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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931127/prebiotics-and-synbiotics-in-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Axel Laurell, Klas Sjöberg
BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. AIM: To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre"...
December 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909555/effect-of-dual-type-oligosaccharides-on-constipation-in-loperamide-treated-rats
#2
Sung Hee Han, Ki Bae Hong, Eun Young Kim, So Hyun Ahn, Hyung Joo Suh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Constipation is a condition that can result from intestinal deformation. Because humans have an upright posture, the effects of gravity can cause this shape deformation. Oligosaccharides are common prebiotics and their effects on bowel health are well known. However, studies of the physiological functionality of a product that contains both lactulose and galactooligosaccharides are insufficient. We investigated the constipation reduction effect of a dual-type oligosaccharide, Dual-Oligo, in loperamide-treated rats...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906964/undernutrition-vitamin-a-and-iron-deficiency-are-associated-with-impaired-intestinal-mucosal-permeability-in-young-bangladeshi-children-assessed-by-lactulose-mannitol-test
#3
Md Iqbal Hossain, Rashidul Haque, Dinesh Mondal, Mustafa Mahfuz, Am Shamsir Ahmed, M Munirul Islam, Richard L Guerrant, William A Petri, Tahmeed Ahmed
BACKGROUND: Lactulose/mannitol (L:M) test has been used as a non-invasive marker of intestinal mucosal -integrity and -permeability (enteropathy). We investigated the association of enteropathy with anthropometrics, micronutrient- status, and morbidity in children. METHODS: The urine and blood samples were collected from 925 children aged 6-24 months residing in Mirpur slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh during November 2009 to April 2013. L:M test and micronutrient status were assessed in the laboratory of International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research, Bangladesh (icddr,b) following standard procedure...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885712/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-lactulose-plus-albumin-versus-lactulose-alone-for-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Barjesh Chander Sharma, Jatinderpal Singh, Siddharth Srivastava, Alok Sangam, Alok Kumar Mantri, Nirupma Trehanpati, Shiv Kumar Sarin
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is associated with poor prognosis and treatment of HE is primarily directed at the reduction of the blood ammonia levels. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of albumin plus lactulose versus lactulose alone for treatment of overt HE. METHODS: In prospective randomized controlled trial, 120 patients with overt HE were randomized in 2 groups; group A lactulose plus albumin (n = 60) and group B, lactulose alone (n = 60)...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881199/intestinal-permeability-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-and-measured-by-lactulose-rhamnose-and-mannitol-sugars-in-chickens
#5
S Gilani, G S Howarth, S M Kitessa, C D Tran, R E A Forder, R J Hughes
Increased intestinal permeability (IP) can lead to compromised health. Limited in vivo IP research has been conducted in chickens. The objectives of the current study were to develop a model of increased IP utilizing lipopolysaccharide (LPS Escherichia coli O55:B5) and to evaluate IP changes using the lactulose, mannitol and rhamnose (LMR) sugar permeability test. In addition, fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran (FITC-d), d-lactate, zonula occludens (ZO-1) and diamine oxidase (DAO) permeability tests were employed...
November 24, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878780/a-pilot-study-using-lactulose-in-management-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-children-with-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction
#6
Hanaa Mostafa El-Karaksy, Omneya Afifi, Azza Bakry, Ann Abdel Kader, Noha Saber
BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is not associated with overt neuropsychiatric symptoms but rather with subtle changes in psychometric and/or neurophysiologic tests. We aimed to diagnose MHE in children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) and to evaluate the effect of lactulose on MHE. METHODS: A prospective study was carried out on 30 patients with EHPVO (21 males; mean age 10±2.5 years). The study was carried out in the Pediatric Hepatology Unit, Cairo University Pediatric Hospital, Cairo, Egypt, between 2011 and 2013...
November 23, 2016: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873314/characterization-of-a-novel-cellobiose-2-epimerase-from-thermophilic-caldicellulosiruptor-obsidiansis-for-lactulose-production
#7
Qiuming Chen, Roman Levin, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Bo Jiang, Timo Stressler, Lutz Fischer, Wanmeng Mu
BACKGROUND: Lactulose, a bioactive lactose derivative, has been widely used in food and pharmaceutical industries. Isomerization of lactose to lactulose by cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) has recently attracted increasing attention, since CE produces lactulose with high yield from lactose as a single substrate. In this study, a new lactulose-producing CE from Caldicellulosiruptor obsidiansis was extensively characterized. RESULTS: The recombinant enzyme exhibited maximal activity at pH 7...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871178/use-of-polyethylene-glycol-in-functional-constipation-and-fecal-impaction
#8
Miguel Mínguez, Antonio López Higueras, Javier Júdez
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate in an analytical and descriptive manner the evidence published so far on the use of polyethylene glycol (PEG), with or without electrolytes, in the management of functional constipation and the treatment of fecal impaction. METHODOLOGY: Search on MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane databases until May 2016 of all publications adjusted to the following terms: constipation AND/OR fecal impaction AND (PEG OR polyethylene glycol OR macrogol OR movicol OR idralax OR miralax OR transipeg OR forlax OR golytely OR isocolan OR mulytely) NOT colonoscopy...
