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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781175/translational-safety-biomarkers-of-colonic-barrier-integrity-in-the-rat
#1
Tim Erkens, Ruud Bueters, Marjolein van Heerden, Filip Cuyckens, Rob Vreeken, Nick Goeminne, Lieve Lammens
The intestinal barrier controls intestinal permeability, and its disruption has been associated with multiple diseases. Therefore, preclinical safety biomarkers monitoring barrier integrity are essential during the development of drugs targeting the intestines, particularly if starting treatment early after onset of disease. Classical toxicology endpoints are not sensitive enough and therefore our objective was to identify non-invasive markers enabling early in vivo detection of colonic barrier perturbation...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762873/l-ornithine-l-aspartate-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-people-with-cirrhosis
#2
REVIEW
Ee Teng Goh, Caroline S Stokes, Sandeep S Sidhu, Hendrik Vilstrup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Marsha Y Morgan
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy is a common complication of cirrhosis and has high associated morbidity and mortality. The condition is classified as overt if it is clinically apparent or minimal if only evident though psychometric testing. The exact pathogenesis of this syndrome is unknown although ammonia is thought to play a key role. L-ornithine L-aspartate has ammonia-lowering properties and may, therefore, benefit people with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of L-ornithine L-aspartate versus placebo, no intervention, or other active interventions in people with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy...
May 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732479/whey-and-its-derivatives-for-probiotics-prebiotics-synbiotics-and-functional-foods-a-critical-review
#3
Ourdia Kareb, Mohammed Aïder
The purpose of this review is to highlight the importance of whey as a source of new-generation functional ingredients. Particular interest is given to probiotic growth in the presence of whey derivatives such as lactulose, a lactose derivative, which is a highly sought-after prebiotic in functional feeding. The role of sugar/nitrogen interactions in the formation of Maillard products is also highlighted. These compounds are known for their antioxidant power. The role of bioactive peptides from whey is also discussed in this study...
May 7, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705917/management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy-not-responsive-to-first-line-treatments
#4
REVIEW
Silvia Nardelli, Lorenzo Ridola, Stefania Gioia, Oliviero Riggio
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in up to 30% of patients with cirrhosis. HE may be a consequence of pure liver failure, as in patients with fulminant hepatitis, or of the combination of liver failure and portal-systemic shunting, as in patients with liver cirrhosis. Episodes of HE are usually related to precipitating events, such as infections or gastrointestinal bleeding; a minority of cirrhotic patients experienced a chronic HE, refractory to standard medical treatment...
April 28, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702295/functional-dyspepsia-and-severity-of-psychologic-symptoms-associate-with-postprandial-symptoms-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#5
Daniel Pohl, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Hans Törnblom, Boris Le Nevé, Jan Tack, Magnus Simrén
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have an increased response of postprandial symptoms to a combined lactulose nutrient challenge test, compared with healthy volunteers. We investigated the associations among co-morbid functional dyspepsia (FD), severity of psychologic symptoms, and breath test results in response to this test. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 205 patients with IBS (Rome III criteria), 94 of whom also had FD (IBS-FD), and 83 healthy volunteers in Sweden from 2008 through 2015...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694378/comparison-of-acupuncture-and-other-drugs-for-chronic-constipation-a-network-meta-analysis
#6
Lingping Zhu, Yunhui Ma, Xiaoyan Deng
The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of acupuncture, sham acupuncture and drugs in the treatment of chronic constipation. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effects of acupuncture and drugs for chronic constipation were comprehensively retrieved from electronic databases (such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, CNKI, Wanfang Database, VIP Database and CBM) up to December 2017. Additional references were obtained from review articles. With quality evaluations and data extraction, a network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed using a random-effects model under a frequentist framework...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670353/laxative-use-and-clinical-correlates-in-hospitalized-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-retrospective-descriptive-study
#7
Jianbo Lai, Weihua Zhou, Qiaoqiao Lu, Tingting Huang, Yi Xu, Shaohua Hu
Background: Constipation is a common clinical problem with insufficient attention. Medication-emergent constipation is a rarely studied adverse reaction in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Methods: In this descriptive study, we retrospectively investigated the prevalence of laxative use and its relationship with clinical characteristics in hospitalized OCD patients. A total of 51 OCD patients were included in the final analysis. Results: The proportion of patients using laxatives was 31...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668561/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-nitazoxanide-plus-lactulose-with-lactulose-alone-in-treatment-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#8
