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María C Ysrraelit, Jorge Correale
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) affecting young people and leading to demyelination and neurodegeneration. The disease is clearly more common in women in whom incidence has been rising. Gender differences include: earlier disease onset and more frequent relapses in women; and faster progression and worse outcomes in men. Hormone-related physiological conditions in women such as puberty, pregnancy, puerperium and menopause also exert significant influence both on disease prevalence as well as on outcomes...
September 17, 2018: Immunology
Jennifer Baumbusch, Gloria Puurveen, Alison Phinney, Marie Denise Beaton, Marie-Eve Leblanc
OBJECTIVES: Resident-to-resident (RRA) abuse is increasingly recognized as a significant problem in long-term residential care.Families have a constant presence in this setting, yet their inclusion in research about RRA is minimal. The purpose of this study was to examine family members' experiences and management of RRA. METHODS: The methodology was critical ethnography.Twelve family members participated in in-depth interviews and 56 hours of participant observation were conducted...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Elder Abuse & Neglect
Benjamin De Witte, Franck Di Rienzo, Xavier Martin, Ye Haixia, Christian Collet, Nady Hoyek
Mini-invasive surgery-for example, laparoscopy-has challenged surgeons' skills by extending their usual haptic space and displaying indirect visual feedback through a screen. This may require new mental abilities, including spatial orientation and mental representation. This study aimed to test the effect of cognitive training based on motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) on surgical skills. A total of 28 postgraduate residents in surgery took part in our study and were randomly distributed into 1 of the 3 following groups: (1) the basic surgical skill, which is a short 2-day laparoscopic course + MI + AO group; (2) the basic surgical skill group; and (3) the control group...
September 15, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Sabra Melamed, Afona Chernet, Niklaus D Labhardt, Nicole Probst-Hensch, Constanze Pfeiffer
Eritreans comprise the largest group of asylum-seekers in Switzerland. Gaining recognized refugee status can take up to 36 months, during which time asylum-seekers live in a state of legal limbo, intensifying threats to their well-being. Resilience and mental health among this population is poorly understood. We interviewed 10 asylum-seekers residing in Switzerland using qualitative, in-depth interviews. Data were analyzed using the Framework Method. Results indicated that mental health was understood as a binary state rather than a continuum and that trusted friends and family were responsible for recognizing and attempting to treat mental health problems...
September 15, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Olivia Farrer, Letizia Sasanelli, Louisa Matwiejczyk, Alison Yaxley, Michelle Miller
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore how dietitians could work with cooks and chefs to contribute to best practice. METHODS: Data from interviews and focus groups comprising 38 chefs, cooks and food service managers were analysed. Inductive line-by-line coding of transcripts was conducted within a critical realist framework. Coding was completed independently by two authors before reaching consensus on themes. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged: (i) knowledge sharing; (ii) communication; (iii) collaboration; and (iv) accessibility...
September 17, 2018: Australasian Journal on Ageing
Lin Yin, Fang Liu, Changcheng Guo, Qiong Wang, Ke Pan, Liangbi Xu, Yan Xiong, Yingting Chen, Zhenghong Chen
The present study aimed to investigate the virulence diversity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in major ethnic groups residing in Guizhou province, China, and its association with clinical outcomes. Gastric mucosal biopsies were collected from the pylorus of patients with gastrointestinal disorders. H. pylori was identified by colonial morphology, Gram staining, a urease test and H. pylori‑specific 16S rRNA gene fragment PCR amplification. DNA was extracted from pure culture and used for virulence gene analysis...
September 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Mohammad-Hossein Taziki, Abdolreza Fazel, Fatemeh Salamat, Seyed-Mehdi Sedaghat, Mohammad Ashaari, Hossein Poustchi, Ramin Shakeri, Reza Hoseinpoor, Susan Hasanpour-Heidari, Gholamreza Roshandel
BACKGROUND: Golestan province, in Northern Iran, is a high-risk area for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). SCC is also the most common histological type of cancers of the head and neck region including cancers of oral cavity, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx. We aimed to present the incidence rate of head and neck SCC (HNSCC) in Golestan province during 2004 and 2013. METHODS: Data on HNSCC were obtained from Golestan population-based cancer registry (GPCR)...
