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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214445/immobilization-of-aspergillus-oryzae-%C3%AE-galactosidase-in-an-agarose-matrix-functionalized-by-four-different-methods-and-application-to-the-synthesis-of-lactulose
#1
Cecilia Guerrero, Carlos Vera, Nestor Serna, Andrés Illanes
Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase was immobilized in monofunctional glyoxyl-agarose and heterofunctional supports (amino-glyoxyl, carboxy-glyoxyl and chelate-glyoxyl agarose), for obtaining highly active and stable catalysts for lactulose synthesis. Specific activities of the amino-glyoxyl agarose, carboxy-glyoxyl agarose and chelate-glyoxyl agarose derivatives were 3676, 430 and 454IU/g biocatalyst with half-life values at 50°C of 247, 100 and 100h respectively. Specific activities of 3490, 2559 and 1060IU/g were obtained for fine, standard and macro agarose respectively...
February 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192138/isolation-biochemical-characterization-and-antibiofilm-effect-of-a-lectin-from-the-marine-sponge-aplysina-lactuca
#2
Rômulo Farias Carneiro, Paulo Henrique Pinheiro de Lima Jr, Renata Pinheiro Chaves, Rafael Pereira, Anna Luísa Pereira, Mayron Alves de Vasconcelos, Ulisses Pinheiro, Edson Holanda Teixeira, Celso Shiniti Nagano, Alexandre Holanda Sampaio
A new lectin was isolated from the marine sponge Aplysina lactuca (ALL) by combining ammonium sulfate precipitation and affinity chromatography on guar gum matrix. ALL showed affinity for the disaccharides α-lactose, β-lactose and lactulose (Ka=12.5, 31.9 and 145.5M(-1), respectively), as well as the glycoprotein porcine stomach mucin. Its hemagglutinating activity was stable in neutral acid pH values and temperatures below 60°C. ALL is a dimeric protein formed by two covalently linked polypeptide chains...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177390/digestibility-of-energy-and-lipids-and-oxidative-stress-in-nursery-pigs-fed-commercially-available-lipids
#3
S C Lindblom, W A Dozier, G C Shurson, B J Kerr
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of lipid source on GE and ether extract (EE) digestibility, oxidative stress, and gut integrity in nursery pigs fed diets containing 10% soybean oil (SO), choice white grease (CWG), palm oil (PO), distillers' corn oil with approximately 5% FFA (DCO-1), or distillers' corn oil with approximately 10% FFA (DCO-2). Fifty-four barrows weaned at 28 d of age were fed a common starter diet for 7 d, group fed their respective experimental diets for an additional 7 d, and then moved to metabolism crates and individually fed their respective diets for another 10 d...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162924/fed-batch-operation-for-the-synthesis-of-lactulose-with-%C3%AE-galactosidase-of-aspergillus-oryzae
#4
Cecilia Guerrero, Carlos Vera, Andrés Illanes
Fed-batch synthesis of lactulose from lactose and fructose with Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase was evaluated, obtaining a concentration of 40.4g·L(-1), which is 20% higher than obtained in batch, while the concentration of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides (TOS) was reduced by 98%. Therefore, selectivity of lactulose synthesis can be significantly higher by operating in fed-batch mode. The enzyme-limiting substrate mass ratio (E/S) is a critical variable in fed-batch operation. Higher values favor lactose hydrolysis over transgalactosylation, being 400IU/g the limit for proper lactulose synthesis in fed-batch operation...
January 26, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160659/synthesis-of-lactulose-in-batch-and-repeated-batch-operation-with-immobilized-%C3%AE-galactosidase-in-different-agarose-functionalized-supports
#5
Cecilia Guerrero, Carlos Vera, Andrés Illanes
Lactulose synthesis was done in repeated-batch mode with Aspergillus oryzae β-galactosidase immobilized in glyoxyl-agarose (GA-βG), amino-glyoxyl-agarose (Am-GA-βG) and chelate-glyoxyl-agarose (Che-GA-βG), at fructose/lactose molar ratios of 4, 12 and 20. Highest yields of lactulose in batch were obtained with Che-GA-βG (0.21, 0.29 and 0.32g·g(-1)) for 4, 12 and 20 fructose/lactose molar ratios respectively; when operating in 10 repeated batches highest product to biocatalyst mass ratios were obtained with Am-GA-βG (1...
