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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822857/exploring-associations-of-clinical-and-social-parameters-with-violent-behaviors-among-psychiatric-patients
#1
Hong-Jie Dai, Emily Chia-Yu Su, Mohy Uddin, Jitendra Jonnagaddala, Chi-Shin Wu, Shabbir Syed-Abdul
Evidence has revealed interesting associations of clinical and social parameters with violent behaviors of patients with psychiatric disorders. Men are more violent preceding and during hospitalization, whereas women are more violent than men throughout the 3 days following a hospital admission. It has also been proven that mental disorders may be a consistent risk factor for the occurrence of violence. In order to better understand violent behaviors of patients with psychiatric disorders, it is important to investigate both the clinical symptoms and psychosocial factors that accompany violence in these patients...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792621/resting-respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia-in-suicide-attempters
#2
Aliona Tsypes, Kiera M James, Mary L Woody, Cope Feurer, Anastacia Y Kudinova, Brandon E Gibb
Although suicide attempts (SA) occur across a broad range of diagnoses as well as in the absence of a diagnosable disorder, most studies to date have focused on them within a single, specific disorder. Consistent with the NIMH RDoC initiative to identify biobehavioral vulnerabilities that cut across diagnoses, the goal of the present study was to examine potential differences in resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) levels in a large, diagnostically heterogeneous sample of women with and without a history of SA who were matched on a broad range of demographic and clinical variables...
August 9, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738103/phobia-with-hallucinations-and-ptsd-can-amygdala-dysfunction-be-a-common-unified-lesion-in-the-rdoc-sense
#3
LaTonya Griffin, Nagy A Youssef
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Annals of Clinical Psychiatry: Official Journal of the American Academy of Clinical Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695475/symptom-modelling-can-be-influenced-by-psychiatric-categories-choices-for-research-domain-criteria-rdoc
#4
Sam Fellowes
Psychiatric researchers typically assume that the modelling of psychiatric symptoms is not influenced by psychiatric categories; symptoms are modelled and then grouped into a psychiatric category. I highlight this primarily through analysing research domain criteria (RDoC). RDoC's importance makes it worth scrutinizing, and this assessment also serves as a case study with relevance for other areas of psychiatry. RDoC takes inadequacies of existing psychiatric categories as holding back causal investigation...
August 2017: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694118/automatic-classification-of-rdoc-positive-valence-severity-with-a-neural-network
#5
Cheryl Clark, Ben Wellner, Rachel Davis, John Aberdeen, Lynette Hirschman
OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to develop a machine learning-based system to determine the severity of Positive Valance symptoms for a patient, based on information included in their initial psychiatric evaluation. Severity was rated on an ordinal scale of 0-3 as follows: 0 (absent=no symptoms), 1 (mild=modest significance), 2 (moderate=requires treatment), 3 (severe=causes substantial impairment) by experts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We treated the task of assigning Positive Valence severity as a text classification problem...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670505/understanding-suicide-risk-within-the-research-domain-criteria-rdoc-framework-insights-challenges-and-future-research-considerations
#6
Catherine R Glenn, Christine B Cha, Evan M Kleiman, Matthew K Nock
Suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. Prior research has focused primarily on sociodemographic and psychiatric risk factors with little improvement in the prediction or prevention of suicidal behavior over time. The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) may be an especially useful framework for advancing research in this area. This paper provides a brief and broad overview of research on suicidal behavior relating to each of the RDoC domains-highlighting the RDoC construct(s) where research has focused, construct(s) where research is lacking, and suggestions for future research directions...
May 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667666/translating-advances-in-the-molecular-basis-of-schizophrenia-into-novel-cognitive-treatment-strategies
#7
REVIEW
Colm M P Oapos Tuathaigh, Paula M Moran, Xuechu C Zhen, John L Waddington
The presence and severity of cognitive symptoms, including working memory, executive dysfunction and attentional impairment, contributes materially to functional impairment in schizophrenia. Cognitive symptoms have proven resistant to both first- and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Efforts to develop a consensus set of cognitive domains that are both disrupted in schizophrenia and are amenable to cross-species validation (e.g. the NIMH CNTRICS and RDoC initiatives) are an important step towards standardisation of outcome measures that can used in preclinical testing of new drugs...
