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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050275/alisol-b-23-acetate-induces-autophagic-dependent-apoptosis-in-human-colon-cancer-cells-via-ros-generation-and-jnk-activation
#1
Yueliang Zhao, Edmund T S Li, Mingfu Wang
Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a natural triterpenoid from the rhizome of Alisma orientale, a Chinese medicinal herb, has multiple physiological activities including anticancer. However, its effect on human colon cancer and the underlying mechanism are not clear. Here, we reported for the first time that AB23A induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptotic cell death in colon cancer cells. Autophagy also occurred in AB23A-treated HCT116 cells as evidenced by the accumulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 form II (LC3-II) and degradation of SQSTM1/p62...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050205/catalpol-protects-synaptic-proteins-from-beta-amyloid-induced-neuron-injury-and-improves-cognitive-functions-in-aged-rats
#2
Zhiming Xia, Fengfei Wang, Shuang Zhou, Rui Zhang, Fushun Wang, Jason H Huang, Erxi Wu, Yongfang Zhang, Yaer Hu
Synapse loss is one of the common factors contributing to cognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is manifested by the impairment of basic cognitive functions including memory processing, perception, problem solving, and language. The current therapies for patients with cognitive disorders are mainly palliative; thus, regimens preventing and/or delaying dementia progression are urgently needed. In this study, we evaluated the effects of catalpol, isolated from traditional Chinese medicine Rehmannia glutinosa, on synaptic plasticity in aged rat models...
September 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048371/znt3-gene-deletion-reduces-colchicine-induced-dentate-granule-cell-degeneration
#3
Bo Young Choi, Dae Ki Hong, Sang Won Suh
Our previous study demonstrated that colchicine-induced dentate granule cell death is caused by blocking axonal flow and the accumulation of intracellular zinc. Zinc is concentrated in the synaptic vesicles via zinc transporter 3 (ZnT3), which facilitates zinc transport from the cytosol into the synaptic vesicles. The aim of the present study was to identify the role of ZnT3 gene deletion on colchicine-induced dentate granule cell death. The present study used young (3-5 months) mice of the wild-type (WT) or the ZnT3(-)(/)(-) genotype...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047390/roles-of-bccip-deficiency-in-mammary-tumorigenesis
#4
Roberto Droz-Rosario, Huimei Lu, Jingmei Liu, Ning-Ang Liu, Shridar Ganesan, Bing Xia, Bruce G Haffty, Zhiyuan Shen
BACKGROUND: Dysregulated DNA repair and cell proliferation controls are essential driving forces in mammary tumorigenesis. BCCIP was originally identified as a BRCA2 and CDKN1A interacting protein that has been implicated in maintenance of genomic stability, cell cycle regulation, and microtubule dynamics. The aims of this study were to determine whether BCCIP deficiency contributes to mammary tumorigenesis, especially for a subset of breast cancers with 53BP1 abnormality, and to reveal the mechanistic implications of BCCIP in breast cancer interventions...
October 18, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046869/staphylococcus-aureus-alpha-toxin-induces-the-formation-of-dynamic-tubules-labeled-with-lc3-within-host-cells-in-a-rab7-and-rab1b-dependent-manner
#5
María M López de Armentia, María C Gauron, María I Colombo
Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen that causes severe infectious diseases that eventually lead to septic and toxic shock. S. aureus infection is characterized by the production of virulence factors, including enzymes and toxins. After internalization S. aureus resides in a phagosome labeled with Rab7 protein. Here, we show that S. aureus generates tubular structures marked with the small GTPases Rab1b and Rab7 and by the autophagic protein LC3 at early times post-infection. As shown by live cell imaging these tubular structures are highly dynamic, extend, branch and grow in length...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046627/mecp2-deficiency-in-neuroglia-new-progress-in-the-pathogenesis-of-rett-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Xu-Rui Jin, Xing-Shu Chen, Lan Xiao
Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked neurodevelopmental disease predominantly caused by mutations of the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) gene. Generally, RTT has been attributed to neuron-centric dysfunction. However, increasing evidence has shown that glial abnormalities are also involved in the pathogenesis of RTT. Mice that are MeCP2-null specifically in glial cells showed similar behavioral and/or neuronal abnormalities as those found in MeCP2-null mice, a mouse model of RTT. MeCP2 deficiency in astrocytes impacts the expression of glial intermediate filament proteins such as fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and S100 and induces neuron toxicity by disturbing glutamate metabolism or enhancing microtubule instability...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046398/paxillin-regulates-cell-polarization-and-anterograde-vesicle-trafficking-during-cell-migration
#7
Fatemeh Dubois, Kyle Alpha, Christopher E Turner
Cell polarization and directed migration play pivotal roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we identify new roles for paxillin-mediated HDAC6 inhibition in regulating key aspects of cell polarization in both 2D and 1D matrix environments. Paxillin, by modulating microtubule acetylation through HDAC6 regulation, was shown to control centrosome and Golgi reorientation towards the leading edge, a hallmark of cell polarization to ensure directed trafficking of promigratory factors. Paxillin was also required for pericentrosomal Golgi localization and centrosome cohesion, independent of its localization to, and role in, focal adhesion signaling...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046344/kinetochore-microtubule-interactions-in-chromosome-segregation-lessons-from-yeast-and-mammalian-cells
#8
REVIEW
Geethu Emily Thomas, Marira R Renjith, Tapas K Manna
Chromosome congression and segregation require robust yet dynamic attachment of the kinetochore with the spindle microtubules. Force generated at the kinetochore-microtubule interface plays a vital role to drive the attachment, as it is required to move chromosomes and to provide signal to sense correct attachments. To understand the mechanisms underlying these processes, it is critical to describe how the force is generated and how the molecules at the kinetochore-microtubule interface are organized and assembled to withstand the force and respond to it...
