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Cornelia Volz, Felix Grassmann, Roman Greslechner, David Arthur Märker, Patrick Peters, Horst Helbig, Maria-Andreea Gamulescu
PURPOSE: This prospective observational clinical study investigated the benefits of spectral domain optical coherence tomography for specialists and residents in the management of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PROCEDURES: The study involved 49 eyes of 44 patients. Patients were advised to present for reevaluation 4 weeks after the administration of the loading dose of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-inhibitors (3 intravitreal injections every 4 weeks after diagnosis)...
June 21, 2018: Ophthalmologica. Journal International D'ophtalmologie
H E Colley, Z Said, M E Santocildes-Romero, S R Baker, K D'Apice, J Hansen, L Siim Madsen, M H Thornhill, P V Hatton, C Murdoch
Oral lichen planus (OLP) and recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) are chronic inflammatory conditions often characterised by erosive and/or painful oral lesions that have a considerable impact on quality of life. Current treatment often necessitates the use of steroids in the form of mouthwashes, creams or ointments, but these are often ineffective due to inadequate drug contact times with the lesion. Here we evaluate the performance of novel mucoadhesive patches for targeted drug delivery. Electrospun polymeric mucoadhesive patches were produced and characterised for their physical properties and cytotoxicity before evaluation of residence time and acceptability in a human feasibility study...
June 14, 2018: Biomaterials
Ahmadreza Baghaie, Susanne Schnell, Ali Bakhshinejad, Mojtaba F Fathi, Roshan M D'Souza, Vitaliy L Rayz
Flow fields in cerebral aneurysms can be measured in vivo with phase-contrast MRI (4D Flow MRI), providing 3D anatomical magnitude images as well as 3-directional velocities through the cardiac cycle. The low spatial resolution of the 4D Flow MRI data, however, requires the images to be co-registered with higher resolution angiographic data for better segmentation of the blood vessel geometries to adequately quantify relevant flow descriptors such as wall shear stress or flow residence time. Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography (TOF MRA) is a non-invasive technique for visualizing blood vessels without the need to administer contrast agent...
June 15, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Todd K Parsons, Rachel N Pratt, Li Tang, Yue Wu
Steroid hormones play important roles in normal physiological functions and diseases. Sex steroids hormones are important in the biology and treatment of sex hormone-related cancer such as prostate cancer and breast cancer. Cells may take up steroids using multiple mechanisms. The conventionally accepted hypothesis that steroids cross cell membrane through passive diffusion has not been tested rigorously. Experimental data suggested that cells may take up sex steroid using an active uptake mechanism. 3 H-testosterone uptake by prostate cancer cells showed typical transporter-mediated uptake kinetic...
June 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Chrysovalantis Stafylis, George Rachiotis, Antonis Katsioulis, Varvara A Mouchtouri, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
INTRODUCTION: Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for heart and lung disease and is responsible for many forms of cancer. The resulting morbidity and mortality weigh heavily upon countries with high prevalence, such as Greece. According to the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) Greece, 38.2% of Greeks aged ≥15 years, namely 51.2% of men and 25.7% of women, are smokers. Smoking is also common among the young and people of high education. Despite laws prohibiting smoking at indoor places, exposure to environmental tobacco is very high both in private and public places...
June 2018: Rural and Remote Health
C de Baat, R S T Modderman
The behaviour of a 78-year-old, edentulous female resident of a care home, suffering from dementia indicated to her care providers that she was experiencing oral pain. At the left (pre)molar region of the mandibular residual alveolar ridge, an irritated, red-coloured, sharply restricted mucosal area was seen, extending in width from the buccal to the lingual border of the ridge. Eventually it was identified as mucosal irritation, apparently due to hydroxylapatite cones that had previously been inserted to augment the residual alveolar ridge...
