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inferential statistics

Margaret Frere, John Tepper, Markus Fischer, Kieran Kennedy, Thomas Kropmans
Background: Medical errors are among the most prevalent and serious adverse events in health care. Lack of situation awareness (SA) is an important factor leading to such errors. SA can be understood using Endsley's three-tier model: level 1 is perception, level 2 is comprehension, and level 3 is projection. While there is extensive literature on the theory of SA, it is difficult to measure and quantify. The purpose of this pilot study was to measure, identify, and characterize SA in some medical objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) guides, including a 1st year National University of Ireland, Galway (NUIG) OSCE...
September 2017: Education for Health: Change in Training & Practice
Larry Fennigkoh, D Courtney Nanney
Although the healthcare technology management (HTM) community has decades of accumulated medical device-related maintenance data, little knowledge has been gleaned from these data. Finding and extracting such knowledge requires the use of the well-established, but admittedly somewhat foreign to HTM, application of inferential statistics. This article sought to provide a basic background on inferential statistics and describe a case study of their application, limitations, and proper interpretation. The research question associated with this case study involved examining the effects of ventilator preventive maintenance (PM) labor hours, age, and manufacturer on needed unscheduled corrective maintenance (CM) labor hours...
January 2018: Biomedical Instrumentation & Technology
Adewale J Ogunleye, Gabriel O Eniafe, Olumide K Inyang, Benjamin Adewumi, Olaposi I Omotuyi
Backgound: Inhibition of penicillin binding protein 2A (PBP2A) represents a sound drug design strategy in combatting Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Considering the urgent need for effective antimicrobials in combatting MRSA infections, we have developed a statistically robust ensemble of molecular descriptors (1, 2, & 3-D) from compounds targeting PBP2A in vivo. METHODS: 37 (training set: 26, test set: 11) PBP2A-inhibitors were submitted for descriptor generation after which an unsupervised, non-exhaustive genetic algorithm (GA) was deployed for fishing out the best descriptor subset...
May 15, 2018: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Ali Kavosi, Mina Taghiabadi, Gholamreza Mohammadi, Khadijeh Yazdi, Sara Shirdelzadeh, Hossein Nasiri, Ghanbar Roohi, Alireza Shariati, Hossein Rahmani, Einollah Mollaei, Mohammadreza Aryaeefar
Background and aim: Spiritual care is an important part of nursing practice that seems to provide comprehensive care to patients. Nursing manager's attention to the spiritual dimension is one of the most important aspects affecting human health. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine nursing managers' attitude to spirituality and spiritual care in hospitals in Khorasan Razavi Province in 2016. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 110 management nurses (8 matrons, 37 supervisors and 65 head nurses) of hospitals in Khorasan Razavi Province (2016) were recruited for the study...
March 2018: Electronic Physician
J Toohill, J Fenwick, M Sidebotham, J Gamble, D K Creedy
BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the extent of trauma and birth-related fear in midwives and how this might affect practice. AIM: (1) Determine prevalence of birth related trauma and fear in midwives and associations with midwives' confidence to advise women during pregnancy of their birth options and to provide care in labour. (2) Describe midwives' experiences of birth related trauma and/or fear. METHOD: A mixed methods design...
May 11, 2018: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
Nikoo Yamani, Tahereh Changiz, Awat Feizi, Farahnaz Kamali
Aim: To assess the trend of changes in the evaluation scores of faculty members and discrepancy between administrators' and students' perspectives in a medical school from 2006 to 2015. Materials and methods: This repeated cross-sectional study was conducted on the 10-year evaluation scores of all faculty members of a medical school (n=579) in an urban area of Iran. Data on evaluation scores given by students and administrators and the total of these scores were evaluated...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
Anna Abelsson, Lars Lundberg
Well-educated ambulance staff is a prerequisite for high-quality prehospital trauma care. The aim of this study was to examine how nurses in the ambulance service experienced participation in trauma simulation. Sixty-one nurses, working in an emergency ambulance service, performed simulated trauma care on four different occasions and afterward rated three statements on a 5-point Likert scale. A descriptive and inferential analysis was conducted. There are statistically significant increases between the pre- and posttests regarding all three statements: "I think simulation of severe trauma with manikins is realistic" (0...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
Antonia Krefeld-Schwalb, Erich H Witte, Frank Zenker
In psychology as elsewhere, the main statistical inference strategy to establish empirical effects is null-hypothesis significance testing (NHST). The recent failure to replicate allegedly well-established NHST-results, however, implies that such results lack sufficient statistical power, and thus feature unacceptably high error-rates. Using data-simulation to estimate the error-rates of NHST-results, we advocate the research program strategy (RPS) as a superior methodology. RPS integrates Frequentist with Bayesian inference elements, and leads from a preliminary discovery against a (random) H 0 -hypothesis to a statistical H 1 -verification...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Marina R Filip, Feliciano Giustino
Perovskite minerals form an essential component of the Earth's mantle, and synthetic crystals are ubiquitous in electronics, photonics, and energy technology. The extraordinary chemical diversity of these crystals raises the question of how many and which perovskites are yet to be discovered. Here we show that the "no-rattling" principle postulated by Goldschmidt in 1926, describing the geometric conditions under which a perovskite can form, is much more effective than previously thought and allows us to predict perovskites with a fidelity of 80%...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bashir Kaka, Sonill Sooknunan Maharaj
BACKGROUND: The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic lifestyle disease, and its complications are on the rise. Exercise has been documented as being effective in the management of musculoskeletal pain, depression, and reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the types of exercise that reduce musculoskeletal pain and depression and improve quality of life as well as respiratory function among individuals with type 2 diabetes...
