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inferential statistics

Jesus M Casida, Horng-Shiuann Wu, Martha Abshire, Bidisha Ghosh, James J Yang
BACKGROUND: There is no empirical study about the context and influence of self-management (SM) factors on quality of life (QOL) among adults with left ventricular assist device (LVADs). The purpose of this study was to close this knowledge gap by: (1) differentiating select SM factors (e.g., cognition) and overall QOL based on LVAD implant durations; (2) examining the relationships among SM factors and QOL variables; and (3) identifying which SM factors predict QOL. METHODS: An observational study was employed including 87 LVAD patients, ages 20 to 80 years, with mean implant durations of 18...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Samuel A Olowookere, Emmanuel A Abioye-Kuteyi, O Adekanle
BACKGROUND: Ebola viral disease (EVD) epidemic need to be contained through means which include vaccination of susceptible population. Vaccination has eradicated major killer diseases. OBJECTIVE: The study determined the health workers willingness to participate in EVD vaccine clinical trials and receive EVD vaccine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional study design involving 370 consenting health workers of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife that completed a self administered semi-structured questionnaire...
October 14, 2016: Vaccine
Heloise Buys, Rudzani Muloiwa, Colleen Bamford, Brian Eley
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) is a significant paediatric bloodstream pathogen in children. There is little data from Africa. In this study we describe the epidemiology of multi-drug resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae bloodstream infection (KPBSI) at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of KPBSI from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2011 using conventional descriptive and inferential statistical methods...
October 17, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Srivishnu Vardhan Yallapragada, Nagendra Nath Vemuri, Mastan Saheb Shaik
CONTEXT: The purpose of adding an adjuvant to local anesthetic in a central neuraxial blockade is to augment the desirable pharmacological actions of the agent and/or to minimize its undesirable pharmacological effects. Clonidine is an alfa-2 receptor agonist which has gained popularity in recent times as an adjuvant in spinal anesthesia. AIMS: To evaluate the influence of clonidine on the hemodynamic stability and the duration of anesthesia when added to intrathecal hyperbaric bupivacaine...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
Gregory Francis
Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Edoardo Saccenti, Marieke E Timmerman
Horn's parallel analysis is a widely used method for assessing the number of principal components and common factors. We discuss the theoretical foundations of parallel analysis for principal components based on a covariance matrix by making use of arguments from random matrix theory. In particular, we show that (i) for the first component, parallel analysis is an inferential method equivalent to the Tracy-Widom test, (ii) its use to test high-order eigenvalues is equivalent to the use of the joint distribution of the eigenvalues, and thus should be discouraged, and (iii) a formal test for higher-order components can be obtained based on a Tracy-Widom approximation...
October 13, 2016: Psychometrika
Lilian Gertrude Dodzo, Hilda Tandazani Mahaka, Doreen Mukona, Mathilda Zvinavashe, Clara Haruzivishe
HIV-related conditions are one of the indirect causes of maternal deaths in Zimbabwe and the prevalence rate was estimated to be 13.63% in 2009. The study utilised a descriptive correlational design on 80 pregnant women who were HIV positive at Mbuya Nehanda maternity hospital in Harare, Zimbabwe. Participants comprised a random sample of 80 postnatal mothers. Permission to carry out the study was obtained from the respective review boards. Participants signed an informed consent. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and record review from 1 to 20 March 2012...
October 13, 2016: AIDS Care
Matteo Bersanelli, Ettore Mosca, Daniel Remondini, Gastone Castellani, Luciano Milanesi
A relation exists between network proximity of molecular entities in interaction networks, functional similarity and association with diseases. The identification of network regions associated with biological functions and pathologies is a major goal in systems biology. We describe a network diffusion-based pipeline for the interpretation of different types of omics in the context of molecular interaction networks. We introduce the network smoothing index, a network-based quantity that allows to jointly quantify the amount of omics information in genes and in their network neighbourhood, using network diffusion to define network proximity...
October 12, 2016: Scientific Reports
Manijeh Nourian, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Kian Nourozi Tabrizi, Maryam Rassouli, Akbar Biglarrian
BACKGROUND: Resilience is a quality that affects an individual's ability to cope with tension. The present study was conducted to determine resilience and its contributing factors in high-risk adolescents living in residential care facilities affiliated to Tehran Welfare Organization in order to help develop effective preventive measures for them. METHODS: The present descriptive study was conducted on 223 adolescents living in 15 different governmental residential care centers in 2014...
October 2016: International Journal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery
M Douglas Ris, Maria Grosch, Jack M Fletcher, Paras Metah, Lisa S Kahalley
OBJECTIVE: To review the various ways in which baseline neuropsychological functioning is measured in the extant literature on pediatric brain tumors, describe the pros and cons of each approach, and increase the awareness of researchers as to the implications of each. METHOD: We reviewed the literature from 1993 to 2013, and classified studies by baseline approach and explicitness of selection of approach. RESULTS: There are multiple approaches to operationalizing baseline levels of ability and to assess change from baseline...