June 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
Agathe Streiff, Barbara Orlando, Bryan Mahoney
Background: To maintain compliance with the current shift towards competency-based milestone assessment in graduate medical education, residency training programs must reflect this emphasis in their curricula starting with the intern year of training.1 In working towards collaborative efforts in curricular development between Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) anesthesiology residency programs, understanding the structure and design of the clinical base year for anesthesiology residency programs nationwide will serve as a valuable initial step...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Joanna Miller, Daniel Katz
Background: Medical education is moving toward gender parity; however, many fields, including anesthesiology, remain predominantly male. The gender gap in anesthesiology is poorly recognized, and little is known about why it exists. It is possible that perceived workplace discrimination may deter women from pursuing a career in anesthesiology. We administered a survey to examine whether gender differences affect the experience of anesthesiology residents in the workplace. Methods: This study consisted of an analysis of responses to a survey administered in 2017 via REDCap to residents at an ACGME-accredited anesthesiology training program...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Susan M Martinelli, Fei Chen, Matthew D Mcevoy, David A Zvara, Randall M Schell
Background: Flipped classroom (FC) is an active learning (AL) technique thought to have potential benefits in anesthesiology resident education. This survey aimed to determine the frequency of FC utilization, barriers of utilization, and means to overcome these barriers. Method: A web-based questionnaire was developed to survey anesthesiology faculty on their knowledge of and experience with FC. The Society of Academic Associations of Anesthesiology and Perioperative Medicine sent the survey to all United States core program directors (PD) via their list serve with a request for the PDs to forward the survey invitation to their clinical faculty...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Nafisseh S Warner, Matthew A Warner, Jason S Eldrige, Resham Datta, Susan M Moeschler, Timothy R Long
Background: Little is known regarding the factors that influence post-residency career decisions following anesthesiology residency training. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between demographic and academic variables and immediate post-residency positions. Methods: The authors conducted a retrospective review of anesthesiology resident files from 2000 to 2014 at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). Univariate and multivariable analyses were used to assess relationships between demographic and academic factors and post-residency positions...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Randolph H Hastings, Suraj Kedarisetty, Jennifer Moitoza Johnson, Dale Glaser, Nathan Delson
Background: The goal of this study was to determine whether motion parameters during laryngoscopy in a manikin differed with experienced operators versus novice trainees and whether motion measurements would predict trainee outcomes when intubating patients. Methods: Motion, force, and duration of laryngoscopy on a manikin were compared in two separate experiments between beginning anesthesiology residents (CA1) and anesthesiologists with more than 24 months of anesthesiology training (CA3 or attendings)...
January 2018: Journal of Education in Perioperative Medicine: JEPM
Ayyappa Kumar Sista Kameshwar, Wensheng Qin
Ruminating animals, especially cattle lack the carbohydrate active enzyme encoding genes which are required for the degradation of the glycosidic linkages of plant cell wall carbohydrates (such as cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin). Thus, ruminating animals are completely dependent on the microorganisms (anaerobic bacteria and fungi, methanogenic archaea and protozoa) residing in their rumen (hindgut). In this study, we have retrieved and analyzed the complete genome wide annotations of the Neocallimastigomycota division fungi such as Anaeromyces robustus, Neocallismatix californiae, Orpinomyces sp, Piromyces finnis, Piromyces sp E2...
2018: Journal of Genomics
(no author information available yet)
Tissue-resident alveolar macrophages (TR-AM) are depleted from the lung during the early stages of bleomycin-induced lung injury and fibrosis. The recovery of the population of macrophages after bleomycin could be completely attributable to the recruitment and differentiation of monocyte-derived alveolar macrophages (Mo-AM). The authors used multiple lineage-trace mouse models where they selectively depleted TR-AM or Mo-AM and induced fibrosis with bleomycin. Deletion of TR-AM had no effect on the severity of the fibrotic phenotype...
