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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979198/schizophrenia-what-s-arc-got-to-do-with-it
#1
REVIEW
Francesca Managò, Francesco Papaleo
Human studies of schizophrenia are now reporting a previously unidentified genetic convergence on postsynaptic signaling complexes such as the activity-regulated cytoskeletal-associated (Arc) gene. However, because this evidence is still very recent, the neurobiological implication of Arc in schizophrenia is still scattered and unrecognized. Here, we first review current and developing findings connecting Arc in schizophrenia. We then highlight recent and previous findings from preclinical mouse models that elucidate how Arc genetic modifications might recapitulate schizophrenia-relevant behavioral phenotypes following the novel Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969356/a-transdiagnostic-review-of-negative-symptom-phenomenology-and-etiology
#2
Gregory P Strauss, Alex S Cohen
In the DSM5, negative symptoms are 1 of the 5 core dimensions of psychopathology evaluated for schizophrenia. However, negative symptoms are not pathognomonic-they are also part of the diagnostic criteria for other schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, disorders that sometimes have comorbid psychosis, diagnoses not in the schizophrenia-spectrum, and the general "nonclinical" population. Although etiological models of negative symptoms have been developed for chronic schizophrenia, there has been little attention given to whether these models have transdiagnostic applicability...
July 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958978/the-impact-of-translational-neuroscience-on-revisiting-psychiatric-diagnosis-state-of-the-art-and-conceptual-analysis
#3
Massimiliano Aragona
This paper reviews translational research in psychiatry, focusing on those programs addressing the problem of the validity of psychiatric diagnoses. In medicine in general, and in psychiatry in particular, the term "translational" is used with different meanings. A conceptual analysis suggests that in psychiatry there are at least seven different types of translational research: T1 ("bench-to-bedside" development of tools and treatments), T2 (application of animal models to human psychiatry), T3 (papers focusing on the mind-brain gap, studying biological, neurobiological and cognitive dysfunctions), T4 (personalized therapies and prediction of treatment responses), T5 ("bedside-to-bench" translation of population data for laboratories), T6 (implementation of treatments at population level, including accessibility and quality of services), T7 (improving translational knowledge in residents" trainings and researchers" careers)...
September 29, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948978/levels-of-cognitive-control-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-based-test-of-an-rdoc-domain-across-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#4
Jason Smucny, Tyler A Lesh, Keith Newton, Tara Niendam, J Daniel Ragland, Cameron S Carter
In recent years, the boundaries of psychopathology as defined by diagnostic categories have been criticized as inadequately 'carving nature at its joints' with respect to the neurobiology of major mental disorders. In 2010 the NIMH launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) framework for understanding mental illnesses as brain circuit disorders that extend beyond DSM-defined diagnoses. In the present study we focus on cognitive dysfunction, a core feature of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BPD), and use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a cognitive control (CC) task in recent onset patients to test the hypothesis that at a behavioral and underlying neural circuitry level these deficits exist on a continuum (as opposed to showing categorical differences) across the two disorders...
September 26, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937340/research-domain-criteria-as-psychiatric-nosology
#5
Faisal Akram, James Giordano
Diagnostic classification systems in psychiatry have continued to rely on clinical phenomenology, despite limitations inherent in that approach. In view of these limitations and recent progress in neuroscience, the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) has initiated the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project to develop a more neuroscientifically based system of characterizing and classifying psychiatric disorders. The RDoC initiative aims to transform psychiatry into an integrative science of psychopathology in which mental illnesses will be defined as involving putative dysfunctions in neural nodes and networks...
