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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437731/children-and-adolescents-facing-a-continuous-security-threat-aggressive-behavior-and-post-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#1
Orit Nuttman-Shwartz
There is extensive research evidence indicating that children and youth are the most vulnerable population for developing psychological symptoms relating to war and terror. Although studies have documented a wide range of detrimental emotional and behavioral effects of such exposure, much less is known about the effects of exposure to a continuous security threat for children and adolescents. Against this background, the current article examined the implications of continuous exposure to missile attacks among 1096 children and adolescents enrolled in public schools near the Israeli border with Gaza...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437652/review-of-take-home-pesticide-exposure-pathway-in-children-living-in-agricultural-areas
#2
REVIEW
Carly Hyland, Ouahiba Laribi
BACKGROUND: Children of farmworkers may be chronically exposed to pesticides via the take-home exposure pathway. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review was to analyze scientific literature evaluating the role of the take-home pesticide exposure pathway in children of agricultural workers. METHODS: A systematic review was undertaken and inclusion criteria were applied to identify original articles of interest. Of the 30 articles included in this review, some belonged to the same studies, resulting in a total of 23 studies...
April 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437589/the-roles-of-ecology-behavior-and-effective-population-size-in-the-evolution-of-a-community
#3
Chih-Ming Hung, Sergei V Drovetski, Robert M Zink
Organismal traits such as ecological specialization and migratory behavior may affect colonization potential, population persistence, and degree of isolation, factors that determine the composition and genetic structure of communities. However, studies focusing on community assembly rarely consider these factors jointly. We sequenced 16 nuclear and one mitochondrial genes from Caucasian and European populations of 30 forest-dwelling avian species that represent diverse ecological (specialist-generalist) and behavioral (migratory-resident) backgrounds...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437546/root-cause-analysis-and-actions-for-the-prevention-of-medical-errors-quality-improvement-and-resident-education
#4
Ryan Charles, Brandon Hood, Joseph M DeRosier, John W Gosbee, James P Bagian, Ying Li, Michelle S Caird, J Sybil Biermann, Mark E Hake
The quality of care delivered by orthopedic surgeons continues to grow in importance. Multiple orthopedic programs, organizations, and committees have been created to measure the quality of surgical care and reduce the incidence of medical adverse events. Structured root cause analysis and actions (RCA2) has become an area of interest. If performed thoroughly, RCA2 has been shown to reduce surgical errors across many subspecialties. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education has a new mandate for programs to involve residents in quality improvement processes...
April 24, 2017: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437467/mutant-uromodulin-expression-leads-to-altered-homeostasis-of-the-endoplasmic-reticulum-and-activates-the-unfolded-protein-response
#5
Céline Schaeffer, Stefania Merella, Elena Pasqualetto, Dejan Lazarevic, Luca Rampoldi
Uromodulin is the most abundant urinary protein in physiological conditions. It is exclusively produced by renal epithelial cells lining the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) and it plays key roles in kidney function and disease. Mutations in UMOD, the gene encoding uromodulin, cause autosomal dominant tubulointerstitial kidney disease uromodulin-related (ADTKD-UMOD), characterised by hyperuricemia, gout and progressive loss of renal function. While the primary effect of UMOD mutations, retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), is well established, its downstream effects are still largely unknown...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437428/prevalence-of-alcohol-use-disorders-among-under-and-post-graduate-healthcare-students-in-italy
#6
Monica Lamberti, Francesco Napolitano, Paola Napolitano, Antonio Arnese, Vincenzo Crispino, Gianclaudio Panariello, Gabriella Di Giuseppe
A cross-sectional study was carried out on 641 medical students, 359 students attending a degree course in the healthcare professions, and 500 resident physicians, all undergoing health surveillance at the ambulatory of the Division of Occupational Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy. 76.1% of the participants drank alcohol, with 85.5% of medical students, 77.4% of resident physicians, and 63% of healthcare-professions students reporting regular alcohol use. In the whole sample, the mean Audit-C score was 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437293/increased-cancer-incidence-in-the-local-population-around-metal-contaminated-glassworks-sites
#7
Fredrik Nyqvist, Ingela Helmfrid, Anna Augustsson, Gun Wingren
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine mortality causes and cancer incidence in a population cohort that have resided in close proximity to highly metal-contaminated sources, characterized by contamination of, in particular, arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb). METHODS: Data from Swedish registers were used to calculate standardized mortality and cancer incidence ratios. An attempt to relate cancer incidence to metal contamination levels was made...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437261/training-in-intraoperative-handover-and-display-of-a-checklist-improve-communication-during-transfer-of-care-an-interventional-cohort-study-of-anaesthesia-residents-and-nurse-anaesthetists
#8
Marion Jullia, Anaïs Tronet, Fabiola Fraumar, Vincent Minville, Olivier Fourcade, Xavier Alacoque, Yannick LeManach, Matt M Kurrek
BACKGROUND: Handovers during anaesthesia are common, and failures in communication may lead to morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: We hypothesised that intraoperative handover training and display of a checklist would improve communication during anaesthesia care transition in the operating room. DESIGN: Interventional cohort study. SETTING: Single-centre tertiary care university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 204 random observations of handovers between anaesthesia providers (residents and nurse anaesthetists) over a 6-month period in 2016...
