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A case control study

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475096/phenotypic-and-functional-profile-of-th17-and-treg-cells-in-allergic-fungal-sinusitis
#1
Gargi Rai, Shukla Das, Mohammad Ahmad Ansari, Praveen Kumar Singh, Neelima Gupta, Sonal Sharma, Naseem Akhter, Vishnampettai G Ramachandran, Shafiul Haque, Sajad Ahmad Dar
Interleukin-17 producing T helper (Th17) and regulatory T cells (Treg) cells have been identified to play a critical role in atopic inflammation. However, conflicting reports on the role of Th17/Treg cells in allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) patients of different ethnicities has mystified its pathogenesis. To better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in AFRS, we conducted a prospective, analytical, case-control study involving 40 confirmed immunocompetent AFRS patients and 20 healthy controls...
February 20, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474680/shared-genetic-risk-of-schizophrenia-and-gray-matter-reduction-in-6p22-1
#2
Jiayu Chen, Vince D Calhoun, Dongdong Lin, Nora I Perrone-Bizzozero, Juan R Bustillo, Godfrey D Pearlson, Steven G Potkin, Theo G M van Erp, Fabio Macciardi, Stefan Ehrlich, Beng-Choon Ho, Scott R Sponheim, Lei Wang, Julia M Stephen, Andrew R Mayer, Faith M Hanlon, Rex E Jung, Brett A Clementz, Matcheri S Keshavan, Elliot S Gershon, John A Sweeney, Carol A Tamminga, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Agartz, Lars T Westlye, Jing Sui, Yuhui Du, Jessica A Turner, Jingyu Liu
Genetic factors are known to influence both risk for schizophrenia (SZ) and variation in brain structure. A pressing question is whether the genetic underpinnings of brain phenotype and the disorder overlap. Using multivariate analytic methods and focusing on 1,402 common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mapped from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) 108 regions, in 777 discovery samples, we identified 39 SNPs to be significantly associated with SZ-discriminating gray matter volume (GMV) reduction in inferior parietal and superior temporal regions...
February 21, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474507/pnpla3-association-with-alcoholic-liver-disease-in-a-cohort-of-heavy-drinkers
#3
Bhanu Prakash Kolla, Terry D Schneekloth, Joanna Biernacka, Vijay Shah, Konstantinos N Lazaridis, Jennifer Geske, Victor Karpyak
Aims: Prior studies have established variation at the PNPLA3gene to be associated with a risk of developing alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We attempt to replicate this finding and other potential genetic variations previously associated with ALD utilizing a case-control design in a cohort of subjects with alcohol use disorders. Short summary: This case-control study performed in a US clinical sample of heavy drinkers, replicates the previously reported association between ALD and rs738409 polymorphism in the PNPLA3gene in heavy drinkers...
February 21, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474406/the-role-of-the-folate-pathway-in-pancreatic-cancer-risk
#4
Shirisha Chittiboyina, Zhongxue Chen, E Gabriela Chiorean, Lisa M Kamendulis, Barbara A Hocevar
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the third leading cause of cancer related deaths in the United States. Several dietary factors have been identified that modify pancreatic cancer risk, including low folate levels. In addition to nutrition and lifestyle determinants, folate status may be influenced by genetic factors such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In the present study, we investigated the association between folate levels, genetic polymorphisms in genes of the folate pathway, and pancreatic cancer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474389/elevated-temperature-drives-kelp-microbiome-dysbiosis-while-elevated-carbon-dioxide-induces-water-microbiome-disruption
#5
Jeremiah J Minich, Megan M Morris, Matt Brown, Michael Doane, Matthew S Edwards, Todd P Michael, Elizabeth A Dinsdale
Global climate change includes rising temperatures and increased pCO2 concentrations in the ocean, with potential deleterious impacts on marine organisms. In this case study we conducted a four-week climate change incubation experiment, and tested the independent and combined effects of increased temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), on the microbiomes of a foundation species, the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera, and the surrounding water column. The water and kelp microbiome responded differently to each of the climate stressors...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474373/hospitalization-mortality-and-associated-risk-factors-in-patients-with-polymyositis-and-dermatomyositis-a-retrospective-case-control-study
#6
Chanyuan Wu, Qian Wang, Linrong He, Enhao Yang, Xiaofeng Zeng
BACKGROUND: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis (PM/DM) are systemic autoimmune diseases with multiple organ involvements that manifest as muscular and cutaneous disorders, interstitial lung disease (ILD) and malignancies. However, information concerning the outcomes and associated factors for PM/DM patients who are hospitalized is limited. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of PM/DM patients admitted to a Chinese tertiary referral hospital (Peking Union Medical College Hospital, PUMCH) from 2008 to 2014...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474316/autoantibodies-against-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-1-in-health-and-disease
#7
Hannelore Ehrenreich
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Humoral autoimmunity has gained highest interest in neurology and psychiatry. Despite numerous recent articles on this hot topic, however, the biological significance of natural autoantibodies (AB) and the normal autoimmune repertoire of mammals remained quite obscure. AB may contribute to disorder-relevant phenotypes and are even believed to induce diseases themselves, but the circumstances under which AB become pathogenic are not fully understood. This review will focus on the highly frequent AB against the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor 1 (NMDAR1-AB) as an illustrating example and provide a critical overview of current work (please note that the new nomenclature, GluN1, is disregarded here for consistency with the AB literature)...