October 18, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046335/molecular-basis-for-inner-kinetochore-configuration-through-rwd-domain-peptide-interactions
#9
Florian Schmitzberger, Magdalena M Richter, Yuliya Gordiyenko, Carol V Robinson, Michał Dadlez, Stefan Westermann
Kinetochores are dynamic cellular structures that connect chromosomes to microtubules. They form from multi-protein assemblies that are evolutionarily conserved between yeasts and humans. One of these assemblies-COMA-consists of subunits Ame1(CENP-U), Ctf19(CENP-P), Mcm21(CENP-O) and Okp1(CENP-Q) A description of COMA molecular organization has so far been missing. We defined the subunit topology of COMA, bound with inner kinetochore proteins Nkp1 and Nkp2, from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, with nanoflow electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, and mapped intermolecular contacts with hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry...
October 18, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046299/high-content-screening-assay-based-discovery-of-paullones-as-novel-podocyte-protective-agents
#10
Ha Won Lee, Ehtesham Arif, Mehmet Mete Altintas, Kevin Quick, Shrey Maheshwari, Alexandra Plezia, Aqsa Mahmood, Jochen Reiser, Deepak Nihalani, Vineet Gupta
Podocyte dysfunction and loss is an early event and a hallmark of proteinuric kidney diseases. Podocyte's normal function is maintained via its unique cellular architecture that relies on an intracellular network of filaments, including filamentous actin (F-actin) and microtubules, that provides mechanical support. Damage to this filamentous network leads to changes in cellular morphology and results in podocyte injury, dysfunction, and death. Conversely, stabilization of this network protects podocytes and ameliorates proteinuria...
October 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045878/homodimeric-kinesin-2-kif3cc-promotes-microtubule-dynamics
#11
Stephanie Guzik-Lendrum, Ivan Rayment, Susan P Gilbert
KIF3C is one subunit of the functional microtubule-based kinesin-2 KIF3AC motor, an anterograde cargo transporter in neurons. However, KIF3C has also been implicated as an injury-specific kinesin that is a key regulator of axonal growth and regeneration by promoting microtubule dynamics for reorganization at the neuronal growth cone. To test its potential role as a modulator of microtubule dynamics in vitro, an engineered homodimeric KIF3CC was incorporated into a dynamic microtubule assay and examined by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044995/mir-200c-regulates-endothelin-1-induced-pasmcs-abnormal-proliferation-and-apoptosis
#12
Chao Yuan, Min Xu, Rong Rong, Yong Mei, Wenyan Cai, Lin Li, Yao Xue, Baoli Zhu, Kai Sun, Lei Han
miR-200c is an antioncogene in multiple tumors. However, its function in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has not been thoroughly investigated nor understood. In this study, we discovered that miR-200c was able to substantially upregulate in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1). miR-200c also induced cell proliferation and suppressed cell apoptosis in PASMCs in vitro. However, miR-200c had no effect on G1/S/G2 transitions during the cell cycle...
October 16, 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044293/down-regulation-of-the-munc18b-syntaxin-11-complex-and-%C3%AE-1-tubulin-impairs-secretion-and-spreading-in-neonatal-platelets
#13
Eva Caparrós-Pérez, Raúl Teruel-Montoya, Verónica Palma-Barquero, José M Torregrosa, José E Blanco, Juan L Delgado, María Luisa Lozano, Vicente Vicente, Martha Sola-Visner, José Rivera, Constantino Martínez, Francisca Ferrer-Marín
Neonatal platelets are hyporeactive and show impaired agonist-induced secretion despite no obvious abnormalities in their granules. Here, we examined, for the first time, the ultrastructure of neonatal and adult platelets following agonist activation. Under resting conditions, neonatal and adult platelets appeared ultrastructurally identical. Following agonist stimulation, however, noticeable degranulation occurred in adult platelets, while granules in neonatal platelets remained clearly visible and apparently unable to centralize or fuse...