September 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
S A Currivan, W Q Chen, R Wilson, E Sanz Rodriguez, N Upadhyay, D Connolly, P N Nesterenko, B Paull
In this work we evaluated a novel microreactor prepared using a surface modified, high surface-to-volume ratio multi-lumen fused silica capillary (MLC). The MLC investigated contained 126 parallel channels, each of 4 μm internal diameter. The MLC, along with conventional fused silica capillaries of 25 μm and 50 μm internal diameter, were treated by (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and then modified with gold nanoparticles, of ∼20 nm in diameter, to ultimately provide immobilisation sites for the proteolytic enzyme, trypsin...
September 17, 2018: Analyst
Penelope Abbott, Ron Brooker, Jennifer Reath
ISSUE ADDRESSED: Housing renewal is a common urban housing and development strategy internationally. An intended result is increased social inclusion and wellbeing of residents through public housing de-concentration. In this study we examined challenges encountered during the process of housing renewal from the perspectives of community-based staff and volunteers. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with housing and community workers, service managers and community volunteers who were working with residents experiencing housing renewal in an outer metropolitan estate in New South Wales...
September 16, 2018: Health Promotion Journal of Australia
Qian Wu, Xinwei Wei, Yuxiang Pan, Yingchang Zou, Ning Hu, Ping Wang
To perform the drug screening, planar cultured cell models are commonly applied to test efficacy and toxicity of drugs. However, planar cultured cells are different from the human 3D organs or tissues in vivo. To simulate the human 3D organs or tissues, 3D spheroids are developed by culturing a small aggregate of cells which reside around the extracellular matrix and interact with other cells in liquid media. Here we apply lung carcinoma cell lines to engineer the 3D lung cancer spheroid-based biosensor using the interdigitated electrodes for drug efficacy evaluation...
September 15, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Abdurakhim Toychiev, Sulayman Abdujapparov, Alim Imamov, Behzod Navruzov, Nikolay Davis, Najiya Badalova, Svetlana Osipova
The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal helminths and protozoa in colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and to evaluate the possible association between the prevalence and CRC pathogenesis. A total of 200 CRC patients and 200 residents of Tashkent, who had no complaints related to the gastrointestinal tract, were examined by triple coproscopy using a concentration method and estimations of protozoan infection intensity. Of the CRC patients tested, 144 were classified as T1 -4 N0 M0 (without metastases) and 56 were classified as T1-4 N1-2 M0-1 (with metastases)...
September 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
Evelyne Deplazes, David Poger, Bruce Cornell, Charles G Cranfield
At the 2017 meeting of the Australian Society for Biophysics, we presented the combined results from two recent studies showing how hydronium ions (H3 O+ ) modulate the structure and ion permeability of phospholipid bilayers. In the first study, the impact of H3 O+ on lipid packing had been identified using tethered bilayer lipid membranes in conjunction with electrical impedance spectroscopy and neutron reflectometry. The increased presence of H3 O+ (i.e. lower pH) led to a significant reduction in membrane conductivity and increased membrane thickness...
September 15, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
Tiago Cruz, Joana Lima, António Luís, Ulisses Miranda Azeiteiro
This work was developed in Barrinha de Mira Coastal Lagoon, Portugal. The lagoon belongs to the Natura 2000 network. Its main objectives were to monitor aquatic bird species before, during, and after a desorption intervention on this lagoon. Monitoring of waterfowl was carried out to evaluate the monthly variation of birds in Barrinha, in order to obtain useful information for region's management and planning, as well as for species preservation. In experimental design, it was decided to perform four counts per month in each pond (weekly), to evaluate the effect of increased monitoring effort in relation to previous years...
September 15, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Paulette V Hunter, Lilian Thorpe, Celine Hounjet, Thomas Hadjistavropoulos
Background and Objectives: Montessori-based interventions (MBIs) have potential to improve the life quality of long-term care residents with dementia. In this study, we aimed to understand the processes by which staff integrated a volunteer-led MBI into practice within a special dementia care unit, and to explore staff members ' perceptions of associated strengths and limitations. Research Design and Methods: This study relied on a qualitative descriptive design...