February 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474147/precooking-as-a-control-for-histamine-formation-during-the-processing-of-tuna-an-industrial-process-validation
#8
Farzana Adams, Fred Nolte, James Colton, John De Beer, Lisa Weddig
An experiment to validate the precooking of tuna as a control for histamine formation was carried out at a commercial tuna factory in Fiji. Albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) were brought on board long-line catcher vessels alive, immediately chilled but never frozen, and delivered to an on-shore facility within 3 to 13 days. These fish were then allowed to spoil at 25 to 30°C for 21 to 25 h to induce high levels of histamine (>50 ppm), as a simulation of "worst-case" postharvest conditions, and subsequently frozen...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474126/association-of-low-vitamin-d-levels-with-noninfectious-uveitis-and-scleritis
#9
Stephanie M Llop, Samaneh Davoudi, Lynn K Stanwyck, Shaleen Sathe, Lisa Tom, Tina Ahmadi, Lindsay Grotting, George N Papaliodis, Lucia Sobrin
PURPOSE: To determine whether an association between Vitamin D and noninfectious ocular inflammation exists. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study with 765 patients (333 uveitis cases, 103 scleritis cases, 329 controls). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and ocular inflammation. RESULTS: The odds of having uveitis were 1.92 times higher for patients with hypovitaminosis D compared to patients with normal Vitamin D levels in the multivariate analysis [odds ratio (OR) = 1...
February 23, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474109/urinary-tract-infection-cost-study
#10
Maria Soledad Kappes Ramirez
A study of cost has been performed that considers cases and controls of healthcare-associated infections (HAI) regarding urinary tract infections (UTI) in a public hospital in the south of Chile. To perform the study, 10 cases of UTI were examined, considering the use of a urinary catheter as a risk factor. The study contributes to clarifying the costs of HAI, justifying the investments that can be made in order to prevent HAI in health centers. This study provides the basis to determine the importance not only in preventing infections, but also in the savings that the health system should consider when health centers prevent nosocomial infections...
February 23, 2018: Hospital Topics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473860/carcinoembryonic-antigen-serum-levels-in-nonmelanoma-skin-cancer
#11
Saverio Latteri, Vito Emanuele Catania, Giulia Malaguarnera, Andrea Peri, Gaetano Bertino, Giuseppe Frazzetto, Antonio Maria Borzì, Antonio Biondi, Rosario Emanuele Perrotta, Michele Malaguarnera
BACKGROUND: Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a glycoprotein, which is present in the foetal colon, some benign conditions and different malignancies, particularly in colon adenocarcinoma. We focused this study on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC). NMSC is a common malignancy and it is an important source of morbidity and death in the world. In this study we evaluated whether CEA level increases in NMSC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 566 patients with non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) were enrolled; 286 patients with NMSC showed CEA levels above normal values, and 280 showed CEA levels below normal values...
February 23, 2018: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473789/ligament-augmentation-for-prevention-of-proximal-junctional-kyphosis-and-proximal-junctional-failure-in-adult-spinal-deformity
#12
Michael M Safaee, Vedat Deviren, Cecilia Dalle Ore, Justin K Scheer, Darryl Lau, Joseph A Osorio, Fred Nicholls, Christopher P Ames
OBJECTIVE Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a well-recognized, yet incompletely defined, complication of adult spinal deformity surgery. There is no standardized definition for PJK, but most studies describe PJK as an increase in the proximal junctional angle (PJA) of greater than 10°-20°. Ligament augmentation is a novel strategy for PJK reduction that provides strength to the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and adjacent segments while also reducing junctional stress at those levels. METHODS In this study, ligament augmentation was used in a consecutive series of adult spinal deformity patients at a single institution...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473735/the-use-of-ex-vivo-organ-cultures-in-tick-borne-virus-research
#13
Jeffrey M Grabowski, Danielle K Offerdahl, Marshall E Bloom
Each year there are more than 15 000 cases of human disease caused by infections with tick-borne viruses (TBVs). These illnesses occur worldwide and can range from very mild illness to severe encephalitis and hemorrhagic fever. Although TBVs are currently identified as neglected vector-borne pathogens and receive less attention than mosquito-borne viruses, TBVs are expanding into new regions, and infection rates are increasing. Furthermore, effective vaccines, diagnostic tools, and other countermeasures are limited...