April 21, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436966/microbial-metabolites-regulate-host-lipid-metabolism-through-nr5a-hedgehog-signalling
#9
Chih-Chun Janet Lin, Meng C Wang
Microorganisms and their hosts share the same environment, and microbial metabolic molecules (metabolites) exert crucial effects on host physiology. Environmental factors not only shape the composition of the host's resident microorganisms, but also modulate their metabolism. However, the exact molecular relationship among the environment, microbial metabolites and host metabolism remains largely unknown. Here, we discovered that environmental methionine tunes bacterial methyl metabolism to regulate host mitochondrial dynamics and lipid metabolism in Caenorhabditis elegans through an endocrine crosstalk involving NR5A nuclear receptor and Hedgehog signalling...
April 24, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436955/vitamin-a-mediates-conversion-of-monocyte-derived-macrophages-into-tissue-resident-macrophages-during-alternative-activation
#10
Uma Mahesh Gundra, Natasha M Girgis, Michael A Gonzalez, Mei San Tang, Hendrik J P Van Der Zande, Jian-Da Lin, Mireille Ouimet, Lily J Ma, Jordan Poles, Nikollaq Vozhilla, Edward A Fisher, Kathryn J Moore, P'ng Loke
It remains unclear whether activated inflammatory macrophages can adopt features of tissue-resident macrophages, or what mechanisms might mediate such a phenotypic conversion. Here we show that vitamin A is required for the phenotypic conversion of interleukin 4 (IL-4)-activated monocyte-derived F4/80(int)CD206(+)PD-L2(+)MHCII(+) macrophages into macrophages with a tissue-resident F4/80(hi)CD206(-)PD-L2(-)MHCII(-)UCP1(+) phenotype in the peritoneal cavity of mice and during the formation of liver granulomas in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni...
April 24, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436935/tnf-superfamily-receptor-ox40-triggers-invariant-nkt-cell-pyroptosis-and-liver-injury
#11
Peixiang Lan, Yihui Fan, Yue Zhao, Xiaohua Lou, Howard P Monsour, Xiaolong Zhang, Yongwon Choi, Yaling Dou, Naoto Ishii, Rafik M Ghobrial, Xiang Xiao, Xian Chang Li
Tissue-resident immune cells play a key role in local and systemic immune responses. The liver, in particular, hosts a large number of invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, which are involved in diverse immune responses. However, the mechanisms that regulate survival and homeostasis of liver iNKT cells are poorly defined. Here we have found that liver iNKT cells constitutively express the costimulatory TNF superfamily receptor OX40 and that OX40 stimulation results in massive pyroptotic death of iNKT cells, characterized by the release of potent proinflammatory cytokines that induce liver injury...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436642/the-validity-of-race-and-hispanic-origin-reporting-on-death-certificates-in-the-united-states-an-update
#12
Elizabeth Arias, Melonie Heron, Jahn Hakes
Objectives This report presents the findings of an updated study of the validity of race and Hispanic-origin reporting on death certificates in the United States, and its impact on race- and Hispanic origin-specific death rates. Methods The latest version of the National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) was used to evaluate the classification of race and Hispanic origin on death certificates for deaths occurring in 1999–2011 to decedents in NLMS. To evaluate change over time, these results were compared with those of a study based on an earlier version of NLMS that evaluated the quality of race and ethnicity classification on death certificates for 1979–1989 and 1990–1998...