December 2017: Breathe
Ali Soltani, Samira MafiMoghaddam, Atena Oladzad-Abbasabadi, Katelynn Walter, Patrick J Kearns, Jose Vasquez-Guzman, Sujan Mamidi, Rian Lee, Ashley L Shade, Janette L Jacobs, Martin I Chilivers, David B Lowry, Phillip McClean, Juan M Osorno
Climate change models predict temporal and spatial shifts in precipitation resulting in more frequent incidents of flooding, particularly in regions with poor soil drainage. In these flooding conditions, crop losses are inevitable due to exposure of plants to hypoxia and the spread of root rot diseases. Improving the tolerance of bean cultivars to flooding is crucial to minimize crop losses. In this experiment, we evaluated the phenotypic responses of 277 genotypes from the Andean Diversity Panel to flooding at germination and seedling stages...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Michelle S Cruz, Alani Diamond, Astrid Russell, Julie Marie Jameson
γδ T lymphocytes maintain skin homeostasis by balancing keratinocyte differentiation and proliferation with the destruction of infected or malignant cells. An imbalance in skin-resident T cell function can aggravate skin-related autoimmune diseases, impede tumor eradication, or disrupt proper wound healing. Much of the published work on human skin T cells attributes T cell function in the skin to αβ T cells, while γδ T cells are an often overlooked participant. This review details the roles played by both αβ and γδ T cells in healthy human skin and then focuses on their roles in skin diseases, such as psoriasis and alopecia areata...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alessandra Sacchi, Nicola Tumino, Andrea Sabatini, Eleonora Cimini, Rita Casetti, Veronica Bordoni, Germana Grassi, Chiara Agrati
γδ T cells represent less than 5% of circulating T cells; they exert a potent cytotoxic function against tumor or infected cells and secrete cytokines like conventional αβ T cells. As αβ T cells γδ T cells reside in the typical T cell compartments (the lymph nodes and spleen), but are more widely distributed in tissues throughout the body. For these reasons, some investigators are exploring the possibility of immunotherapies aimed to expand and activate Vδ2 T cells, or using them as Chimeric Antigen Receptor carriers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Susan L Brady, Noel Rao, Patricia J Gibbons, Letha Williams, Mark Hakel, Theresa Pape
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of an online, interdisciplinary, interactive course designed to increase the ability to accurately interpret the fiberoptic endoscopic exam of the swallow (FEES) procedure to traditional, face-to-face (F2F) lectures for both graduate medical education (GME) and graduate speech language pathology (GSLP) programs. Design: This was a prospective, quantitative, nonrandomized study. Participants were medical residents in physical medicine and rehabilitation from two affiliated programs and graduate students in speech language pathology from two instructional cohorts at a single institution...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Abram L Wagner, Lu Xia, Aparna Ghosh, Sandip Datta, Priyamvada Pandey, Sujay Santra, Sharmila Chattopadhyay, Uddip Nandi, Tanusree Mazumder, Sucheta Joshi, Joyojeet Pal, Bhramar Mukherjee
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) have been placed in many rural areas in India to increase villagers' connections to basic preventive health care. In this study, we describe how pregnant women and mothers of young children react when CHWs inform them that they, or their child, are at high risk of pregnancy-related complications or early childhood developmental delays, and further screening and health care from a physician is recommended. METHODS: In this longitudinal study in rural villages in West Bengal, India, pregnant mothers, as well as mothers of children aged 12-24 months, were screened for high risk complications...
2018: PloS One
Jiandong Sun, Xiaolei Guo, Zilong Lu, Zhentao Fu, Xiujun Li, Jie Chu, Gaohui Zhang, Kou Kou, Fuzhong Xue, Aiqiang Xu
Underreporting is a quality concern in mortality statistics. The purpose of this study was to assess and adjust underreporting in the population-based cause-of-death statistics. The total population (96 million) in Shandong, China was divided into 262 subcounty level populations geographically and by residence type (urban/rural). For each subpopulation, the total number of deaths during the years 2011-2013 was determined using data from the Household Registration System (HRS), and was used as a reference to assess the underreporting rate (UR) in the cause-of-death data from the Shandong Death Registration System (SDRS)...
2018: PloS One
Isabela Maia Diniz, Augusto Afonso Guerra, Livia Lovato Pires de Lemos, Kathiaja M Souza, Brian Godman, Marion Bennie, Björn Wettermark, Francisco de Assis Acurcio, Juliana Alvares, Eli Iola Gurgel Andrade, Mariangela Leal Cherchiglia, Vânia Eloisa de Araújo
BACKGROUND: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a disease that appreciably impacts on the quality of life of patients and is associated with high expenditure. MS is a chronic multifactorial disease, characterized by inflammation, demyelination and axonal loss. The Brazilian public health system provides pharmacological treatment as well as hospital and outpatient care for patients with relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. However, we are not aware of any previous publications assessing total direct medical costs in patients with a long follow-up within the Brazilian healthcare system...
2018: PloS One
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