December 2016: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#9
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855902/some-instrumental-methods-applied-in-food-chemistry-to-characterise-lactulose-and-lactobionic-acid
#10
Radla Zabian Bassetto Bisinella, Jéssica Caroline Bigaski Ribeiro, Cristina Soltovski de Oliveira, Tiago André Denck Colman, Egon Schnitzler, Maria Lúcia Masson
Lactose is obtained as a by-product from whey. It is a source of several derivatives, including lactulose and lactobionic acid. These two compounds were analysed by using the following techniques: thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG), differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscope (DSC-thermomicroscopy), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). The DSC technique coupled with microscopy made it possible to observe that the lactobionic acid showed several thermal events upon decomposition, which occurred at temperatures higher than 50°C...
April 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832696/hyperammonemic-induced-coma-by-bacterial-overgrowth-in-a-child-with-hirschsprung-s-disease
#11
Fatemeh Farahmand, Ahmad Khodadad, Gholamhosein Fallahi, Davood Motaharizad, Javad Sabery Nejad
Cases with Hirschsprung's disease show the functional intestinal obstruction. Obstruction in these patients may lead to bacterial overgrowth with stasis and inflammation of the colon. Bacterial overgrowth can cause hyperammonemia that makes lethargy and loss of conscious and finally admitting in ICU. The purpose of this case report is to present a case that had Hirschsprung's disease and referred to Children's Medical Center with serum hyper-ammonium caused by bacterial overgrowth that induced coma and altered level of consciousness then made her to admit to PICU...
September 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808433/adaptation-of-exercise-induced-stress-in-well-trained-healthy-young-men
#12
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Jaap Keijer, Marco Mensink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Lars Ridder, Stefan Nierkens, Shirley W Kartaram, Martie C M Verschuren, Raymond H H Pieters, Richard Bas, Renger F Witkamp, Harry J Wichers, Klaske van Norren
Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven well-trained males (27 ± 4 years old) completed an exercise protocol that consisted of intensive cycling intervals, followed by an overnight fast and an additional 90 min cycling phase at 50% Wmax the next morning...
November 3, 2016: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807040/a-combined-intervention-of-zinc-multiple-micronutrients-and-albendazole-does-not-ameliorate-environmental-enteric-dysfunction-or-stunting-in-rural-malawian-children-in-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Alfred Z Wang, Robert J Shulman, Audrey H Crocker, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Sridevi Devaraj, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
BACKGROUND: Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. OBJECTIVE: We tested whether a bundle of safe and affordable interventions would decrease EED and stunting over 12-24 wk in a cohort of rural Malawian children 12-35 mo old...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798350/the-effect-of-endurance-exercise-on-intestinal-integrity-in-well-trained-healthy-men
#14
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Marco Mensink, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ewa Fiedorowicz, Dorien A M van Dartel, Jurriaan J Mes, Yvette C Luiking, Jaap Keijer, Harry J Wichers, Renger F Witkamp, Klaske van Norren
Exercise is one of the external factors associated with impairment of intestinal integrity, possibly leading to increased permeability and altered absorption. Here, we aimed to examine to what extent endurance exercise in the glycogen-depleted state can affect intestinal permeability toward small molecules and protein-derived peptides in relation to markers of intestinal function. Eleven well-trained male volunteers (27 ± 4 years) ingested 40 g of casein protein and a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R) solution after an overnight fast in resting conditions (control) and after completing a dual - glycogen depletion and endurance - exercise protocol (first protocol execution)...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779674/systemic-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-an-investigative-study-on-the-role-of-enterocyte-disintegrity-endotoxemia-and-inflammation
#15
Ragnhild Undseth, Arnold Berstad, Jørgen Valeur
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is often accompanied by extra‑intestinal symptoms, including fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. The present study aimed to investigate whether these symptoms were associated with markers of enterocyte disintegrity, endotoxemia and inflammation. Patients with IBS were recruited consecutively from our outpatient clinic (n=94) and compared with a group of healthy controls (n=20). Habitual symptoms were assessed using the IBS Severity Scoring System, the Fatigue Impact Scale and Visual Analogue Scales for measuring musculoskeletal pain...