January 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159311/intestinal-barrier-maturation-in-very-low-birthweight-infants-relationship-to-feeding-and-antibiotic-exposure
#6
Bushra Saleem, Adora C Okogbule-Wonodi, Alessio Fasano, Laurence S Magder, Jacques Ravel, Shiv Kapoor, Rose M Viscardi
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that feeding and antibiotic exposures affect intestinal barrier maturation in preterm infants, we serially measured intestinal permeability (IP) biomarkers in infants <33 weeks gestation (gestational age [GA]) during the first 2 weeks of life. STUDY DESIGN: Eligible infants <33 weeks GA were enrolled within 4 days of birth in a prospective study of IP biomarkers (NCT01756040). Study participants received the nonmetabolized sugars lactulose/rhamnose enterally on study days 1, 8, and 15 and lactulose/rhamnose were measured in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153303/fluorogenic-boronate-based-probe-lactulose-complex-for-full-aqueous-analysis-of-peroxynitrite
#7
Kai-Bin Li, Lei Dong, Siqi Zhang, Wei Shi, Wen-Ping Jia, De-Man Han
A selective fluorogenic boronate-based probe-lactulose complex was evaluated for the rapid analysis of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) based on a reaction-based indicator displacement assay (RIA). The probe was synthesised by a simple nucleophilic substitution reaction between a boronic acid moiety and a well known laser dye, DCM. Fluorescence analyses showed that the probe had an off-on response to lactulose, forming a fluorogenic probe-lactulose complex. The subsequent addition of ONOO(-) selectively quenched the fluorescence of the complex over other Reactive Oxygen/ Nitrogen Species (ROS/RNS) tested...
April 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149017/malabsorption-orocecal-transit-time-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-connection
#8
S V Rana, Aastha Malik, Sanjay K Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva, Rajesh Kumar Morya, Gaurav Sharma
Type 2 diabetes mellitus consists of dysfunctions characterized by hyperglycemia and resulting from combination of resistance to insulin action and inadequate insulin secretion. Most of diabetic patients report significant gastrointestinal symptoms. Entire GI tract can be affected by diabetes from oral cavity to large bowel and anorectal region. Proteins, carbohydrates, fats, and most fluids are absorbed in small intestine. Malabsorption may occurs when proper absorption of nutrients does not take place due to bacterial overgrowth or altered gut motility...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147355/improvement-of-a-leaky-intestinal-barrier
#9
REVIEW
Eduard F Stange
In Crohn's disease, the mucus layer appears to be defective in terms of low defensin levels and lack of antibacterial activity. These deficiencies actually explain the Montreal phenotypes and the stable localization of disease in the terminal ileum with low α-defensins from Paneth cells and/or low β-defensins in colonic disease, respectively. Conversely, in ulcerative colitis (UC) the defensin production is normal or even induced, but the mucus layer is thinner and patchy, more in the liquid form and also chemically altered so that antibacterial peptides are not retained and lost into the luminal bacterial bulk...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130375/selection-of-a-cut-off-for-high-and-low-methane-producers-using-a-spot-methane-breath-test-results-from-a-large-north-american-dataset-of-hydrogen-methane-and-carbon-dioxide-measurements-in-breath
#10
Klaus Gottlieb, Chenxiong Le, Vince Wacher, Joe Sliman, Christine Cruz, Tyler Porter, Stephen Carter
BACKGROUND: Levels of breath methane, together with breath hydrogen, are determined by means of repeated collections of both, following ingestion of a carbohydrate substrate, at 15-20 minutes intervals, until 10 samples have been obtained. The frequent sampling is required to capture a rise of hydrogen emissions, which typically occur later in the test: in contrast, methane levels are typically elevated at baseline. If methane emissions represent the principal objective of the test, a spot methane test (i...
January 27, 2017: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126426/lactulose-is-associated-with-decreased-risk-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-decompensated-cirrhosis
#11
Anant Agarwalla, Andrew Weber, Sonya Davey, Keith Hamilton, David Goldberg, Andrew D Rhim, Yu-Xiao Yang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117717/endurance-exercise-increases-intestinal-uptake-of-the-peanut-allergen-ara-h-6-after-peanut-consumption-in-humans
#12
Lonneke M JanssenDuijghuijsen, Klaske van Norren, Sander Grefte, Stef J Koppelman, Kaatje Lenaerts, Jaap Keijer, Renger F Witkamp, Harry J Wichers
Controlled studies on the effect of exercise on intestinal uptake of protein are scarce and underlying mechanisms largely unclear. We studied the uptake of the major allergen Ara h 6 following peanut consumption in an exercise model and compared this with changes in markers of intestinal permeability and integrity. Ten overnight-fasted healthy non-allergic men (n = 4) and women (n = 6) (23 ± 4 years) ingested 100 g of peanuts together with a lactulose/rhamnose (L/R) solution, followed by rest or by 60 min cycling at 70% of their maximal workload...
January 21, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116777/pharmacological-treatment-for-antipsychotic-related-constipation
#13
REVIEW
Susanna Every-Palmer, Giles Newton-Howes, Mike J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related constipation is a common and serious adverse effect, especially for people taking clozapine. Clozapine has been shown to impede gastrointestinal motility, leading to constipation, and has been reported in up to 60% of patients receiving clozapine. In rare cases, complications can be fatal. Appropriate laxatives should be prescribed to treat constipation in people taking antipsychotics, but there is a lack of guidance on the comparative effectiveness and harms of different agents in this population...