October 2017: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935341/conduct-problems-in-youth-and-the-rdoc-approach-a-developmental-evolutionary-based-view
#6
REVIEW
Peter Fonagy, Patrick Luyten
Problems related to aggression in young people are traditionally subsumed under the header of conduct problems, which include conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder. Such problems in children and adolescents are an important societal and mental health problem. In this paper we present an evolutionarily informed developmental psychopathology view of conduct problems inspired by the NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative. We assume that while there are many pathways to conduct problems, chronic or temporary impairments in the domain of social cognition or mentalizing are a common denominator...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922648/a-theoretical-and-empirical-modeling-of-anxiety-integrated-with-rdoc-and-temporal-dynamics
#7
Brandon Frank, Nicholas C Jacobson, Landon Hurley, Dean McKay
The newly launched Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) emphasize specific mechanisms over diagnostic categories of psychopathology. In our view, RDoC provides a useful heuristic for mental health disorders, but does not capture the complexity of psychological data when proposed mechanisms are viewed as static entities. However, temporal and complex system dynamics may advance RDoC's utility. By investigating temporal patterns within trajectories and the interaction of complex networks, we propose that dynamic modeling provides comprehensive methods with which to investigate the etiopathology and maintenance of mental health disorders...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911051/developing-a-motor-systems-domain-for-the-nimh-rdoc-program
#8
Marjorie A Garvey, Bruce N Cuthbert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911048/what-can-different-motor-circuits-tell-us-about-psychosis-an-rdoc-perspective
#9
Vijay A Mittal, Jessica A Bernard, Georg Northoff
Signs of motor dysfunction are evidenced across a range of psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Historically, these features have been neglected but emerging theoretical and methodological advancements have shed new light on the utility of considering movement abnormalities. Indeed, the National Institute of Mental Health Research Domain Criteria initiative has recently met to develop a Motor Systems Domain. This reflects a growing appreciation for the enhanced reliability and validity that can come along with evaluating disturbances relevant to psychiatric illnesses from multiple levels of analysis, and conceptualizing these domains with respect to the complexity of their role in a broader integrated system (ie, weighing contributions and interactions between the cognitive, affective, and motor domains)...
September 1, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867935/the-history-of-generalized-anxiety-disorder-as-a-diagnostic-category
#10
Marc-Antoine Crocq
From the 19th century into the 20th century, the terms used to diagnose generalized anxiety included "pantophobia" and "anxiety neurosis." Such terms designated paroxysmal manifestations (panic attacks) as well as interparoxysmal phenomenology (the apprehensive mental state). Also, generalized anxiety was considered one of numerous symptoms of neurasthenia, a vaguely defined illness. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) appeared as a diagnostic category in the third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III) in 1980, when anxiety neurosis was split into GAD and panic disorder...
June 2017: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840198/biobehavioral-mechanisms-of-mindfulness-as-a-treatment-for-chronic-stress-an-rdoc-perspective
#11
Eric L Garland, Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Matthew O Howard
Mindfulness-based interventions have been heralded as promising means of alleviating chronic stress. While meta-analyses indicate that mindfulness-based interventions significantly reduce global measures of stress, how mindfulness-based interventions modulate the specific mechanisms underpinning chronic stress as operationalized by the National Institute of Mental Health research domain criteria (RDoC) of sustained threat has not yet been detailed in the literature. To address this knowledge gap, this article aims to (1) review evidence that mindfulness-based interventions ameliorate each of the 10 elements of behavioral dysregulation characterizing sustained threat via an array of mindful counter-regulatory strategies; (2) review evidence that mindfulness-based interventions modify biological domains implicated in sustained threat, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, as well as brain circuits involved in attentional function, limbic reactivity, habit behavior, and the default mode network; and (3) integrate these findings into a novel conceptual framework of mindful self-regulation in the face of stress-the Mindfulness-to-Meaning Theory...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829051/dopamine-transporter-and-reward-anticipation-in-a-dimensional-perspective-a-multimodal-brain-imaging-study
#12
Manon Dubol, Christian Trichard, Claire Leroy, Anca-Larisa Sandu, Mehdi Rahim, Bernard Granger, Eleni T Tzavara, Laurent Karila, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges
Dopamine function and reward processing are highly interrelated and involve common brain regions afferent to the Nucleus Accumbens, within the mesolimbic pathway. While dopamine function and reward system neural activity are impaired in most psychiatric disorders, it is unknown if alterations in the dopamine system underlie variations in reward processing across a continuum encompassing health and these disorders. We explored the relationship between dopamine function and neural activity during reward anticipation in twenty-seven participants including healthy volunteers and psychiatric patients with schizophrenia, depression or cocaine addiction, using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) multimodal imaging with a voxel-based statistical approach...