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Ferial El-Kalla, Nadia Elwan, Rehab Badawi, Nehad Hawash, Shaimaa Soliman, Samah Soliman, Walaa Elkhalawany, Mennat-Allah ElSawaf, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with liver dysfunction. Lactulose is a nonabsorbable disaccharide presently used to treat HE. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has a broad-spectrum activity against urease-producing bacteria, so it decreases ammonia production and is therefore expected to reverse the symptoms of HE. A previous pilot study on HE patients given NTZ and lactulose had encouraging results with regard to amelioration of the clinical picture...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665102/antibiotic-associated-disruption-of-microbiota-composition-and-function-in-cirrhosis-is-restored-by-fecal-transplant
#9
Jasmohan S Bajaj, Genta Kakiyama, Tor Savidge, Hajime Takei, Zain A Kassam, Andrew Fagan, Edith A Gavis, William M Pandak, Hiroshi Nittono, Phillip B Hylemon, Prapaporn Boonma, Anthony Haag, Douglas M Heuman, Michael Fuchs, Binu John, Masoumeh Sikaroodi, Patrick M Gillevet
Cirrhotic patients are often exposed to antibiotics that can lead to resistance and fungal overgrowth. The role of fecal microbial transplant (FMT) to restore gut microbial function is unclear in cirrhosis. In an FDA-monitored Phase 1 clinical safety trial, decompensated cirrhotic patients on standard therapies (lactulose and rifaximin) were randomized to standard-of-care (SOC, no antibiotics/FMT) or 5 days of broad-spectrum antibiotics followed by FMT from a donor enriched in Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae...
April 17, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660110/preparation-of-high-purity-lactulose-through-efficient-recycle-of-catalyst-sodium-aluminate-and-nanofiltration-a-pilot-scale-purification
#10
Mingming Wang, Habtamu Admassu Tessema, Mohammed A A Gasmalla, Xiao Hua, Ruijin Yang
BACKGROUND: Lactulose, a valuable lactose-originated "bifidus factor" product, is exclusively produced by chemical-based isomerization commercially. Complexing agent of sodium aluminate exhibited high conversion efficiency and strong recyclable stability is more practical for industrial applications. In this study, efficient purification of high-purity lactulose through recycling of sodium aluminate and further desalination by nanofiltration (NF) was implemented in a pilot scale...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655742/lactulose-determination-in-uht-milk-by-cze-uv-with-indirect-detection
#11
Leandra Natália de Oliveira Neves, Rafael Marques, Paulo Henrique Fonseca da Silva, Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira
Lactulose is not found naturally in milk, but it has been detected in small quantities in heated dairy products. It can therefore be used as an indicator of the severity of heat treatment for dairy products. This study proposes an alternative method for lactulose quantification in milk using capillary zone electrophoresis with ultraviolet detection (CZE-UV). The investigation used several Brazilian UHT milk samples, and various sample pretreatment methods and injection conditions were considered. Optimal separation results were achieved using Carrez clarification solutions...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651649/systematic-review-of-the-economic-burden-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy-and-pharmacoeconomic-impact-of-rifaximin
#12
REVIEW
Guy Neff, Woodie Zachry Iii
BACKGROUND: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a common neurologic complication in cirrhosis, is associated with substantial disease and economic burden. Rifaximin is a non-systemic antibiotic that reduces the risk of overt HE recurrence and overt HE-related hospitalizations. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to provide an overview of the direct HE-related costs and cost benefits of rifaximin, lactulose, and rifaximin plus lactulose. METHODS: A systematic review of PubMed and relevant meeting abstracts was conducted to identify publications since 1 January 2007 reporting economic data related to HE and rifaximin and/or lactulose...
April 12, 2018: PharmacoEconomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644768/mlck-mediated-intestinal-permeability-promotes-immune-activation-and-visceral-hypersensitivity-in-pi-ibs-mice
#13
Y Long, L Du, J J Kim, B Chen, Y Zhu, Y Zhang, S Yao, H He, X Zheng, Z Huang, N Dai
BACKGROUND: Alterations in intestinal permeability regulated by tight junctions (TJs) are associated with immune activation and visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is an important mediator of epithelial TJ. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of MLCK in the pathogenesis of IBS using a post infectious IBS (PI-IBS) mouse model. METHODS: Trichinella spiralis-infected PI-IBS mouse model was used...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644492/update-on-the-therapeutic-management-of-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
REVIEW
Linda Skibsted Kornerup, Lise Lotte Gluud, Hendrik Vilstrup, Gitte Dam
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common and devastating complication to chronic liver disease. In this paper, we summarize the latest research and evidence of both conventional and up-coming treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses report beneficial effects of lactulose, branched-chain amino acids, rifaximin, and to some degree L-ornithine L-aspartate on the manifestations of HE in patients with cirrhosis, and generally the numbers needed to treat are low...