October 21, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759759/human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-institutionalized-elderly-people
#16
Milton Luiz Gorzoni, Sueli Luciano Pires, Lilian de Fátima Costa Faria, Márcia Regina Valadares Aguado, Miriam Carmen Santana
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: A search in the SciELO and PubMed databases showed few studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive individuals in long-term care institutions (LTCIs), thus prompting the present study. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether there were any HIV-positive individuals in LTCIs for the elderly. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in which the Hospital Infection Control Committee (HICC) of a 405-bed LTCI was consulted. METHODS: The medical records of 405 individuals interned in the LTCI who had been tested for HIV infection were requested for analysis of the following variables: [1] age and gender; [2] length of stay at LTCI (months); [3] causes and diagnoses on admission to LTCI according to International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition; [4] date of HIV diagnosis; [5] seropositivity for syphilis and hepatitis B and C viruses; [6] medications used at last prescription in medical file; and [7] mean CD4 lymphocyte count based on: total lymphocyte count/6 and total lymphocyte count x 0...
October 13, 2016: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750262/the-obestatin-ghrelin-ratio-and-ghrelin-genetics-in-adult-celiac-patients-before-and-after-a-gluten-free-diet-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-patients-and-healthy-individuals
#17
Francesco Russo, Guglielmina Chimienti, Michele Linsalata, Caterina Clemente, Antonella Orlando, Giuseppe Riezzo
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin levels and obestatin/ghrelin ratio have been proposed as activity markers in ulcerative colitis, but no data are available in celiac disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Our aims were as follows: (a) to assess obestatin and ghrelin concentrations in adult active CD patients, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-d), and healthy controls (HC) in relation to intestinal permeability; (b) to evaluate the ghrelin-obestatin profile in CD patients after a 1-year gluten-free diet (GFD); and (c) to establish the impact of ghrelin genetics...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738600/correlation-between-colon-transit-time-test-value-and-initial-maintenance-dose-of-laxative-in-children-with-chronic-functional-constipation
#18
Mock Ryeon Kim, Hye Won Park, Jae Sung Son, Ran Lee, Sun Hwan Bae
PURPOSE: To evaluate the correlation between colon transit time (CTT) test value and initial maintenance dose of polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 or lactulose. METHODS: Of 415 children with chronic functional constipation, 190 were enrolled based on exclusion criteria using the CTT test, defecation diary, and clinical chart. The CTT test was performed with prior disimpaction. The laxative dose for maintenance was determined on the basis of the defecation diary and clinical chart...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738596/middle-east-consensus-statement-on-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-12-months-old-infants
#19
Yvan Vandenplas, Muath Abdurrahman Alturaiki, Wafaa Al-Qabandi, Fawaz AlRefaee, Ziad Bassil, Bassam Eid, Ahmed El Beleidy, Ali Ibrahim Almehaidib, Pierre Mouawad, Maroun Sokhn
This paper covers algorithms for the management of regurgitation, constipation and infantile colic in infants. Anti-regurgitation formula may be considered in infants with troublesome regurgitation, while diagnostic investigations or drug therapy are not indicated in the absence of warning signs. Although probiotics have shown some positive evidence for the management of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), the evidence is not strong enough to make a recommendation. A partially hydrolyzed infant formula with prebiotics and β-palmitate may be considered as a dietary intervention for functional constipation in formula fed infants...
September 2016: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738497/analytical-assessment-of-the-intense-heat-load-of-whipping-cream-coffee-cream-and-condensed-milk-at-retail-in-austria-and-germany
#20
Lisa I Boitz, Helmut K Mayer
Time temperature integrators (TTIs) are useful tools in estimating the heat load applied on differently processed dairy products. The objective of this study was to analyze and assess three TTIs - lactulose, furosine, and acid-soluble β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) - in 70 high heated dairy products at retail in Austria and Germany comprising whipping cream, coffee cream/milk, and condensed milk products. While β-Lg was not appropriate to evaluate the heat load of these products, furosine and especially lactulose increased with rising intensity of heat treatment, and are appropriate to distinguish between several heating categories analyzed...
2016: Dairy Science & Technology
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