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Laura Miller, Gerardo J Pacheco, Jud C Janak, Rose C Grimm, Nicole A Dierschke, Janice Baker, Jean A Orman
Background: Military working dogs (MWDs) are a major asset in the theater of operations. Their unique abilities make them ideal for tasks such as tracking, patrol, and scent detection. MWDs deployed to a war zone are exposed to harsh environments and battlefield dangers that increase their risk of disease, injuries, and death. Although canines have been used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) and Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF), no published studies have reported detailed causes of death among MWDs deployed to these conflicts...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Yongjian Xu, Jie Ma, Na Wu, Xiaojing Fan, Tao Zhang, Zhongliang Zhou, Jianmin Gao, Jianping Ren, Gang Chen
INTRODUCTION: In 2009, China officially launched the New Health Care Reform (NHCR). One important purpose of the reform was to reduce financial burden of health care through health insurance expansion and health care provider regulations. This study aimed to provide evidence on the effect of the NHCR reform on catastrophic health expenditure (CHE) by comparing the occurrence and inequality of CHE among households with chronic diseases patients before and after the reform. METHODS: This study used the subset of data from the 2008 and 2013 National Health Services Survey conducted in Shaanxi Province...
2018: PloS One
Yuval B Simons, Kevin Bullaughey, Richard R Hudson, Guy Sella
Human genome-wide association studies (GWASs) are revealing the genetic architecture of anthropomorphic and biomedical traits, i.e., the frequencies and effect sizes of variants that contribute to heritable variation in a trait. To interpret these findings, we need to understand how genetic architecture is shaped by basic population genetics processes-notably, by mutation, natural selection, and genetic drift. Because many quantitative traits are subject to stabilizing selection and because genetic variation that affects one trait often affects many others, we model the genetic architecture of a focal trait that arises under stabilizing selection in a multidimensional trait space...
March 16, 2018: PLoS Biology
Romina Torres, Claudia Zajer, Marcela Menéndez, María José Canessa, Jaime Cerda, María Angélica Wietstruck, Pamela Zúñiga
INTRODUCTION: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) occurs in 37% of adolescents and compromise their quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To measure the magnitude of the impact of the SME on the quality of life in adolescents. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We interviewed adolescents diagnosed with HMB between 10 and 18 years old and one of their guardians. PedsQL 4.0 generic core scale was applied to measure quality of life, its Proxy PedsQL 4.0 version was applied to the guardian and 3 more questions to adolescents about limitation of daily activities...
December 2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
Kresimir Radic, Marko Curkovic, Dario Bagaric, Maja Vilibic, Andrea Tomic, Maja Zivkovic
Patients with schizophrenia, nowadays chronic, frequently disabling mental disorder, get initial treatment after detection of a psychotic episode, seemingly late, potentially preventable stage of illness. As our knowledge about the nature of schizophrenia and other diseases of the spectrum is growing, so are the early interventions becoming more possible, and it is important to conceptualize the clinical, legal and moral issues emerging with new preventive treatments. Every intervention, especially in pre-clinical population, demands a careful risk-benefit assessment and having basic bioethical principles - primacy of patient's welfare, beneficience/non-maleficience, autonomy and justice - in mind...
March 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Loïc Peter, Marcel Tella-Amo, Dzhoshkun Ismail Shakir, George Attilakos, Ruwan Wimalasundera, Jan Deprest, Sébastien Ourselin, Tom Vercauteren
PURPOSE: The standard clinical treatment of Twin-to-Twin transfusion syndrome consists in the photo-coagulation of undesired anastomoses located on the placenta which are responsible to a blood transfer between the two twins. While being the standard of care procedure, fetoscopy suffers from a limited field-of-view of the placenta resulting in missed anastomoses. To facilitate the task of the clinician, building a global map of the placenta providing a larger overview of the vascular network is highly desired...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Marcela Ewing, Peter Naredi, Chenyang Zhang, Jörgen Månsson
Background: Many patients with common cancers are late diagnosed. Objectives: Identify consultation profiles and clinical features in patients with the seven most common cancers, who had consulted a general practitioner (GP) frequently before their cancer diagnosis. Methods: A case-control study was conducted in Region Västra Götaland, Sweden. A total of 2570 patients, diagnosed in 2011 with prostate, breast, colorectal, lung, gynaecological and skin cancers including malignant melanoma, and 9424 controls were selected from the Swedish Cancer Register and a regional health care database...
March 13, 2018: Family Practice
Mohamed A Mohamed, Kewan A Hamid
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) classically manifests with sudden, severe chest pain radiating to the back or abdomen, often described as ripping or tearing sensation. Considering its abrupt onset, the diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion prompting immediate imaging using computed tomography (CT) with contrast. However, the use of contrast is a relative contraindication in the patients with renal compromise and acute care physicians are often deterred from contrast use in these patients. Herein, we present an unusual case of hematuria as the presenting symptom of a developing the Stanford type-A AAD...
January 12, 2018: Curēus
Tolulope T Sajobi, Meng Wang, Oluwagbohunmi Awosoga, Maria Santana, Danielle Southern, Zhiying Liang, Diane Galbraith, Stephen B Wilton, Hude Quan, Michelle M Graham, Matthew T James, William A Ghali, Merrill L Knudtson, Colleen Norris
BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) assessment is an important health outcome for measuring the efficacy of treatments and interventions for coronary artery disease (CAD). HRQOL is known to improve over the first year after interventions for CAD, but there is limited knowledge of the changes in HRQOL beyond 1 year. We investigated heterogeneity in long-term trajectories of HRQOL in patients with CAD. METHODS AND RESULTS: Data were obtained from 6226 patients identified from the Alberta Provincial Project for Outcome Assessment in Coronary Heart Disease with at least 1-vessel CAD who underwent their first catheterization between 2006 and 2009...
