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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070704/sleep-disturbances-in-patients-of-liver-cirrhosis-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-before-and-after-lactulose-therapy
#1
Jatinderpal Singh, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Vinod Puri, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Siddharth Srivastava
Sleep disturbances are common in patients of cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL). No study has evaluated effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and correlation with HRQOL in patients with MHE. We assessed sleep disturbances in cirrhosis with MHE and effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and HRQOL. One hundred patients of cirrhosis [MHE; (n = 50, age 45.3 ± 11.2 years, 45 males) no-MHE (n = 50, age 46.3 ± 10.4 years, 44 males)] were included...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#2
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051800/%C3%A2-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis-how-long-to-treat
#3
Omesh Goyal, Sandeep S Sidhu, Harsh Kishore
INTRODUCTION: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can reverse after short-term treatment. However, relapse rate of MHE after stopping treatment has not been studied so far. We aimed to evaluate long-term (9 months) efficacy of a short-term (3 months) treatment of MHE with lactulose/rifaximin, for maintenance of remission from MHE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and MHE were treated with lactulose/rifaximin for 3 months...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#4
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045137/the-effects-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-small-intestinal-barrier-function-and-mucosal-gene-transcription-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Zlatan Mujagic, Paul de Vos, Mark V Boekschoten, Coen Govers, Harm-Jan H M Pieters, Nicole J W de Wit, Peter A Bron, Ad A M Masclee, Freddy J Troost
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains on in-vivo small intestinal barrier function and gut mucosal gene transcription in human subjects. The strains were selected for their differential effects on TLR signalling and tight junction protein rearrangement, which may lead to beneficial effects in a stressed human gut mucosa. Ten healthy volunteers participated in four different intervention periods: 7-day oral intake of either L. plantarum WCFS1, CIP104448, TIFN101 or placebo, proceeded by a 4 weeks wash-out period...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041739/short-communication-promotion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-secretion-in-dairy-calves-with-a-bioactive-extract-from-olea-europaea
#6
S Y Morrison, J J Pastor, J C Quintela, J J Holst, B Hartmann, J K Drackley, I R Ipharraguerre
Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation during the neonatal phase is the nutrient-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and associated effects on mucosal cell proliferation, barrier function, and inflammatory response. Bioactive molecules found in Olea europaea have been shown to induce the release of regulatory peptides from model enteroendocrine cells...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035551/agy-a-novel-egg-yolk-derived-anti-gliadin-antibody-is-safe-for-patients-with-celiac-disease
#7
Dory A Sample, Hoon H Sunwoo, Hien Q Huynh, Heather L Rylance, Cheri L Robert, Bi-Wen Xu, Sung H Kang, Naiyana Gujral, Levinus A Dieleman
BACKGROUND: Celiac disease (CD) is a gluten-triggered autoimmune disorder of the small intestine. A lifelong gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only approved treatment; however, strict adherence is difficult and many suffer from inadvertent gluten exposure. Oral egg yolk anti-gliadin antibody (AGY) is a novel treatment to neutralize gluten and may improve the efficacy of the GFD. AIMS: To determine the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of AGY in patients with CD...
December 29, 2016: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019688/cell-culture-media-supplementation-of-infrequently-used-sugars-for-the-targeted-shifting-of-protein-glycosylation-profiles
#8
Patrick Hossler, Christopher Racicot, Christopher Chumsae, Sean McDermott, Keith Cochran
Mammalian cells in culture rely on sources of carbohydrates to supply the energy requirements for proliferation. In addition, carbohydrates provide a large source of the carbon supply for supporting various other metabolic activities, including the intermediates involved in the protein glycosylation pathway. Glucose and galactose, in particular, are commonly used sugars in culture media for these purposes. However, there exists a very large repertoire of other sugars in nature, and many that have been chemically synthesized...
December 26, 2016: Biotechnology Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27987136/management-of-chronic-constipation-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus
#9
REVIEW
V G M Prasad, Philip Abraham
AIM: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the clinical assessment and evidence-based treatment options for managing diabetes-associated chronic constipation. METHODS: A literature search of published medical reports in English language was performed using the OVID Portal, from PUBMED and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from inception to October 2015. A total of 145 abstracts were identified; duplicate publications were removed and 95 relevant full-text articles were retrieved for potential inclusion...