June 30, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579533/de-identification-of-clinical-notes-via-recurrent-neural-network-and-conditional-random-field
#8
Zengjian Liu, Buzhou Tang, Xiaolong Wang, Qingcai Chen
De-identification, identifying information from data, such as protected health information (PHI) present in clinical data, is a critical step to enable data to be shared or published. The 2016 Centers of Excellence in Genomic Science (CEGS) Neuropsychiatric Genome-scale and RDOC Individualized Domains (N-GRID) clinical natural language processing (NLP) challenge contains a de-identification track in de-identifying electronic medical records (EMRs) (i.e., track 1). The challenge organizers provide 1000 annotated mental health records for this track, 600 out of which are used as a training set and 400 as a test set...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576748/automatic-recognition-of-symptom-severity-from-psychiatric-evaluation-records
#9
Travis R Goodwin, Ramon Maldonado, Sanda M Harabagiu
This paper presents a novel method for automatically recognizing symptom severity by using natural language processing of psychiatric evaluation records to extract features that are processed by machine learning techniques to assign a severity score to each record evaluated in the 2016 RDoC for Psychiatry Challenge from CEGS/N-GRID. The natural language processing techniques focused on (a) discerning the discourse information expressed in questions and answers; (b) identifying medical concepts that relate to mental disorders; and (c) accounting for the role of negation...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558878/the-neurobiology-of-depression-an-integrated-view
#10
REVIEW
Jason Dean, Matcheri Keshavan
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most common and debilitating mental disorders; however, its etiology remains unclear. This paper aims to summarize the major neurobiological underpinnings of depression, synthesizing the findings into a comprehensive integrated view. A literature review was conducted using Pubmed. Search terms included "depression" or "MDD" AND "biology", "neurobiology", "inflammation", "neurogenesis", "monoamine", and "stress". Articles from 1995 to 2016 were reviewed with a focus on the connection between different biological and psychological models...
June 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545836/symptom-severity-classification-with-gradient-tree-boosting
#11
Yang Liu, Yu Gu, John Chu Nguyen, Haodan Li, Jiawei Zhang, Yuan Gao, Yang Huang
In this paper, we present our system as submitted in the CEGS N-GRID 2016 task 2 RDoC classification competition. The task was to determine symptom severity (0-3) in a domain for a patient based on the text provided in his/her initial psychiatric evaluation. We first preprocessed the psychiatry notes into a semi-structured questionnaire and transformed the short answers into either numerical, binary, or categorical features. We further trained weak Support Vector Regressors (SVR) for each verbose answer and combined regressors' output with other features to feed into the final gradient tree boosting classifier with resampling of individual notes...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543958/latent-structure-of-negative-valence-measures-in-childhood
#12
Minyoung Lee, Steven H Aggen, Dever M Carney, Shannon Hahn, Elizabeth Moroney, Laura Machlin, Melissa A Brotman, Kenneth E Towbin, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine, Roxann Roberson-Nay, John M Hettema
BACKGROUND: Internalizing disorders (IDs), consisting of the syndromes of anxiety and depression, are common, debilitating conditions often having onsets in adolescence. Scientists have developed dimensional self-report instruments that assess putative negative valence system (NVS) trait-like constructs as complimentary phenotypes to clinical symptoms. These include various measures that index temperamental predispositions to IDs and correlate with neural substrates of fear, anxiety, and affective regulation...
August 2017: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539947/development-of-a-diverse-learning-experience-for-diverse-psychiatry-resident-needs-a-four-year-biological-psychiatry-curriculum-incorporating-principles-of-neurobiology-psychopharmacology-and-evidence-based-practice
#13
Andrew J Muzyk, Jane P Gagliardi, Gopalkumar Rakesh, Michael R Jiroutek, Rajiv Radhakrishnan, Chi-Un Pae, Prakash S Masand, Steven T Szabo
OBJECTIVE: A clinically relevant approach to patient care grounded in neurobiological constructs and evidence based practice which emphasizes a relevant psychopharmacology is needed to optimally train psychiatry residents. METHODS: We implemented a biological psychiatry course that now incorporates neurobiology, psychopharmacology, and evidence-based practice in conjunction with a Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) perspective. A survey launched prior to course implementation and following each class session, served as the outcome metric of residents' attitudes toward the new curriculum and followed a baseline attitudinal survey designed to evaluate the program...
