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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225074/the-wasp-arp2-3-complex-signal-cascade-is-involved-in-actin-dependent-sperm-nuclei-migration-during-double-fertilization-in-tobacco-and-maize
#1
Xiongbo Peng, Tingting Yan, Mengxiang Sun
Sperm nuclear migration during fertilization in Arabidopsis and rice has recently been found to be actin-dependent, but the driving force behind this actin cytoskeleton-dependent motion is unclear. Here, we confirmed that the actin-dependent sperm nuclei migration during fertilization is a conserved mechanism in plants. Using in vitro fertilization systems, we showed that a functional actin is also essential in maize and tobacco for sperm nuclei migration after gamete membrane fusion. Cytoskeleton depolymerization inhibitor treatments supported the view that sperm nuclei migration is actin-dependent but microtubule-independent in both egg cell and central cell during double fertilization...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224241/stem-cell-mechanical-behaviour-modelling-substrate-s-curvature-influence-during-adhesion
#2
M Vassaux, J L Milan
Recent experiments hint that adherent cells are sensitive to their substrate curvature. It is already well known that cells behaviour can be regulated by the mechanical properties of their environment. However, no mechanisms have been established regarding the influence of cell-scale curvature of the substrate. Using a numerical cell model, based on tensegrity structures theory and the non-smooth contact dynamics method, we propose to investigate the mechanical state of adherent cells on concave and convex hemispheres...
February 21, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224118/heparin-binding-hemagglutinin-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-is-an-inhibitor-of-autophagy
#3
Qing Zheng, Zhi Li, Shan Zhou, Qian Zhang, Lei Zhou, Xiaorui Fu, Liu Yang, Yueyun Ma, Xiaoke Hao
Airway epithelial cell is often the initial site of attack by pathogens, and cell death is commonly caused by internalization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). However, the mechanism of interaction between epithelial cells and Mtb is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of the heparin-binding hemagglutinin (HBHA) protein of Mtb in the function of epithelial cells. In particular, the autophagy of A549 cells was determined based on microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 alpha (LC3) activity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224044/mastl-is-essential-for-anaphase-entry-of-proliferating-primordial-germ-cells-and-establishment-of-female-germ-cells-in-mice
#4
Sanjiv Risal, Jingjing Zhang, Deepak Adhikari, Xiaoman Liu, Jingchen Shao, Mengwen Hu, Kiran Busayavalasa, Zhaowei Tu, Zijiang Chen, Philipp Kaldis, Kui Liu
In mammals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the embryonic cell population that serve as germ cell precursors in both females and males. During mouse embryonic development, the majority of PGCs are arrested at the G2 phase when they migrate into the hindgut at 7.75-8.75 dpc (days post coitum). It is after 9.5 dpc that the PGCs undergo proliferation with a doubling time of 12.6 h. The molecular mechanisms underlying PGC proliferation are however not well studied. In this work. Here we studied how MASTL (microtubule-associated serine/threonine kinase-like)/Greatwall kinase regulates the rapid proliferation of PGCs...
2017: Cell Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223821/asparaginyl-endopeptidase-improves-the-resistance-of-microtubule-targeting-drugs-in-gastric-cancer-through-iqgap1-modulating-the-egfr-jnk-erk-signaling-pathway
#5
Yuehong Cui, Qian Li, Hong Li, Yan Wang, Hongshan Wang, Weidong Chen, Shangmin Zhang, Jian Cao, Tianshu Liu
PURPOSE: In recent years, understanding of the role of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) in tumorigenesis has steadily increased. In this study, we investigated whether AEP expression correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in gastric cancer and explored the mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: AEP expression in the serum of patients' peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patient survival time was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223544/hdac8-functions-in-spindle-assembly-during-mouse-oocyte-meiosis
#6
Kemei Zhang, Yajuan Lu, Chaohua Jiang, Wei Liu, Jing Shu, Xueqin Chen, Yingjiao Shi, Ensheng Wang, Li Wang, Qinbo Hu, Yibo Dai, Bo Xiong
HDAC8 is a class I histone deacetylase that functions in a variety of biological processes through its non-histone substrates. However, its roles during oocyte meiosis remain elusive. Here, we document that HDAC8 localizes at spindle poles and positively participates in the regulation of microtubule organization and spindle assembly in mouse oocytes. Depletion of HDAC8 by siRNA-based gene silencing results in various spindle defects and chromosome misalignment during oocyte meiotic maturation, accompanied by impaired kinetochore-microtubule attachments...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222294/cell-biology-narrowing-the-great-divide
#7
Sidney L Shaw
Construction of the cell plate during plant cell division requires the precise insertion of materials around the circumferentially growing phragmoplast. New work shows that two kinesin-4 motor proteins act to shorten the domain of overlapping microtubules at the phragmoplast perimeter, limiting the site of material deposition.