December 17, 2016: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938775/a-woman-in-her-60s-with-fever-and-altered-mental-status-in-a-psychiatric-hospital
#10
Benjamin C Kalivas, Andrew J Goodwin
A woman in her 60s with a history of hepatitis C with cirrhosis and major depressive disorder with psychotic features was admitted to the inpatient psychiatric unit for suicidal ideation. She was initially treated with a combination of sertraline and paliperidone. The paliperidone was subsequently changed to risperidone and ultimately to olanzapine. She developed worsening mental status and was then treated for catatonia with benzodiazepines. Over 2 days, her mental status continued to worsen and she developed fever and tachycardia...
December 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936169/effects-of-supplementation-of-the-synbiotic-ecologic%C3%A2-825-fos-p6-on-intestinal-barrier-function-in-healthy-humans-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
E Wilms, J Gerritsen, H Smidt, I Besseling-van der Vaart, G T Rijkers, A R Garcia Fuentes, A A M Masclee, F J Troost
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics have been suggested as dietary strategies to improve intestinal barrier function. This study aimed to assess the effect of two weeks synbiotic supplementation on intestinal permeability under basal and stressed conditions. Secondary aims were the assessment of two weeks synbiotic supplementation on systemic immune function and gastrointestinal symptoms including defecation pattern. DESIGN: Twenty healthy adults completed a double-blind, controlled, randomized, parallel design study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931127/prebiotics-and-synbiotics-in-ulcerative-colitis
#12
Axel Laurell, Klas Sjöberg
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. AIM: To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre"...
December 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#13
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906964/undernutrition-vitamin-a-and-iron-deficiency-are-associated-with-impaired-intestinal-mucosal-permeability-in-young-bangladeshi-children-assessed-by-lactulose-mannitol-test
#14
Md Iqbal Hossain, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Am Shamsir Ahmed, M Munirul Islam, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lactulose/mannitol (L:M) test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy). We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children. METHODS: The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) following standard procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885712/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-lactulose-plus-albumin-versus-lactulose-alone-for-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#15
Barjesh Chander Sharma, Jatinderpal Singh, Siddharth Srivastava, Alok Sangam, Alok Kumar Mantri, Nirupma Trehanpati, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor prognosis and treatment of HE is primarily directed at the reduction of the blood ammonia levels. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of albumin plus lactulose versus lactulose alone for treatment of overt HE. METHODS: In prospective randomized controlled trial, 120 patients with overt HE were randomized in 2 groups; group A lactulose plus albumin (n = 60) and group B, lactulose alone (n = 60)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881199/intestinal-permeability-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-measured-by-lactulose-rhamnose-and-mannitol-sugars-in-chickens
#16
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878780/a-pilot-study-using-lactulose-in-management-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction
#17
Hanaa Mostafa El-Karaksy, Omneya Afifi, Azza Bakry, Ann Abdel Kader, Noha Saber
BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is not associated with overt neuropsychiatric symptoms but rather with subtle changes in psychometric and/or neurophysiologic tests. We aimed to diagnose MHE in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) and to evaluate the effect of lactulose on MHE. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 30 patients with EHPVO (21 males; mean age 10±2.5 years). The study was carried out in the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, between 2011 and 2013...
February 2017: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873314/characterisation-of-a-novel-cellobiose-2-epimerase-from-thermophilic-caldicellulosiruptor-obsidiansis-for-lactulose-production
#18
Qiuming Chen, Roman Levin, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
BACKGROUND: Lactulose, a bioactive lactose derivative, has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Isomerisation of lactose to lactulose by cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) has recently attracted increasing attention, since CE produces lactulose with high yield from lactose as a single substrate. In this study, a new lactulose-producing CE from Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis was extensively characterised. RESULTS: The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871178/use-of-polyethylene-glycol-in-functional-constipation-and-fecal-impaction
#19
Miguel Mínguez, Antonio López Higueras, Javier Júdez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. METHODOLOGY: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#20
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
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