February 23, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473662/mri-supervised-and-unsupervised-classification-of-parkinson-s-disease-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#14
Patrice Péran, Gaetano Barbagallo, Federico Nemmi, Maria Sierra, Monique Galitzky, Anne Pavy-Le Traon, Pierre Payoux, Wassilios G Meissner, Olivier Rascol
BACKGROUND: Multimodal MRI approach is based on a combination of MRI parameters sensitive to different tissue characteristics (eg, volume atrophy, iron deposition, and microstructural damage). The main objective of the present study was to use a multimodal MRI approach to identify brain differences that could discriminate between matched groups of patients with multiple system atrophy, Parkinson's disease, and healthy controls. We assessed the 2 different MSA variants, namely, MSA-P, with predominant parkinsonism, and MSA-C, with more prominent cerebellar symptoms...
February 23, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473524/pharmacogenetics-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-agonists-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#15
Spyridon Karras, Eleni Rapti, Theocharis Koufakis, Angeliki Kyriazou, Dimitrios Goulis, Kalliopi Kotsa
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetics is a promising area of medical research, providing methods to identify the appropriate pharmaceutical agent and dosing for each unique patient. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) agonists are a novel therapeutic choice used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), demonstrating efficacy regarding glycemic control and weight loss. Therapeutic response to GLP-1 agonist treatment is a complex biophenomenon, dependent on a plethora of modifiable (diet, exercise, adherence) and non-modifiable (genetic individual variants, ethnic characteristics) parameters...
February 21, 2018: Current Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473461/primary-aldosteronism-and-thyroid-disorders-in-atrial-fibrillation-a-swedish-nationwide-case-control-study
#16
Georgios Mourtzinis, Samuel Adamsson Eryd, Annika Rosengren, Lena Björck, Martin Adiels, Gudmundur Johannsson, Karin Manhem
Background Atrial fibrillation is associated with hyperthyroidism. Patients with primary aldosteronism have an increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation. However, the prevalence of primary aldosteronism in the atrial fibrillation population is unknown. Aim This nationwide case-control study aimed to compare the prevalence of primary aldosteronism and thyroid disorders in patients with atrial fibrillation with that of age- and sex-matched controls. Methods We identified all atrial fibrillation cases in Sweden between 1987 and 2013 ( n = 713,569) by using the Swedish National Patient Register...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473460/global-frameworks-local-strategies-women-s-rights-health-and-the-tobacco-control-movement-in-argentina
#17
Hepzibah Muñoz Martínez, Ann Pederson
The article examines how civil society organisations in Argentina used the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) to frame the country's failure to enact strong national tobacco control legislation as a violation of women's rights in the late 2000s. We analyze this case study through the politics of scale, namely the social processes that produce, reproduce, and contest the boundaries of policies and socio-economic relations. This approach understands how multiple scales overlap and connect to obstruct or enhance the right to health in Latin America...
February 23, 2018: Global Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473374/the-association-between-prostatitis-and-prostate-cancer-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
Gianpaolo Perletti, Elena Monti, Vittorio Magri, Tommaso Cai, Anne Cleves, Alberto Trinchieri, Emanuele Montanari
OBJECTIVE: The main outcome of this review was the association between a history of clinical chronic prostatitis (NIH category II or III) and a histologically confirmed diagnosis of prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to analyze dichotomous data. For analysis of pooled data we adopted a random-effects model and the inverse variance weighing method. Heterogeneity was assessed by calculating the I2 value...
December 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473338/the-current-state-and-future-perspectives-of-cannabinoids-in-cancer-biology
#19
REVIEW
Paweł Śledziński, Joanna Zeyland, Ryszard Słomski, Agnieszka Nowak
To date, cannabinoids have been allowed in the palliative medicine due to their analgesic and antiemetic effects, but increasing number of preclinical studies indicates their anticancer properties. Cannabinoids exhibit their action by a modulation of the signaling pathways crucial in the control of cell proliferation and survival. Many in vitro and in vivo experiments have shown that cannabinoids inhibit proliferation of cancer cells, stimulate autophagy and apoptosis, and have also a potential to inhibit angiogenesis and metastasis...
February 23, 2018: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473286/colony-formation-in-the-cyanobacterium-microcystis
#20
Man Xiao, Ming Li, Colin S Reynolds
Morphological evolution from a unicellular to multicellular state provides greater opportunities for organisms to attain larger and more complex living forms. As the most common freshwater cyanobacterial genus, Microcystis is a unicellular microorganism, with high phenotypic plasticity, which forms colonies and blooms in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. We conducted a systematic review of field studies from the 1990s to 2017 where Microcystis was dominant. Microcystis was detected as the dominant genus in waterbodies from temperate to subtropical and tropical zones...
February 22, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
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