April 11, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627620/efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-lubiprostone-for-the-treatment-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-adult-patients-with-constipation-the-lubiprone-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-study-design
#15
Takaomi Kessoku, Kento Imajo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yasushi Honda, Takayuki Kato, Yuji Ogawa, Wataru Tomeno, Shingo Kato, Takuma Higurashi, Masato Yoneda, Hiroyuki Kirikoshi, Kazuki Kubota, Masataka Taguri, Takeharu Yamanaka, Haruki Usuda, Koichiro Wada, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
BACKGROUND: This paper reports the protocol of a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to test the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of lubiprostone (LUB) vs. placebo on suppressing gut permeability in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients with constipation. NAFLD, including non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a common chronic liver disorder. Progression is associated with increased gut permeability and gut-derived endotoxins. Most NAFLD/NASH clinical trial drugs aim to improve liver function or systemic metabolism...
April 5, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597877/interpretation-of-the-lactulose-mannitol-test-in-rural-malawian-children-at-risk-for-perturbations-in-intestinal-permeability
#16
M Isabel Ordiz, Caroline Davitt, Kevin Stephenson, Sophia Agapova, Oscar Divala, Nurmohammad Shaikh, Mark J Manary
The dual sugar absorption test, specifically the lactulose:mannitol test, is used to assess gut health. Lactulose absorption is said to represent gut damage and mannitol absorption is used as a measure of normal small bowel function and serves as normalizing factor for lactulose. A underappreciated limitation of this common understanding of the lactulose:mannitol test is that mannitol is not absorbed to any substantial extent by a transcellular process. Additionally, this interpretation of lactulose:mannitol is not consistent with current understanding of paracellular pathways, where three pathway types exist: pore, leak, and unrestricted...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593138/-milk-daily-products-and-bone-health-the-effect-of-lactulose-on-bone-health
#17
Yohei Sakai
Lactulose is a non-digestible oligosaccharide, consisting of galactose and fructose. Bifidobacteria in the large intestine assimilate and metabolize lactulose, which has not been degraded or absorbed by humans, and they subsequently proliferate. Predominant bifidobacteria release short chain fatty acids, such as acetic acid and lactic acid, into the intestinal tract by lactulose metabolization, which lowers the intraluminal pH. As a result, the calcium that has flowed into the large intestine without absorption in the small intestine is solubilized and absorbed in the large intestine...
2018: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575825/effect-of-lactulose-intervention-on-gut-microbiota-and-short-chain-fatty-acid-composition-of-c57bl-6j-mice
#18
Shixiang Zhai, Limeng Zhu, Song Qin, Lili Li
Gut microbiota have strong connections with health. Lactulose has been shown to regulate gut microbiota and benefit host health. In this study, the effect of short-term (3 week) intervention of lactulose on gut microbiota was investigated. Gut microbiota were detected from mouse feces by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing, and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Lactulose intervention enhanced the α-diversity of the gut microbiota; increased the abundance of hydrogen-producing bacteria Prevotellaceae and Rikenellaceae, probiotics Bifidobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae, and mucin-degrading bacteria Akkermansia and Helicobacter; decreased the abundance of harmful bacteria Desulfovibrionaceae and branched-chain SCFAs (BCFAs)...
March 24, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550550/lactulose-attenuates-meth-induced-neurotoxicity-by-alleviating-the-impaired-autophagy-stabilizing-the-perturbed-antioxidant-system-and-suppressing-apoptosis-in-rat-striatum
#19
Xiao-Li Xie, Jie-Tao He, Zheng-Tao Wang, Huan-Qin Xiao, Wen-Tao Zhou, Si-Hao Du, Ye Xue, Qi Wang
Methamphetamine (METH) is a widely abused psychostimulant. Lactulose is a non-absorbable sugar, which effectively decreases METH-induced neurotoxicity in rat. However, the exact mechanisms need further investigation. In this study, 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats received METH (15 mg/kg, 8 intraperitoneal injections, 12-hour interval) or saline and received lactulose (5.3 g/kg, oral gavage, 12-hour interval) or vehicle 2 days prior to the METH administration. Compared to the control group, in the METH alone group, cytoplasmic vacuolar degeneration in hepatocytes, higher levels of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase and ammonia, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increase of superoxide dismutase activity in the blood were observed...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535443/the-north-american-consensus-on-breath-testing-the-controversial-diagnostic-role-of-lactulose-in-sibo
#20
Paolo Usai-Satta, Cristiana Giannetti, Francesco Oppia, Francesco Cabras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
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