January 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105083/effects-of-glutamine-on-markers-of-intestinal-inflammatory-response-and-mucosal-permeability-in-abdominal-surgery-patients-a-meta-analysis
#14
Xiao-Liang Shu, Ting-Ting Yu, Kai Kang, Jian Zhao
The present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether supplementation with glutamine (Gln) would reduce the intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. The PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials on the effects of supplementation with Gln, and published from August, 1966 to June 2014. Inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis were: i) Study design was a randomized controlled trial, ii) study included patients undergoing abdominal surgery, iii) study patients received a supplementation with Gln peptide (Ala-Gln or Gly-Gln) whereas control patients did not use any supplements, and iv) study outcomes included inflammatory markers [C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-2 receptor] and markers of intestinal permeability [lactulose/mannitol, diamine oxidase, D(-)lactic acid, and endotoxin]...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070704/sleep-disturbances-in-patients-of-liver-cirrhosis-with-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-before-and-after-lactulose-therapy
#15
Jatinderpal Singh, Barjesh Chander Sharma, Vinod Puri, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Siddharth Srivastava
Sleep disturbances are common in patients of cirrhosis with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) and affect health related quality of life (HRQOL). No study has evaluated effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and correlation with HRQOL in patients with MHE. We assessed sleep disturbances in cirrhosis with MHE and effect of lactulose on sleep disturbances and HRQOL. One hundred patients of cirrhosis [MHE; (n = 50, age 45.3 ± 11.2 years, 45 males) no-MHE (n = 50, age 46.3 ± 10.4 years, 44 males)] were included...
January 9, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059938/the-effects-of-probiotics-and-symbiotics-on-risk-factors-for-hepatic-encephalopathy-a-systematic-review
#16
Daniela Viramontes Hörner, Amanda Avery, Ruth Stow
Alterations in the levels of intestinal microbiota, endotoxemia, and inflammation are novel areas of interest in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Probiotics and symbiotics are a promising treatment option for HE due to possible beneficial effects in modulating gut microflora and might be better tolerated and more cost-effective than the traditional treatment with lactulose, rifaximin or L-ornithine-L-aspartate. A systematic search of the electronic databases PubMed, ISI Web of Science, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library was conducted for randomized controlled clinical trials in adult patients with cirrhosis, evaluating the effect of probiotics and symbiotics in changes on intestinal microflora, reduction of endotoxemia, inflammation, and ammonia, reversal of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE), prevention of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE), and improvement of quality of life...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051800/%C3%A2-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-cirrhosis-how-long-to-treat
#17
Omesh Goyal, Sandeep S Sidhu, Harsh Kishore
INTRODUCTION: Minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) can reverse after short-term treatment. However, relapse rate of MHE after stopping treatment has not been studied so far. We aimed to evaluate long-term (9 months) efficacy of a short-term (3 months) treatment of MHE with lactulose/rifaximin, for maintenance of remission from MHE. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, consecutive patients with cirrhosis and MHE were treated with lactulose/rifaximin for 3 months...
January 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049662/gut-permeability-is-related-to-body-weight-fatty-liver-disease-and-insulin-resistance-in-obese-individuals-undergoing-weight-reduction
#18
Antje Damms-Machado, Sandrine Louis, Anna Schnitzer, Valentina Volynets, Andreas Rings, Maryam Basrai, Stephan C Bischoff
BACKGROUND: Obesity and associated metabolic disorders are related to impairments of the intestinal barrier. OBJECTIVE: We examined lactulose:mannitol (Lac:Man) permeability in obese individuals with and without liver steatosis undergoing a weight-reduction program to test whether an effective weight-loss program improves gut barrier function and whether obese patients with or without liver steatosis differ in this function. DESIGN: Twenty-seven adult, nondiabetic individuals [mean ± SD body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)): 43...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045137/the-effects-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-on-small-intestinal-barrier-function-and-mucosal-gene-transcription-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Zlatan Mujagic, Paul de Vos, Mark V Boekschoten, Coen Govers, Harm-Jan H M Pieters, Nicole J W de Wit, Peter A Bron, Ad A M Masclee, Freddy J Troost
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three Lactobacillus plantarum strains on in-vivo small intestinal barrier function and gut mucosal gene transcription in human subjects. The strains were selected for their differential effects on TLR signalling and tight junction protein rearrangement, which may lead to beneficial effects in a stressed human gut mucosa. Ten healthy volunteers participated in four different intervention periods: 7-day oral intake of either L. plantarum WCFS1, CIP104448, TIFN101 or placebo, proceeded by a 4 weeks wash-out period...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041739/short-communication-promotion-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-secretion-in-dairy-calves-with-a-bioactive-extract-from-olea-europaea
#20
S Y Morrison, J J Pastor, J C Quintela, J J Holst, B Hartmann, J K Drackley, I R Ipharraguerre
Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation during the neonatal phase is the nutrient-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2 and associated effects on mucosal cell proliferation, barrier function, and inflammatory response. Bioactive molecules found in Olea europaea have been shown to induce the release of regulatory peptides from model enteroendocrine cells...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
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