August 1, 2016: Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2, Data Evaluation and Methods Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436475/a-salient-effect-of-density-on-the-dynamics-of-nonaqueous-electrolytes
#13
Sungho Han
The mobility and solvation of lithium ions in electrolytes are crucial for the performance and safety of lithium ion batteries. It has been known that a single type of solvent cannot satisfy the requirements of both mobility and solvation simultaneously for electrolytes. Therefore, complex solvent mixtures have been used to optimize both properties. Here we present the effects of density on the dynamics and solvation of organic liquid electrolytes via extensive molecular dynamics simulations. Our study finds that a small variation in density can induce a significant effect on the mobility of electrolytes but does not influence the solvation structure of a lithium ion...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436455/the-impact-of-gold-mining-and-agricultural-concessions-on-the-tree-cover-and-local-communities-in-northern-myanmar
#14
Sarah Papworth, Madhu Rao, Myint Myint Oo, Kyaw Thinn Latt, Robert Tizard, Thomas Pienkowski, L Roman Carrasco
Myanmar offers unique opportunities for both biodiversity conservation and foreign direct investment due to projected economic growth linked to natural resource exploitation. Industrial-scale development introduces new land uses into the landscape, with unknown repercussions for local communities and biodiversity conservation. We use participatory mapping of 31 communities, focus groups in 28 communities, and analyses of forest cover change during 2000-2010 using MODIS vegetation continuous fields images, to understand the social and environmental impacts of gold mining and agricultural concessions in Myanmar's Hukaung Valley (~21,800 km(2))...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436360/prostate-cancer-screening-practices-amongst-physicians-in-the-north-simcoe-muskoka-local-health-integration-network
#15
Thomas Burrows, A Andrew Ray, Cory Hartsburg
INTRODUCTION: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening test is controversial and can result in both over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Recently, the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (CTFPHC) has recommended against routine screening for prostate cancer. We sought to determine how the CTFPHC has impacted the practice patterns among family physicians in the North Simcoe Muskoka (NSM) Local Health Integration Network (LHIN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We surveyed all 439 family physicians within the NSM LHIN as well as 21 residents of the Family Medical Teaching Unit...
April 2017: Canadian Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436344/inattention-tests-for-delirium
#16
Paul Regal
Voyer and colleagues (2016) report an interesting and important comparison of ten attention/concentration tests for DSM-5 delirium. I have a number of questions and comments as follows: (1) What training did the research assistants have? DSM-5 diagnosis is generally regarded as a decision by medical specialists. When the person has prior dementia, identifying delirium is a high-level medical skill. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia can closely mimic delirium unless the examiner focuses on behavioral triggers and the speed of cognitive decline...
April 24, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436193/association-between-using-medications-with-anticholinergic-properties-and-short-term-cognitive-decline-among-older-men-a-retrospective-cohort-study-in-taiwan
#17
Yi-Hui Wu, Chih-Jen Wang, Cheng-Hao Hung, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Hsien Lin, Pei-Ning Wang, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: The use of anticholinergic drugs had been strongly linked to adverse health outcomes among older adults, especially in cognitive impairment or dementia. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive decline related to the use of anticholinergic drugs among older men living in the veterans' homes in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was a substudy of The Longitudinal Older Veterans study. A total of 274 residents living in four Taiwan veterans' homes and receiving two consecutive Mini-Mental State Examinations within the interval of 6 months from January 2012 to December 2014 were enrolled in the present study...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436191/hospitalization-and-associated-factors-in-people-with-alzheimer-s-disease-residing-in-a-long-term-care-facility-in-southern-taiwan
#18
Chu-Sheng Lin, Shih-Yi Lin, Ming-Yueh Chou, Liang-Yu Chen, Kuei-Yu Wang, Liang-Kung Chen, Yu-Te Lin, Ching-Hui Loh
AIM: It has been reported that many people with dementia require hospitalizations. The objective of the present study was to determine predictive factors for hospitalizations in people with dementia. METHODS: A total of 70 individuals with dementia living in a veterans' home in southern Taiwan were consecutively enrolled. During prospective follow up, all hospitalization events were recorded. RESULTS: The mean age of residents with dementia was 86...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436187/slow-gait-speed-as-a-predictor-of-1-year-cognitive-decline-in-a-veterans-retirement-community-in-southern-taiwan
#19
Chiao-Lin Hsu, Chih-Kuang Liang, Mei-Chen Liao, Ming-Yueh Chou, Yu-Te Lin
AIM: Slow gait speed has been associated with mortality, poor physical function and disability in older people. Our aim was to evaluate the association between slow gait speed and rapid cognitive decline among oldest-old men in Taiwan. METHODS: We carried out a longitudinal cohort study in a veterans' retirement community, and enrolled 249 male residents aged 80 years and older. Slow gait speed was defined as <1 m/s, and rapid cognitive decline was defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) decline of ≥3 points over 1 year...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436185/predictive-factors-for-dementia-and-cognitive-impairment-among-residents-living-in-the-veterans-retirement-communities-in-taiwan-implications-for-cognitive-health-promotion-activities
#20
Liang-Yu Chen, Yi-Hui Wu, Chung-Yu Huang, Li-Kuo Liu, An-Chun Hwang, Li-Ning Peng, Ming-Hsieh Lin, Liang-Kung Chen
AIM: To identify potentially modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline among veterans' home residents in Taiwan METHODS: The present retrospective cohort study was part of the Veteran Affairs-Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment study that retrieved data of the comprehensive geriatric assessment for 946 residents living at four veterans' homes in Taiwan. The study participants were interviewed every 3-6 months from January 2012 and December 2014. Demographic characteristics,multimorbidity by Charlson's Comorbidities Index, physical function by the Barthel Index, cognition by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), depression by the five-item Geriatric Depression Scale and nutritional status by the Mini-Nutrition Assessment-Short Form were collected for analysis...
April 2017: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
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