October 5, 2016: Clinical Neuropsychologist
Alla El-Awaisi, Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Sundari Joseph, Lesley Diack
The current status of interprofessional education (IPE) in Arabic Middle Eastern countries is largely unexamined and there is a need to assess IPE and collaborative practice in these countries. As faculty attitudes towards IPE are believed to be one of the main factors that affect the successful integration of IPE into the different healthcare curricula, this article aims to explore the attitudes and views of pharmacy academics in Arabic-speaking Middle Eastern countries towards IPE and collaborative practice...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
Mohammad-Abdul Baseer, Shahzeb-Hasan Ansari, Sultan-Saleh AlShamrani, Abdul-Rahman Alakras, Raif Mahrous, Abdul-Majeed Alenazi
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine knowledge, attitude and practice of airborne and droplet isolation precautions among Dental Health Professionals (DHPs) (dental students, interns, practitioners and auxiliaries) during the outbreak of MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome), corona virus infection in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 406 dental health professionals (DHPs) working in selected dental facilities in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia during the outbreak of MERS (April-June 2013)...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Hannele Saunders, Katri Vehviläinen-Julkunen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare nurses' evidence-based practice (EBP) beliefs, EBP knowledge, and nurse workforce outcomes between Magnet®-aspiring, Magnet-conforming, and non-Magnet university hospitals in Finland. BACKGROUND: The effect of Magnet designation on EBP and nursing workforce outcomes is well studied where Magnet hospitals exist. Less is known about it in countries where hospitals are embarking upon the initial Magnet journey. METHODS: A descriptive cross-sectional national survey was conducted at Finnish university hospitals with a convenience sample (n = 943) of practicing nurses...
October 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Badereddin Mohamad Al-Ali, Stephan Madersbacher, Nadine Zielonke, Ingrid Schauer, Thomas Waldhoer, Gerald Haidinger
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of gender on tumor stage, overall and cancer-specific mortality of upper urinary tract urothelial cancer (UTUC) in a population-based, nationwide analysis. METHODS: All Austrian patients with UTUC diagnosed between 1983 and 2010 were included in this study. Overall mortality was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Cancer-specific (UTUC) mortality was estimated by cumulative incidence with mortality due to other causes as a competing risk...
September 26, 2016: Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Jonathan W Bartlett, Ruth H Keogh
Bayesian approaches for handling covariate measurement error are well established and yet arguably are still relatively little used by researchers. For some this is likely due to unfamiliarity or disagreement with the Bayesian inferential paradigm. For others a contributory factor is the inability of standard statistical packages to perform such Bayesian analyses. In this paper, we first give an overview of the Bayesian approach to handling covariate measurement error, and contrast it with regression calibration, arguably the most commonly adopted approach...
September 19, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
Kedir Teji, Yadeta Dessie, Tesfaye Assebe, Meyrema Abdo
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional status during adolescence plays an important role in the human lifecycle that influences growth and development and during this period nutrient needs are the greatest. The objective of this study is to assess anaemia and nutritional status of adolescent girls in the Babile district, Eastern Ethiopia. METHODS: Data were collected from 547 adolescent aged 10-19 years by cross sectional study design. WHO Anthro-plus software was used to analyse Nutritional statuses of adolescents and magnitudes were determined using WHO 2007 references point...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
Narges Neyazi, Prof Mohammad Arab, Freshteh Farzianpour, Mahmood Mahmoudi Majdabadi
Evaluation of higher education is an increasing demand for information on academic quality, which contributes to accountability among authorities and affects universities ranking. In educational institutions, the purpose of education is producing knowledgeable students and improving quality of the university system. Among many evaluation models, the CIPP model or Context, Input, Process, Product model is very beneficial and recommendable method to educational evaluation. This is a descriptive study conducted in four selected faculties of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) (Public health, Nursing and Midwifery, Rehabilitation and Allied Medical Sciences), undergraduate educational departments in 2014...
December 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Maryam Jahantigh Haghighi, Hossein Shahdadi, Mahdieh Poodineh Moghadam, Abbas Balouchi
INTRODUCTION: The Evidence-Based Practices (EBP), have gained considerable ground in treatment and care, increases the quality of nurses' clinical care. Yet EBP is less frequently employed despite its efficiency and importance. Pain management is an important component of nursing care and sufficient pain control has still remained as a challenge despite routine nursing practices that are already provided. AIM: The present study intended to define the impact of evidence-based nursing practices on postoperative pain in patients undergoing gastrointestinal surgery...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Shadi Kafi Mallak, Mohd Bakri Ishak, Ahmad Fariz Mohamed
Malaysia is facing an increasing trend in industrial solid waste generation due to industrial development.Thus there is a paramount need in taking a serious action to move toward sustainable industrial waste management. The main aim of this study is to assess practicing solid waste minimization by manufacturing firms in Shah Alam industrial state, Malaysia. This paper presents a series of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis regarding the level and effects of practicing waste minimization methods, and seriousness of barriers preventing industries from practicing waste minimization methods...
September 13, 2016: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Hailay Abrha Gesesew, Kifle Woldemichael, Desalegn Massa, Lillian Mwanri
BACKGROUND: In Ethiopia, pesticides are widely used for a variety of purposes. The occurrence of contamination and poisoning for farmers is highly reported due to unsafe handling practices and their usage. We assessed knowledge, attitudes and experiences of previous pesticide exposure, and related health problems among farmers who use irrigation in Jimma Zone, Southwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A community based cross-sectional study was conducted among farmers living in the zone...
2016: PloS One
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