October 10, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044157/facilitating-identification-of-minimal-protein-binding-domains-by-cross-linking-mass-spectrometry
#14
Qingyang Liu, Sanne Remmelzwaal, Albert J R Heck, Anna Akhmanova, Fan Liu
Characterization of protein interaction domains is crucial for understanding protein functions. Here we combine cross-linking mass spectrometry (XL-MS) with deletion analysis to accurately locate minimal protein interaction domains. As a proof of concept, we investigated in detail the binding interfaces of two protein assemblies: the complex formed by MICAL3, ELKS and Rab8A, which is involved in exocytosis, and the complex of SLAIN2, CLASP2 and ch-TOG, which controls microtubule dynamics. We found that XL-MS provides valuable information to efficiently guide the design of protein fragments that are essential for protein interaction...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043776/art-advancing-science-filmmaking-leads-to-molecular-insights-at-the-nanoscale
#15
Charles Reilly, Donald E Ingber
Many have recognized the potential value of facilitating activities that span the art-science interface for the benefit of society; however, there are few examples that demonstrate how pursuit of an artistic agenda can lead to scientific insights. Here, we describe how we set out to produce an entertaining short film depicting the fertilization of the egg by sperm as a parody of a preview for another Star Wars movie to excite the public about science, but ended up developing a simulation tool for multiscale modeling...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043445/the-role-of-intermediate-filaments-in-maintaining-integrity-and-function-of-intestinal-epithelial-cells-after-massive-bowel-resection-in-a-rat
#16
I Sukhotnik, Y Ben Shahar, Y Pollak, T Dorfman, H Kreizman Shefer, Z E Assi, N Mor-Vaknin, A G Coran
PURPOSE: Intermediate filaments (IFs) are a part of the cytoskeleton that extend throughout the cytoplasm of all cells and function in the maintenance of cell-shape by bearing tension and serving as structural components of the nuclear lamina. In normal intestine, IFs provide a tissue-specific three-dimensional scaffolding with unique context-dependent organizational features. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of IFs during intestinal adaptation in a rat model of short bowel syndrome (SBS)...
October 17, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042965/overexpression-of-let-7a-increases-neurotoxicity-in-a-pc12-cell-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease-via-regulating-autophagy
#17
Huizi Gu, Lan Li, Chen Cui, Zihui Zhao, Guijun Song
Increased deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) protein is one of the typical characteristics of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent evidence has demonstrated that the microRNA let-7 family, which is highly expressed in the central nervous system, participates in the regulation of pathologic processes of AD. In the present study, the effect of let-7a overexpression on Aβ1-40-induced neurotoxicity was evaluated in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells. The results indicated that overexpression of let-7a enhanced the neurotoxicity induced by Aβ1-40 in PC12 and SK-N-SH cells...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042950/expression-of-ccr3-sox5-and-lc3-in-patients-with-elderly-onset-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-the-clinical-significance
#18
Jing Wang, Qing Zhao
This study investigated the expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 3 (CCR3), transcription factor SOX5 (SOX5) and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) in patients with elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis (EORA) and the clinical significance. Ninety patients with elderly onset rheumatoid arthritis were selected in our hospital from January to December in 2016 to serve as patient group. At the same time, 50 healthy people were selected as control group. Levels of CCR3, SOX5 and LC3 in serum of two groups were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042548/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-transplanted-into-mice-stimulate-renal-tubular-cells-and-enhance-mitochondrial-function
#19
Luca Perico, Marina Morigi, Cinzia Rota, Matteo Breno, Caterina Mele, Marina Noris, Martino Introna, Chiara Capelli, Lorena Longaretti, Daniela Rottoli, Sara Conti, Daniela Corna, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are renoprotective and drive regeneration following injury, although cellular targets of such an effect are still ill-defined. Here, we show that human umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs transplanted into mice stimulate tubular cells to regain mitochondrial mass and function, associated with enhanced microtubule-rich projections that appear to mediate mitochondrial trafficking to create a reparative dialogue among adjacent tubular cells. Treatment with UC-MSCs in mice with cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) regulates mitochondrial biogenesis in proximal tubuli by enhancing PGC1α expression, NAD(+) biosynthesis and Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) activity, thus fostering antioxidant defenses and ATP production...
October 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042452/export-of-membrane-proteins-from-the-golgi-complex-to-the-primary-cilium-requires-the-kinesin-motor-kifc1
#20
Si-Hyung Lee, Kwangsic Joo, Eun Ji Jung, Hyowon Hong, Jimyung Seo, Joon Kim
Microtubule-based motors contribute to the efficiency and selectivity of Golgi exit and post-Golgi transport of membrane proteins that are targeted to distinct compartments. Cytoplasmic dynein moves post-Golgi vesicles that carry rhodopsin toward the base of the connecting cilium in photoreceptor cells; however, the identity of the motors that are involved in the vesicular trafficking of ciliary membrane proteins in nonphotoreceptor cells remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the minus end-directed kinesin KIFC1 (kinesin family member C1) is required for both ciliary membrane protein transport and serum starvation-induced ciliogenesis in retinal pigmented epithelial 1 cells...
October 17, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
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