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Paolo Usai-Satta, Cristiana Giannetti, Francesco Oppia, Francesco Cabras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
Steven L Flamm
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication commonly associated with liver disease, namely cirrhosis. The inability of the liver to metabolize ammonia results in a buildup of ammonia, which can cross the blood-brain barrier and cause significant neurocognitive impairment. Up to 80% of patients with cirrhosis will experience HE and a large proportion of these patients are at high risk of recurrent HE. There are several factors to consider when developing a cost-effective approach to managing HE, such as patient compliance, the adverse event (AE) profile of drug therapy, efficacy of drug therapy, and relative cost-benefits of drug therapy...
March 2018: American Journal of Managed Care
Jie Chen, Kelun Li, X Chris Le, Lizhong Zhu
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are toxic chemicals widely distributed in the environment, but few studies are available on their potential toxicity to rice at metabolic level. Therefore we exposed ten rice (Oryza sativa) varieties to 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a predominant congener of PBDEs, in hydroponic solutions with different concentrations. Two varieties that showed different biological effects to BDE-47, YY-9 and LJ-7, were screened as sensitive and tolerant varieties according to changes of morphological and physiological indicators...
February 27, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Rebecca K Campbell, Kerry J Schulze, Saijuddin Shaikh, Rubhana Raqib, Lee S F Wu, Hasmot Ali, Sucheta Mehra, Keith P West, Parul Christian
Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and systemic inflammation (SI) are common in developing countries and may cause stunting. In Bangladesh, >40 % of preschool children are stunted, but EED and SI contributions are unknown. We aimed to determine the impact of EED and SI (assessed with multiple indicators) on growth in children (n 539) enrolled in a community-based randomised food supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. EED was defined with faecal myeloperoxidase, α-1 antitrypsin and neopterin and serum endotoxin core antibody and glucagon-like peptide-2, consolidated into gut inflammation (GI) and permeability (GP) scores, and urinary lactulose:mannitol α-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) characterised SI...
February 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Andrea Mancini, Francesca Campagna, Piero Amodio, Kieran M Tuohy
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a debilitating neuropsychiatric condition often associated with acute liver failure or cirrhosis. Advanced liver diseases are characterized by a leaky gut and systemic inflammation. There is strong evidence that the pathogenesis of HE is linked to a dysbiotic gut microbiota and to harmful microbial by-products, such as ammonia, indoles, oxindoles and endotoxins. Increased concentrations of these toxic metabolites together with the inability of the diseased liver to clear such products is thought to play an important patho-ethiological role...
February 27, 2018: Food & Function
Lazaros I Sakkas, Theodora Simopoulou, Dimitrios Daoussis, Stamatis-Nick Liossis, Spyros Potamianos
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a chronic systemic disease characterized by microvasculopathy, autoantibodies, and extensive fibrosis. Intestinal involvement is frequent in SSc and represents a significant cause of morbidity. The pathogenesis of intestinal involvement includes vascular damage, nerve dysfunction, smooth muscle atrophy, and fibrosis, causing hypomotility, which leads to small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), malabsorption, malnutrition, diarrhea, pseudo-obstruction, constipation, pneumatosis intestinalis, and fecal incontinence...
February 21, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Olena Prykhodko, Björn Weström
Gut maturation naturally accelerates at weaning in altricial mammalian species, such as the rat. Mimicking this, gut development can also be induced precociously, 3-4 d earlier than it would occur naturally, by enteral exposure to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or various proteases. We investigated the early effects of gut provocation on intestinal barrier and pancreatic functions, to get a better understanding of the mechanisms that initiate gut maturation. The effects of oral administration of protease (trypsin) or PHA to 14-d-old suckling rats were studied during 24 h in comparison with water-fed controls...
February 19, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Ariani Widodo, Badriul Hegar, Yvan Vandenplas
AIM: To assess the knowledge of general pediatricians througout Indonesia about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood constipation. METHODS: A comprehensive questionnaire was distributed to general pediatricians from several teaching hospitals and government hospitals all over Indonesia. RESULTS: Data were obtained from 100 pediatricians, with a mean of 78.34 ± 18.00 mo clinical practice, from 20 cities throughout Indonesia. Suspicion of constipation in a child over 6 mo of age arises when the child presents with a decreased frequency of bowel movements (according to 87% of participants) with a mean of one bowel movement per 3...
February 8, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Hirofumi Goto, Tatsuya Tanaka, Natsuki Suetsugi, Yoshihito Kubotsu, Nobuaki Momozaki, Toshihiko Mizuta
A 77-year-old right-handed woman without any liver diseases was admitted to our hospital because of transient right hemiparesis. She developed total aphasia with right hemiplegia on the third hospital day. We suspected that she had a cerebral infarction following a transient ischemic attack. However, brain diffusion-weighted images revealed no abnormal-intensity lesions, and cerebral angiography showed patent arteries. Additionally, her serum ammonia level was elevated. Theta waves without triphasic waves were detected by electroencephalogram...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Qing Cao, Cheng-Bo Yu, Shi-Gui Yang, Hong-Cui Cao, Ping Chen, Min Deng, Lan-Juan Li
BACKGROUND: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) is an early and reversible form of hepatic encephalopathy. The documentations on the treatment with probiotics are inconsistent. The present meta-analysis was to verify the role of probiotics in the treatment of cirrhotic patients with MHE. DATA SOURCES: Seven electronic databases were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published until July 2015. The effects of probiotics on serum ammonia, endotoxin, and MHE were evaluated...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Efstathios T Pavlidis, Theodoros E Pavlidis
BACKGROUND: Obstructive jaundice is a common problem in daily clinical practice. Understanding completely the pathophysiological changes in obstructive jaundice remains a challenge for planning current and future management. DATA SOURCES: A PubMed was searched for relevant articles published up to August 2016. The effect of obstructive jaundice on proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation status, hemodynamics and organ functions were evaluated. RESULTS: The effects of obstructive jaundice included biliary tree, the hepatic cell and liver function as well as systemic complications...