September 14, 2018: Gerontologist
Catherine Mary Hill, Romola Starr Bucks, Nicola Cellini, Shayan Motamedi, Annette Carroll, Kate Heathcote, Rebecca Webster, David Simpson
Study Objectives: We aimed to characterize heart rate variability (HRV) during sleep in Andean children native to high altitude (HA) compared to age, gender and genetic ancestry-similar low altitude (LA) children. We hypothesized that the hypoxic burden of sleep at HA could induce variation in HRV. As children have otherwise healthy cardiovascular systems, such alterations could provide early markers of later cardiovascular disease. Methods: Twenty-six LA (14F) and 18 HA (8F) children underwent a single night of attended polysomnography...
September 13, 2018: Sleep
Ricardo Batista, Kevin C Pottie, Simone Dahrouge, Douglas G Manuel, Peter Tanuseputro, Amy E Mark, Edward Ng
Objectives: In 2003, Ontario introduced a patient enrolment system as part of health care reforms, aimed at enhancing primary health care services, but it is unclear whether immigrants have benefited from this health care reform. Therefore, we studied whether this reform changed the extent of immigrants' enrolment in primary care services in Ontario between 2003 and 2012. Methods: This is a population-based retrospective cohort study, in which a closed cohort of 9231840 Ontario residents between 1985 and 2003 was created, using linked health administrative and immigration databases...
September 14, 2018: Family Practice
Luca Boeri, Andrea Gallioli, Elisa De Lorenzis, Matteo Fontana, Franco Palmisano, Gianluca Sampogna, Stefano Paolo Zanetti, Vito Lorusso, Ilaria Sabatini, Irene Fulgheri, Giorgio Malagò, Roberto Brambilla, Mauro Campoleoni, Giancarlo Albo, Fabrizio Longo, Andrea Salonia, Emanuele Montanari
BACKGROUND: The impact of surgical experience on radiation exposure (RE) during endourological procedures has been poorly investigated. OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of surgical experience on fluoroscopy time (FT) and RE during retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The study included 140 patients who underwent RIRS performed either by a senior surgeon (expertise of >100 RIRSs) (group A) or by two junior residents (expertise of <15 RIRSs) (group B) between January 2016 and May 2018...
September 12, 2018: European Urology Focus
Jonathan Thomas, Olivier Rosello, Ioana Oborocianu, Federico Solla, Jean-Luc Clement, Virginie Rampal
BACKGROUND: Studies have established that Blount's method is reliable for treating extension supracondylar fractures (SCFs) in paediatric patients. Reduction in the emergency room (ER) under procedural sedation followed by orthopaedic treatment is increasingly used for many fracture types. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether SCF reduction in the ER was feasible, by determining the failure rate. The secondary objective was to identify causes of failure with the goal of improving patient selection to reduction in the ER...
September 12, 2018: Orthopaedics & Traumatology, Surgery & Research: OTSR
Selin Tuysuzoglu Sagalowsky, Angela M Feraco, Tamara E Baer, Heather J Litman, David N Williams, Robert J Vinci
BACKGROUND: Burnout is prevalent among pediatric residents, and reducing burnout is a priority for pediatric residency programs. Understanding residents' personal circumstances, including relationship satisfaction and perceived work-life conflict, may identify novel determinants of burnout. OBJECTIVES: To describe intimate partner relationships among pediatric residents and examine associations among relationship satisfaction, work-life factors, and burnout. METHODS: We identified 203 partnered residents (married or in a self-identified committed, ongoing relationship) from a cross-sectional survey of 258 residents in 11 New England pediatric programs (response rate 54% of 486 surveys distributed), conducted from April through June of 2013...
September 13, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
Sarah Curtis, Jamie Pearce, Mark Cherrie, Christopher Dibben, Niall Cunningham, Clare Bambra
This paper reports research exploring how trends in local labour market conditions during the period 2007-2011 (early stages of the 'great recession') relate to reported mental illness for individuals. It contributes to research on spatio-temporal variation in the wider determinants of health, exploring how the lifecourse of places relates to socio-geographical inequalities in health outcomes for individuals. This study also contributes to the renewed research focus on the links between labour market trends and population health, prompted by the recent global economic recession...
August 13, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
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