobacteria influences plant oxidative stress vis-a-vis other environmental stressors, and whether such influence is associated with their growth promoting/inhibiting ability. In this study, two plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and two plant growth-inhibiting bacteria (PGIB) were separately inoculated into axenic duckweed (Lemna minor) culture under laboratory conditions for 4 and 8 days in order to investigate their effects on plant oxidative stress and antioxidant activities...
August 9, 2017: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817673/the-plasmid-encoded-ipf-and-klf-fimbriae-display-different-expression-and-varying-roles-in-the-virulence-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-infantis-in-mouse-vs-avian-hosts
#3
Gili Aviv, Laura Elpers, Svetlana Mikhlin, Helit Cohen, Shaul Vitman Zilber, Guntram A Grassl, Galia Rahav, Michael Hensel, Ohad Gal-Mor
Salmonella enterica serovar Infantis is one of the prevalent Salmonella serovars worldwide. Different emergent clones of S. Infantis were shown to acquire the pESI virulence-resistance megaplasmid affecting its ecology and pathogenicity. Here, we studied two previously uncharacterized pESI-encoded chaperone-usher fimbriae, named Ipf and Klf. While Ipf homologs are rare and were found only in S. enterica subspecies diarizonae and subspecies VII, Klf is related to the known K88-Fae fimbria and klf clusters were identified in seven S...
August 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815474/influence-of-bio-fertilizer-containing-beneficial-fungi-and-rhizospheric-bacteria-on-health-promoting-compounds-and-antioxidant-activity-of-spinacia-oleracea-l
#4
Muhammad Khalid, Danial Hassani, Muhammad Bilal, Fayaz Asad, Danfeng Huang
BACKGROUND: This study evaluates the influences of bio fertilizers containing mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus mosseae) individually or in combination with N-fixer (Azotobacter chroococcum), K solubilizer (Bacillus mucilaginous) and P solubilizer (Bacillus megaterium) on soil fertility and phytochemical levels of spinach. RESULTS: Root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi was increased in the presence of bacterial inoculation in comparison to individual inoculation treatments...
August 16, 2017: Botanical Studies (Taipei, Taiwan)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815398/characterization-of-host-response-resorption-and-strength-properties-and-performance-in-the-presence-of-bacteria-for-fully-absorbable-biomaterials-for-soft-tissue-repair
#5
N F N Stoikes, J R Scott, A Badhwar, C R Deeken, G R Voeller
PURPOSE: The objective was to evaluate the host response, resorption, and strength properties, and to assess the performance in the presence of bacteria for Phasix™ Mesh (Phasix™) and Gore(®) Bio-A(®) Tissue Reinforcement (Bio-A(®)) in preclinical models. METHODS: In a rat model, one mesh (2 × 2 cm) was implanted subcutaneously in n = 60 rats. Animals were euthanized after 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, or 24 weeks (n = 5/mesh/time point), and implant sites were assessed for host inflammatory response and overall fibrotic repair thickness...
August 16, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815036/bacterial-stimuli-activate-nitric-oxide-colonic-mucosal-production-in-diverticular-disease-protective-effects-of-l-casei-dg%C3%A2-lactobacillus-paracasei-cncm-i-1572
#6
Fabio Turco, Paolo Andreozzi, Ilaria Palumbo, Francesco Paolo Zito, Martina Cargiolli, Walter Fiore, Nicola Gennarelli, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Giovanni Sarnelli, Rosario Cuomo
BACKGROUND: Micro-inflammation and changes in gut microbiota may play a role in the pathogenesis of diverticular disease (DD). OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to evaluate the expression of nitric oxide (NO)-related mediators and S100B in colonic mucosa of patients with DD in an ex vivo model of bacterial infection. METHODS: Intestinal biopsies obtained from patients with diverticulosis, symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) and SUDD with previous acute diverticulitis (SUDD+AD) were stimulated with the probiotic L...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814819/marinocyanins-cytotoxic-bromo-phenazinone-meroterpenoids-from-a-marine-bacterium-from-the-streptomycete-clade-mar4
#7
Ratnakar N Asolkar, Ahilya Singh, Paul R Jensen, William Aalbersberg, Brad K Carté, Klaus-D Feussner, Ramesh Subramani, Antonio DiPasquale, Arnold L Rheingold, William Fenical
Six cytotoxic and antimicrobial metabolites of a new bromo-phenazinone class, the marinocyanins A-F (1-6), were isolated together with the known bacterial metabolites 2-bromo-1-hydroxyphenazine (7), lavanducyanin (8, WS-9659A) and its chlorinated analog WS-9659B (9). These metabolites were purified by bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts of our MAR4 marine actinomycete strains CNS-284 and CNY-960. The structures of the new compounds were determined by detailed spectroscopic methods and marinocyanin A (1) was confirmed by crystallographic methods...