August 22, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822857/exploring-associations-of-clinical-and-social-parameters-with-violent-behaviors-among-psychiatric-patients
#13
Hong-Jie Dai, Emily Chia-Yu Su, Mohy Uddin, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Chi-Shin Wu, Shabbir Syed-Abdul
Evidence has revealed interesting associations of clinical and social parameters with violent behaviors of patients with psychiatric disorders. Men are more violent preceding and during hospitalization, whereas women are more violent than men throughout the 3days following a hospital admission. It has also been proven that mental disorders may be a consistent risk factor for the occurrence of violence. In order to better understand violent behaviors of patients with psychiatric disorders, it is important to investigate both the clinical symptoms and psychosocial factors that accompany violence in these patients...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792621/resting-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-in-suicide-attempters
#14
Aliona Tsypes, Kiera M James, Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Anastacia Y Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
Although suicide attempts (SA) occur across a broad range of diagnoses as well as in the absence of a diagnosable disorder, most studies to date have focused on them within a single, specific disorder. Consistent with the NIMH RDoC initiative to identify biobehavioral vulnerabilities that cut across diagnoses, the goal of the present study was to examine potential differences in resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels in a large, diagnostically heterogeneous sample of women with and without a history of SA who were matched on a broad range of demographic and clinical variables...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738103/phobia-with-hallucinations-and-ptsd-can-amygdala-dysfunction-be-a-common-unified-lesion-in-the-rdoc-sense
#15
LaTonya Griffin, Nagy A Youssef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695475/symptom-modelling-can-be-influenced-by-psychiatric-categories-choices-for-research-domain-criteria-rdoc
#16
Sam Fellowes
Psychiatric researchers typically assume that the modelling of psychiatric symptoms is not influenced by psychiatric categories; symptoms are modelled and then grouped into a psychiatric category. I highlight this primarily through analysing research domain criteria (RDoC). RDoC's importance makes it worth scrutinizing, and this assessment also serves as a case study with relevance for other areas of psychiatry. RDoC takes inadequacies of existing psychiatric categories as holding back causal investigation...
August 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694118/automatic-classification-of-rdoc-positive-valence-severity-with-a-neural-network
#17
Cheryl Clark, Ben Wellner, Rachel Davis, John Aberdeen, Lynette Hirschman
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop a machine learning-based system to determine the severity of Positive Valance symptoms for a patient, based on information included in their initial psychiatric evaluation. Severity was rated on an ordinal scale of 0-3 as follows: 0 (absent=no symptoms), 1 (mild=modest significance), 2 (moderate=requires treatment), 3 (severe=causes substantial impairment) by experts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated the task of assigning Positive Valence severity as a text classification problem...
July 8, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670505/understanding-suicide-risk-within-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-framework-insights-challenges-and-future-research-considerations
#18
Catherine R Glenn, Christine B Cha, Evan M Kleiman, Matthew K Nock
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Prior research has focused primarily on sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors with little improvement in the prediction or prevention of suicidal behavior over time. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) may be an especially useful framework for advancing research in this area. This paper provides a brief and broad overview of research on suicidal behavior relating to each of the RDoC domains-highlighting the RDoC construct(s) where research has focused, construct(s) where research is lacking, and suggestions for future research directions...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667666/translating-advances-in-the-molecular-basis-of-schizophrenia-into-novel-cognitive-treatment-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Colm M P O'Tuathaigh, Paula M Moran, Xuechu C Zhen, John L Waddington
The presence and severity of cognitive symptoms, including working memory, executive dysfunction and attentional impairment, contributes materially to functional impairment in schizophrenia. Cognitive symptoms have proved to be resistant to both first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Efforts to develop a consensus set of cognitive domains that are both disrupted in schizophrenia and are amenable to cross-species validation (e.g. the National Institute of Mental Health Cognitive Neuroscience Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia and Research Domain Criteria initiatives) are an important step towards standardization of outcome measures that can be used in preclinical testing of new drugs...
October 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579533/de-identification-of-clinical-notes-via-recurrent-neural-network-and-conditional-random-field
#20
Zengjian Liu, Buzhou Tang, Xiaolong Wang, Qingcai Chen
De-identification, identifying information from data, such as protected health information (PHI) present in clinical data, is a critical step to enable data to be shared or published. The 2016 Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science (CEGS) Neuropsychiatric Genome-scale and RDOC Individualized Domains (N-GRID) clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge contains a de-identification track in de-identifying electronic medical records (EMRs) (i.e., track 1). The challenge organizers provide 1000 annotated mental health records for this track, 600 out of which are used as a training set and 400 as a test set...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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