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222213/rab7a-regulates-tau-secretion
#8
Lilia Rodriguez, Nguyen-Vi Mohamed, Alexandre Desjardins, Roger Lippé, Edward Fon, Nicole Leclerc
The axonal microtubule-associated protein TAU, involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), can be found in the extracellular space where it could be taken up by neurons, an event that is believed to contribute to the propagation of tau pathology in the brain. Since the small GTPase Rab7A is involved in the trafficking of endosomes, autophagosomes and lysosomes, and RAB7A gene expression and protein levels are upregulated in AD patients, we tested the hypothesis that Rab7A was involved in Tau secretion. We previously reported that both primary cortical neurons and HeLa cells overexpressing human TAU can release Tau...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221363/premature-primary-tooth-eruption-in-cognitive-motor-delayed-adnp-mutated-children
#9
I Gozes, A Van Dijck, G Hacohen-Kleiman, I Grigg, G Karmon, E Giladi, M Eger, Y Gabet, M Pasmanik-Chor, E Cappuyns, O Elpeleg, R F Kooy, S Bedrosian-Sermone
A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways...
February 21, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220498/the-role-of-apical-cell-cell-junctions-and-associated-cytoskeleton-in-mechanotransduction
#10
REVIEW
Sophie Sluysmans, Ekaterina Vasileva, Domenica Spadaro, Jimit Shah, Florian Rouaud, Sandra Citi
Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterized by several types of specialized cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signaling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and adherens junctions to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton...
February 21, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219659/dementia-like-pathology-in-type-2-diabetes-a-novel-microrna-mechanism
#11
Anuradha Kalani, Pankaj Chaturvedi, Claudio Maldonado, Philip Bauer, Irving G Joshua, Suresh C Tyagi, Neetu Tyagi
Although type-2 diabetes (T2D) has been reported to increase the risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Dementia-like pathology is attributed to the accumulation of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) which plays a role in cognitive dysfunction. However, its involvement and regulation in diabetic dementia-like pathology is not well understood. Using T2D db/db (leptin receptor knockout) mice subjected to object recognition and Y-maze behavioral tests, we determined that short-term memory was compromised and that the mice displayed abrupt spontaneous behaviour compared to db/m control mice...
February 17, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219342/effects-of-exposure-to-streptococcus-iniae-on-microrna-expression-in-the-head-kidney-of-genetically-improved-farmed-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#12
Jun Qiang, Fanyi Tao, Jie He, Lanyi Sun, Pao Xu, Wenjin Bao
BACKGROUND: Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT, Oreochromis niloticus) are susceptible to infection by Streptococcus iniae when maintained in modern intensive culture systems. GIFT are commercially important fishes that are cultured widely in southern China. The role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the regulatory response of GIFT to S. iniae infection has been underestimated and has not yet been well studied. Head kidney has an important immune function in teleost fishes. The main aim of this study was to determine the possible function of miRNAs in head kidney of S...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218850/impact-of-phosphorylation-and-pseudo-phosphorylation-on-the-early-stages-of-aggregation-of-the-microtubule-associated-protein-tau
#13
Dmitriy V Prokopovich, John W Whittaker, Micaiah M Muthee, Azka Ahmed, Luca Larini
The microtubule associated protein tau regulates the stability of microtubules within neurons in the central nervous system. In turn, microtubules are responsible for the remodeling of the cytoskeleton that ultimately leads to the formation or pruning of new connections among neurons. As a consequence, dysfunction of tau is associated with many forms of dementia as well as Alzheimer's disease. In the brain, tau activity is regulated by its phosphorylation state. Phosphorylation is a post-translational modification of proteins that adds a phosphate group to the side chain of an amino acid...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218663/advanced-glycation-end-products-inhibit-the-proliferation-of-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-inhibiting-cathepsin-d
#14
Yuan Li, Ye Chang, Ning Ye, Dongxue Dai, Yintao Chen, Naijin Zhang, Guozhe Sun, Yingxian Sun
We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218660/anaphase-a-disassembling-microtubules-move-chromosomes-toward-spindle-poles