May 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523978/closed-loop-neuromodulation-systems-next-generation-treatments-for-psychiatric-illness
#14
Meng-Chen Lo, Alik S Widge
Despite deep brain stimulation's positive early results in psychiatric disorders, well-designed clinical trials have yielded inconsistent clinical outcomes. One path to more reliable benefit is closed-loop therapy: stimulation that is automatically adjusted by a device or algorithm in response to changes in the patient's electrical brain activity. These interventions may provide more precise and patient-specific treatments. This article first introduces the available closed-loop neuromodulation platforms, which have shown clinical efficacy in epilepsy and strong early results in movement disorders...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506904/ordinal-convolutional-neural-networks-for-predicting-rdoc-positive-valence-psychiatric-symptom-severity-scores
#15
Anthony Rios, Ramakanth Kavuluru
BACKGROUND: The CEGS N-GRID 2016 Shared Task in Clinical Natural Language Processing (NLP) provided a set of 1000 neuropsychiatric notes to participants as part of a competition to predict psychiatric symptom severity scores. This paper summarizes our methods, results, and experiences based on our participation in the second track of the shared task. OBJECTIVE: Classical methods of text classification usually fall into one of three problem types: binary, multi-class, and multi-label classification...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501518/cannabidiol-in-medical-marijuana-research-vistas-and-potential-opportunities
#16
REVIEW
Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Nicole E Carmona, Danielle S Cha, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Joshua D Rosenblat, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger C Ho, Roger S McIntyre
The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ(9)-THC...
July 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497126/vulnerability-to-depression-in-youth-advances-from-affective-neuroscience
#17
Autumn Kujawa, Katie L Burkhouse
Vulnerability models of depression posit that individual differences in trait-like vulnerabilities emerge early in life and increase risk for the later development of depression. In this review, we summarize advances from affective neuroscience using neural measures to assess vulnerabilities in youth at high risk for depression due to parental history of depression or temperament style, as well as prospective designs evaluating the predictive validity of these vulnerabilities for symptoms and diagnoses of depression across development...
January 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484422/cortical-and-striatal-reward-processing-in-parkinson-s-disease-psychosis
#18
Sara Garofalo, Azucena Justicia, Gonzalo Arrondo, Anna O Ermakova, Pranathi Ramachandra, Carina Tudor-Sfetea, Trevor W Robbins, Roger A Barker, Paul C Fletcher, Graham K Murray
Psychotic symptoms frequently occur in Parkinson's disease (PD), but their pathophysiology is poorly understood. According to the National Institute of Health RDoc programme, the pathophysiological basis of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be better understood in terms of dysfunction of underlying domains of neurocognition in a trans-diagnostic fashion. Abnormal cortico-striatal reward processing has been proposed as a key domain contributing to the pathogenesis of psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia. This theory has received empirical support in the study of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and preclinical models of psychosis, but has not been tested in the psychosis associated with PD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482691/the-philosophy-of-nosology
#19
Peter Zachar, Kenneth S Kendler
Many scholars believe that psychiatric nosology is undergoing a crisis of confidence. Some of the issues up for debate hark back to the introduction of the natural history approach to classification in the seventeenth century. Natural histories map sameness and difference rather than speculate about causes. In contrast, the natural classification approach aspires to carve nature at the joints by demarcating classifications by causes. Natural classifications are more ideal scientifically, but speculation about causality has had a poor track record in psychiatric nosology...
May 8, 2017: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476427/clinical-phenotypes-of-perinatal-depression-and-time-of-symptom-onset-analysis-of-data-from-an-international-consortium
#20
Karen T Putnam, Marsha Wilcox, Emma Robertson-Blackmore, Katherine Sharkey, Veerle Bergink, Trine Munk-Olsen, Kristina M Deligiannidis, Jennifer Payne, Margaret Altemus, Jeffrey Newport, Gisele Apter, Emmanuel Devouche, Alexander Viktorin, Patrik Magnusson, Brenda Penninx, Anne Buist, Justin Bilszta, Michael O'Hara, Scott Stuart, Rebecca Brock, Sabine Roza, Henning Tiemeier, Constance Guille, C Neill Epperson, Deborah Kim, Peter Schmidt, Pedro Martinez, Arianna Di Florio, Katherine L Wisner, Zachary Stowe, Ian Jones, Patrick F Sullivan, David Rubinow, Kevin Wildenhaus, Samantha Meltzer-Brody
BACKGROUND: The perinatal period is a time of high risk for onset of depressive disorders and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, including maternal suicide. Perinatal depression comprises a heterogeneous group of clinical subtypes, and further refinement is needed to improve treatment outcomes. We sought to empirically identify and describe clinically relevant phenotypic subtypes of perinatal depression, and further characterise subtypes by time of symptom onset within pregnancy and three post-partum periods...
May 3, 2017: Lancet Psychiatry
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