February 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Brian C Davis, Jasmohan S Bajaj
Recent advances have led to a greater understanding of how alcohol alters the brain, both in acute stages (intoxication and alcohol withdrawal) and in chronic misuse. This review focuses on the current understanding of how alcohol affects the brain in cirrhosis patients with and without hepatic encephalopathy. Chronic alcohol use is associated with nutritional deficiencies, dementia, cirrhosis, and decompensating events such as hepatic encephalopathy. Direct toxicity on brain tissue, induction of neuro-inflammation, and alcohol's alterations of the gut microbiome are possible mechanisms for the clinical features of hepatic encephalopathy associated with alcohol use...
February 8, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Rhiannon M J Snipe, Anthony Khoo, Cecilia M Kitic, Peter R Gibson, Ricardo J S Costa
The study aimed to determine the effects of mild exertional heat stress on intestinal injury, permeability, gastrointestinal symptoms, and systemic endotoxin and cytokine responses. Ten endurance runners completed 2 h of running at 60% V̇O2max in warm (WARM: 30°C) and temperate (TEMP: 22°C) ambient conditions. Rectal temperature (Tre) and gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded every 10 min during exercise. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-exercise, and during recovery to determine plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP) and cortisol concentrations, and systemic endotoxin and inflammatory cytokine profiles...
February 7, 2018: International Journal of Sports Medicine
Barbara Speranza, Daniela Campaniello, Noemi Monacis, Antonio Bevilacqua, Milena Sinigaglia, Maria Rosaria Corbo
The aim of this study was to develop a functional fresh cream cheese with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 or Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 20016 and prebiotics (inulin, FOS and lactulose). The research was divided into two steps: in vitro evaluation of the effects of prebiotic compounds; validation at laboratory level with production of functional cream mini-cheeses. Prebiotics showed a protective effect: B. animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140 cultivability on Petri dishes was positively influenced by lactulose, whereas fructooligosaccharides (FOS) were the prebiotic compounds able to prolong Lb...
June 2018: Food Microbiology
Krishma Kumar, Mohammed Saadi, Frederick V Ramsey, Ron Schey, Henry P Parkman
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) may cause symptoms in patients with abdominal bloating, distension, and gas. SIBO can be assessed using the lactulose breath test (LBT). A commonly used probiotic supplement is Align containing Bifidobacterium infantis 35624. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of B. infantis 35624 on hydrogen and methane excretion during LBT. METHODS: Healthy subjects underwent LBT before and after 2 weeks of daily Align administration...
February 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Nauman Ismat Butt, Usman Ismat Butt, Aniqa Anser Tufail Khan Kakar, Tashia Malik, Arif Mahmood Siddiqui
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of lactulose plus rifaximin with efficacy of lactulose alone in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy. STUDY DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Medicine, Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from December 2014 to June 2015. METHODOLOGY: All patients who presented with hepatic encephalopathy due to decompensated chronic liver disease were randomly divided into two groups of 65 patients each...
February 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
Roy T M Sprooten, Kaatje Lenaerts, Dionne C W Braeken, Ilvy Grimbergen, Erica P Rutten, Emiel F M Wouters, Gernot G U Rohde
BACKGROUND: Disturbances of intestinal integrity, manifested by increased gastro-intestinal (GI) permeability, have been found in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients during physical activity, often associated with intermittent hypoxic periods. Evidence about extrapulmonary organ disturbances, especially of the GI tract, during hospitalised acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) with hypoxaemic respiratory failure (RF) is lacking. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess changes in GI permeability in patients with AE-COPD and during recovery 4 weeks later...
January 25, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Ourdia Kareb, Claude P Champagne, Julie Jean, Ahmed Gomaa, Mohammed Aïder
Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of electro-activation to improve the functionalities of whey that can be used as a prebiotic and antioxidant agent through lactulose and Maillard reaction products formation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of electro-activated sweet whey (EA-whey) on growth of probiotics of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus strains in pure cultures and to compare EA-whey with non-electro-activated whey, lactulose, lactose, sucrose, glucose and galactose at different concentrations (1...
January 2018: Food Research International
S C Lindblom, N K Gabler, B J Kerr
Consumption of highly peroxidized oils has been shown to affect pig performance and oxidative status through the development of compounds which differ according to how oils are thermally processed. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding varying degrees of peroxidized soybean oil (SO) on parameters of growth performance; lipid, N, and GE digestibility, gut integrity in growing pigs, and plasma Trp. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 diets containing either 10% fresh SO (22...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
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