May 7, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Christian Salerno, Paola Marciani, Aniello Esposito, Lucio Antonio Palin
INTRODUCTION: Aim this study is to assess anomalous mortality rates from 2002 to 2012, in the municipalities of Ghemme and Cavaglio d'Agogna where a landfill has been active. Before the opening of the landfill (1988), studies highlighted the presence of noxious substances, in the ground layers, and not in the groundwater. Goal of our research is to monitor the health levels of the population in an area, with attention to long/midterm effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the analysis on data of the National Institute of Statistics death records, and produced indirect standardized rates (SMR) using the rates of Local Healthcare Agencies (ASL) of Novara and Vercelli as reference population...
January 2018: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
Nora M Bello, David G Renter
Reproducible results define the very core of scientific integrity in modern research. Yet, legitimate concerns have been raised about the reproducibility of research findings, with important implications for the advancement of science and for public support. With statistical practice increasingly becoming an essential component of research efforts across the sciences, this review article highlights the compelling role of statistics in ensuring that research findings in the animal sciences are reproducible-in other words, able to withstand close interrogation and independent validation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Pauline M Rose
PURPOSE: A large number of patients attend for radiotherapy daily. Primary nurses in the study settings aim to individualize care for their patients. The individual characteristics of patients may determine their perceptions of nursing care, and provide guidance in tailoring their care. This study aimed to assess patients' personal characteristics on their perceptions of individualized care (IC) provided by nurses during a course of radiotherapy, and to determine predictor variables that may inform nursing practice...
May 4, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Gilly A Hendrie, Megan A Rebuli, Rebecca K Golley, Manny Noakes
BACKGROUND: Methods to address misreporting associated with short dietary assessment instruments are needed. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop and evaluate the direct and indirect validity of adjustment factors applied to a short dietary assessment instrument to improve estimates of usual consumption of core and discretionary food and beverage intake. DESIGN: Validation of the Short Food Survey relative to 24-hour recalls was performed...
May 1, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Tommy Tsang Cheung, Joanne Wing Yan Chiu, Man Fung Yuen, Karen Siu Ling Lam, Bernard Man Yung Cheung, Hwa-Ping Feng, Wendy W Yeh, Jiangdian Wang, Wenting Li, Xu Min Zhao, Zaiqi Wang, Shengmei Mu
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetic (PK) variables of elbasvir and grazoprevir in healthy Chinese individuals. METHODS: This study was a 2-part, parallel-arm, open-label trial. In part 1, single-dose PK variables of elbasvir 10/50/100 mg and grazoprevir 50/100/200 mg were evaluated in 10 participants per drug. In part 2, 10-day multiple-dose PK variables of elbasvir 50 mg and grazoprevir 100 mg administered once daily alone and in combination were evaluated in 12 participants...
May 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Phillip Aouad, Phillipa Hay, Nerissa Soh, Stephen Touyz
BACKGROUND: Until recently, research into Chew and Spit (CHSP) behavior has predominantly focused on clinical samples, and little is known of its prevalence in the community. The current study aimed to bridge this gap by exploring CHSP features in a representative sample of the general population. We hypothesized that the point-prevalence of CHSP would be less than 1%; concurrent with other eating disorder symptomology, and associated with poorer health related quality of life (HRQoL)...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Mary Wanjira Kamau, Waithira Mirie, Samuel Kimani
BACKGROUND: Macro and micronutrients including iron and folic acid deficiencies are prevalent in Kenya, particularly during pregnancy resulting in anaemia. Despite efforts to control anaemia in pregnancy by adopting Iron and Folic Acid Supplementation (IFAS), this public health problem has persisted contributing to significant morbidity and mortality. The problem notwithstanding, there is poor IFAS compliance, whose reasons remain poorly understood, calling for their investigations. We sought to determine compliance status with IFAS and associated factors among pregnant women...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani, Bahram Samadirad, Nasrin Shahedifar, Mina Golestani
Objective: To study the epidemiology of car user road traffic fatalities (CURTFs) during eight years, in East Azerbaijan, Iran. Methods: A total of 3051 CURTFs registered in East Azerbaijan forensic medicine organization database, Iran, during 2006-2014, were analyzed using Stata 13 statistical software package. Descriptive statistics ( p <0.05) and inferential statistical methods such as Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression with p <0.1 were applied...
April 2018: Bulletin of Emergency and Trauma
Mousa Yaminfirooz, Farzaneh Raeesi Ardali
Introduction: Nowadays, publishing highly-cited papers is important for researchers and editors. In this evidence-based study, the factors influencing the citability of published papers in the field of medicine have been identified. Material and Methods: 200 papers indexed in Scopus (in two groups: highly-cited and lowly-cited) with 100 papers in each were studied. Needed data were manually collected with a researcher-made checklist. Data analysis was done in SPSS using descriptive and inferential statistics...
2018: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Brant J Oliver, Mimi Pomerleau, Mertie Potter, Andrew Phillips, Susan Carpenter, Steve Ciesielski, Eleanor Pusey-Reid, Alexia Marcous, Pat Grobecker
BACKGROUND: Improvement methods were applied to optimize NCLEX-RN first-attempt pass rates in an Accelerated Bachelor of Science in Nursing (ABSN) program. METHOD: An improvement team was formed comprising nursing faculty, a student, faculty leading a course in the ABSN program involved in preparing students for NCLEX-RN, and a faculty expert in improvement science. Two Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles aimed at increasing practice and mastery were conducted. Effects were assessed using inferential statistics and statistical process control analyses...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nursing Education
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