April 20, 2017: Tetrahedron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814777/the-microbial-ecosystem-distinguishes-chronically-diseased-tissue-from-adjacent-tissue-in-the-sigmoid-colon-of-chronic-recurrent-diverticulitis-patients
#8
Kathleen M Schieffer, Kate Sabey, Justin R Wright, David R Toole, Rebecca Drucker, Vasily Tokarev, Leonard R Harris, Sue Deiling, Melanie A Eshelman, John P Hegarty, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun, Regina Lamendella, David B Stewart
Diverticular disease is commonly associated with the older population in the United States. As individual's age, diverticulae, or herniation of the mucosa through the colonic wall, develop. In 10-25% of individuals, the diverticulae become inflamed, resulting in diverticulitis. The gut ecosystem relies on the interaction of bacteria and fungi to maintain homeostasis. Although bacterial dysbiosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverticulitis, associations between the microbial ecosystem and diverticulitis remain largely unstudied...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814396/consumption-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-iron-absorption-from-a-micronutrient-powder-containing-ferrous-fumarate-and-sodium-iron-edta-a-stable-isotope-study-in-kenyan-infants
#9
Daniela Paganini, Mary A Uyoga, Colin I Cercamondi, Diego Moretti, Edith Mwasi, Clarissa Schwab, Salome Bechtler, Francis M Mutuku, Valeria Galetti, Christophe Lacroix, Simon Karanja, Michael B Zimmermann
Background: Whether consumption of prebiotics increases iron absorption in infants is unclear.Objective: We set out to determine whether prebiotic consumption affects iron absorption from a micronutrient powder (MNP) containing a mixture of ferrous fumarate and sodium iron EDTA (FeFum+NaFeEDTA) in Kenyan infants.Design: Infants (n = 50; aged 6-14 mo) consumed maize porridge that was fortified with an MNP containing FeFum+NaFeEDTA and 7.5 g galacto-oligosaccharides (GOSs) (Fe+GOS group, n = 22) or the same MNP without GOSs (Fe group, n = 28) each day for 3 wk...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813529/natural-and-artificial-feeding-management-before-weaning-promote-different-rumen-microbial-colonization-but-not-differences-in-gene-expression-levels-at-the-rumen-epithelium-of-newborn-goats
#10
Leticia Abecia, Elisabeth Jiménez, Gonzalo Martínez-Fernandez, A Ignacio Martín-García, Eva Ramos-Morales, Eric Pinloche, Stuart E Denman, C Jamie Newbold, David R Yáñez-Ruiz
The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of feeding management during the first month of life (natural with the mother, NAT, or artificial with milk replacer, ART) on the rumen microbial colonization and the host innate immune response. Thirty pregnant goats carrying two fetuses were used. At birth one kid was taken immediately away from the doe and fed milk replacer (ART) while the other remained with the mother (NAT). Kids from groups received colostrum during first 2 days of life. Groups of four kids (from ART and NAT experimental groups) were slaughtered at 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of life...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812643/a-submarine-volcanic-eruption-leads-to-a-novel-microbial-habitat
#11
Roberto Danovaro, Miquel Canals, Michael Tangherlini, Antonio Dell'Anno, Cristina Gambi, Galderic Lastras, David Amblas, Anna Sanchez-Vidal, Jaime Frigola, Antoni M Calafat, Rut Pedrosa-Pàmies, Jesus Rivera, Xavier Rayo, Cinzia Corinaldesi
Submarine volcanic eruptions are major catastrophic events that allow investigation of the colonization mechanisms of newly formed seabed. We explored the seafloor after the eruption of the Tagoro submarine volcano off El Hierro Island, Canary Archipelago. Near the summit of the volcanic cone, at about 130 m depth, we found massive mats of long, white filaments that we named Venus's hair. Microscopic and molecular analyses revealed that these filaments are made of bacterial trichomes enveloped within a sheath and colonized by epibiotic bacteria...
April 24, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812548/bacteroidales-recruit-il-6-producing-intraepithelial-lymphocytes-in-the-colon-to-promote-barrier-integrity
#12
K A Kuhn, H M Schulz, E H Regner, E L Severs, J D Hendrickson, G Mehta, A K Whitney, D Ir, N Ohri, C E Robertson, D N Frank, E L Campbell, S P Colgan
Interactions between the microbiota and distal gut are important for the maintenance of a healthy intestinal barrier; dysbiosis of intestinal microbial communities has emerged as a likely contributor to diseases that arise at the level of the mucosa. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) are positioned within the epithelial barrier, and in the small intestine they function to maintain epithelial homeostasis. We hypothesized that colon IELs promote epithelial barrier function through the expression of cytokines in response to interactions with commensal bacteria...
August 16, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812152/native-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis-alters-foliar-bacterial-community-composition
#13
Anbu Poosakkannu, Riitta Nissinen, Minna-Maarit Kytöviita
The effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi on plant-associated microbes are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that colonization by an AM fungus affects microbial species richness and microbial community composition of host plant tissues. We grew the grass, Deschampsia flexuosa in a greenhouse with or without the native AM fungus, Claroideoglomus etunicatum. We divided clonally produced tillers into two parts: one inoculated with AM fungus spores and one without AM fungus inoculation (non-mycorrhizal, NM)...