#15
REVIEW
Charles L Asbury
The separation of sister chromatids during anaphase is the culmination of mitosis and one of the most strikingly beautiful examples of cellular movement. It consists of two distinct processes: Anaphase A, the movement of chromosomes toward spindle poles via shortening of the connecting fibers, and anaphase B, separation of the two poles from one another via spindle elongation. I focus here on anaphase A chromosome-to-pole movement. The chapter begins by summarizing classical observations of chromosome movements, which support the current understanding of anaphase mechanisms...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218637/mechanisms-of-chromosome-congression-during-mitosis
#16
REVIEW
Helder Maiato, Ana Margarida Gomes, Filipe Sousa, Marin Barisic
Chromosome congression during prometaphase culminates with the establishment of a metaphase plate, a hallmark of mitosis in metazoans. Classical views resulting from more than 100 years of research on this topic have attempted to explain chromosome congression based on the balance between opposing pulling and/or pushing forces that reach an equilibrium near the spindle equator. However, in mammalian cells, chromosome bi-orientation and force balance at kinetochores are not required for chromosome congression, whereas the mechanisms of chromosome congression are not necessarily involved in the maintenance of chromosome alignment after congression...
February 17, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216427/utilization-of-the-bootstrap-method-for-determining-confidence-intervals-of-parameters-for-a-model-of-map1b-protein-transport-in-axons
#17
I A Kuznetsov, A V Kuznetsov
This paper develops a model of axonal transport of MAP1B protein. The problem of determining parameter values for the proposed model utilizing limited available experimental data is addressed. We used a global minimum search algorithm to find parameter values that minimize the discrepancy between model predictions and published experimental results. By analyzing the best fit parameter values it was established that some processes can be dropped from the model without losing accuracy, thus a simplified version of the model was formulated...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215745/astrocyte-transport-of-glutamate-and-neuronal-activity-reciprocally-modulate-tau-pathology-in-drosophila
#18
Jason G Kilian, Heng-Wei Hsu, Kenneth Mata, Fred W Wolf, Masashi Kitazawa
Abnormal buildup of the microtubule associated protein tau is a major pathological hallmark of SAlzheimer's disease (AD)and various tauopathies. The mechanisms by which pathological tau accumulates and spreads throughout the brain remain largely unknown. Previously, we demonstrated that a restoration of the major astrocytic glutamate transporter, GLT1, ameliorated a buildup of tau pathology and rescued cognition in a mouse model of AD. We hypothesized thataberrant extracellular glutamate and abnormal neuronal excitatory activities promoted tau pathology...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215644/from-molecular-insight-to-therapeutic-strategy-the-holistic-approach-for-treating-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Rittwika Bhattacharya, Koyel Banerjee, Nupur Mukherjee, Minakshi Sen, Ashis Mukhopadhyay
Aim of the present study was to analyze the molecular pathogenesis of TNBC, therapeutic practice, challenges, and future goals in treatment strategies. Based on the alterations of distinct pathways, Lehmann's subgroups of TNBCs were further categorized. Those with defective DNA damage repair and replication pathways, viz. Basal Like 1 & 2 (BL1, BL2) were found susceptible to DNA intercalating drugs while those with upregulated cell signalling & motility (mesenchymal (M), mesemchymal stem like (MSL)), cell survival (BL2, M, MSL), angiogenesis (BL2, MSL), T cell signalling (Immunomodulatory/IM) pathways required targeted therapies...
January 19, 2017: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215341/dissection-and-characterization-of-microtubule-bundles-in-the-mitotic-spindle-using-femtosecond-laser-ablation
#20
R Buđa, K Vukušić, I M Tolić
The mitotic spindle is a highly organized and dynamic structure required for segregation of the genetic material into two daughter cells. Although most of the individual players involved in building the spindle have been characterized in vitro, a general understanding of how all of the spindle players act together in vivo is still missing. Hence, in recent years, experiments have focused on introducing mechanical perturbations of the spindle on a micron scale, thereby providing insight into its function and organization, as well as into forces acting in the spindle...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
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