August 15, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812000/diagnostic-imaging-features-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-a-narrative-review
#14
REVIEW
Francesco Esposito, Rosanna Mamone, Marco Di Serafino, Carmela Mercogliano, Valerio Vitale, Gianfranco Vallone, Patrizia Oresta
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is an inflammatory process, characterized by intestinal necrosis of variable extension, leading to perforation, generalized peritonitis and death. The classical pathogenetic theory focuses on mucosal damage related to a stress induced intestinal ischemia leading to mucosal injury and bacterial colonization of the wall. A more recent hypothesis emphasizes the role of immaturity of gastrointestinal and immune system, particularly of the premature, responsible of bowel wall vulnerability and suffering...
June 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811841/bacteriophages-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract-and-their-implications
#15
Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Renata Wojciechowska, Andrzej Górski
The gut microbiota plays an essential role in health and disease of humans. Bacteriophages are the most abundant members of the gut virobiota and display great diversity. Phages can translocate through the mucosa to lymph and internal organs and play a role as regulators of the bacterial population in the gut. Increasing abundance of phages in the gut mucosa may reduce colonization by bacteria. Moreover, phages may have an immunomodulatory role in the immune response in the human gut. The role of phages in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unknown...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811642/octahedron-iron-oxide-nanocrystals-prohibited-clostridium-difficile-spore-germination-and-attenuated-local-and-systemic-inflammation
#16
Wei-Ting Lee, Ya-Na Wu, Yi-Hsuan Chen, Shang-Rung Wu, Tsai-Miao Shih, Tsung-Ju Li, Li-Xing Yang, Chen-Sheng Yeh, Pei-Jane Tsai, Dar-Bin Shieh
Clinical management of Clostridium difficile infection is still far from satisfactory as bacterial spores are resistant to many chemical agents and physical treatments. Certain types of nanoparticles have been demonstrated to exhibit anti-microbial efficacy even in multi-drug resistance bacteria. However, most of these studies failed to show biocompatibility to the mammalian host cells and no study has revealed in vivo efficacy in C. difficile infection animal models. The spores treated with 500 µg/mL Fe3-δO4 nanoparticles for 20 minutes, 64% of the spores were inhibited from transforming into vegetative cells, which was close to the results of the sodium hypochlorite-treated positive control...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811347/tifa-signaling-in-gastric-epithelial-cells-initiates-the-cag-type-4-secretion-system-dependent-innate-immune-response-to-helicobacter-pylori-infection
#17
Alevtina Gall, Ryan G Gaudet, Scott D Gray-Owen, Nina R Salama
Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen that colonizes the human stomach, causing inflammation which, in some cases, leads to gastric ulcers and cancer. The clinical outcome of infection depends on a complex interplay of bacterial, host genetic, and environmental factors. Although H. pylori is recognized by both the innate and adaptive immune systems, this rarely results in bacterial clearance. Gastric epithelial cells are the first line of defense against H. pylori and alert the immune system to bacterial presence...
August 15, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806959/second-line-therapy-for-helicobacter-pylori-eradication-causing-antibiotic-associated-hemorrhagic-colitis
#18
Kazuyuki Tanaka, Mikihiro Fujiya, Aki Sakatani, Shugo Fujibayashi, Yoshiki Nomura, Nobuhiro Ueno, Shin Kashima, Takuma Goto, Junpei Sasajima, Kentaro Moriichi, Toshikatsu Okumura
OBJECTIVE: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication rarely develops into antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC), in which the etiology of colitis remains unclear. We herein report a rare case of AAHC caused by second-line therapy for H. pylori eradication. RESULTS: A 65-year-old female was administered second-line therapy for H. pylori composed of 1500 mg of amoxicillin, 500 mg of metronidazole and 40 mg of vonoprazan for 7 days because of first-line therapy failure...
August 14, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806140/adherent-invasive-e-coli-enhances-colonic-hypersensitivity-and-p2x-receptors-expression-during-post-infectious-period
#19
Amandine Lashermes, Ludivine Boudieu, Julie Barbier, Benoit Sion, Agathe Gelot, Nicolas Barnich, Denis Ardid, Frédéric Antonio Carvalho
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) are related gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain associated with colonic hypersensitivity (CHS). Studies in humans have reported an abnormal colonization of Adherent-Invasive E. coli (AIEC) in the ileum of Crohn's disease (CD) patients associated with overexpression of the bacterial colonizing receptor CEACAM6. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AIEC reference strain LF82 could induce intestinal impairment during infectious and/or post-infectious periods and subsequently the development of CHS...
August 14, 2017: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805500/chitin-receptor-mediated-activation-of-map-kinases-and-ros-production-in-rice-and-arabidopsis
#20
Tsutomu Kawasaki, Kenta Yamada, Satomi Yoshimura, Koji Yamaguchi
Rapid induction of plant immune responses is essential to inhibit colonization and invasion by pathogens. Plants can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) including fungal chitin and bacterial flagellin using pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), which trigger the intracellular activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). MAPK activation and ROS production play pivotal roles in the induction of robust immune responses...
August 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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