March 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Alessandra Di Giovanni, Lucia Casarella, Marina Coppola, Domenico Iuzzolino, Marianna Rasile, Mario Malzoni
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess sensitivity and accuracy of combined transvaginal/transabdominal ultrasonography for evaluation of deep infiltrating bowel endometriosis nodules measured after surgery. DESIGN: A prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II.1). SETTING: A Center for Advanced Endoscopic Gynecologic Surgery from January 2014 to December 2016. PATIENTS: All women undergoing laparoscopic surgery and scheduled for segmental resection for clinically suspected bowel endometriosis...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
Fawaz Awad, Eman Assrawi, Camille Louvrier, Claire Jumeau, Irina Giurgea, Serge Amselem, Sonia-Athina Karabina
Photoaging and epithelial skin tumorigenesis are complex processes triggered mainly by UV radiation from chronic sun exposure. This leads to DNA damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which initiate an inflammatory response that alters cell structure and function. Changes in cell homeostasis and ROS production activate intracellular multiprotein platforms called inflammasomes. Inflammasomes nucleate around cytoplasmic receptors mainly of the NLR (nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat) family and regulate caspase-1-dependant secretion of pro-inflammatory interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 cytokines, and an inflammatory form of death named pyroptosis...
March 12, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Worapan Kusakunniran, Qiang Wu, Panrasee Ritthipravat, Jian Zhang
(Background and Objective): The occurrence of hard exudates is one of the early signs of diabetic retinopathy which is one of the leading causes of the blindness. Many patients with diabetic retinopathy lose their vision because of the late detection of the disease. Thus, this paper is to propose a novel method of hard exudates segmentation in retinal images in an automatic way. (Methods): The existing methods are based on either supervised or unsupervised learning techniques. In addition, the learned segmentation models may often cause miss-detection and/or fault-detection of hard exudates, due to the lack of rich characteristics, the intra-variations, and the similarity with other components in the retinal image...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Giorgio Gandaglia, Carlo Andrea Bravi, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Elio Mazzone, Nicola Fossati, Simone Scuderi, Daniele Robesti, Francesco Barletta, Luca Grillo, Steven Maclennan, James N'Dow, Francesco Montorsi, Alberto Briganti
The rate of postoperative complications might vary according to the method used to collect perioperative data. We aimed at assessing the impact of the prospective implementation of the European Association of Urology (EAU) guidelines on reporting and grading of complications in prostate cancer patients undergoing robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP). From September 2016, an integrated method for reporting surgical morbidity based on the EAU guidelines was implemented at a single, tertiary center. Perioperative data were prospectively and systematically collected during a patient interview at 30 d after surgery as recommended by the EAU Guidelines Panel Recommendations on Reporting and Grading Complications...
March 12, 2018: European Urology
Emanuele F Osimo, Rudolf N Cardinal, Peter B Jones, Golam M Khandaker
Low-grade inflammation is a risk factor for depression, psychosis and other major psychiatric disorders. It is associated with poor response to antidepressant and antipsychotics, and could potentially be a treatment target. However, there is limited data on the prevalence of low-grade inflammation in major psychiatric disorders, and on the characteristics of patients who show evidence of inflammation. We examined the prevalence of low-grade inflammation and associated socio-demographic and clinical factors in acute psychiatric inpatients...
March 1, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Ioannis E Messinis, Christina I Messini, George Anifandis, Antonios Garas, Alexandros Daponte
Gonadotropin surge-attenuating factor (GnSAF) is a nonsteroidal ovarian substance, which attenuates the endogenous LH surge in superovulated women. Different molecular sequences have been found, but only one of them has shown substantial homology to a known substance of the human genome. A molecular mass of 12.5kDa showing identity to the carboxyl-terminal fragment of human serum albumin and expressing GnSAF bioactivity in vitro has been identified. It has been suggested that in the normal menstrual cycle the in vivo bioactivity of GnSAF increases under the influence of the intercycle rise of FSH...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Nelly Olova, Felix Krueger, Simon Andrews, David Oxley, Rebecca V Berrens, Miguel R Branco, Wolf Reik
BACKGROUND: Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS) is becoming an increasingly accessible technique, used widely for both fundamental and disease-oriented research. Library preparation methods benefit from a variety of available kits, polymerases and bisulfite conversion protocols. Although some steps in the procedure, such as PCR amplification, are known to introduce biases, a systematic evaluation of biases in WGBS strategies is missing. RESULTS: We perform a comparative analysis of several commonly used pre- and post-bisulfite WGBS library preparation protocols for their performance and quality of sequencing outputs...
March 15, 2018: Genome Biology
Alexandra N Welz, Agnes Emberger-Klein, Klaus Menrad
BACKGROUND: The use of herbal medicine, as one element of complementary and alternative medicine, is increasing worldwide. Little is known about the reasons for and factors associated with its use. This study derives insights for the use of herbal medicine in Germany regarding the usage aims, role played by the type of illness, reasons for preferred usage and sources of information. METHODS: Using a qualitative methodological approach, six focus groups (n = 46) were conducted...
March 15, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Chiara Anna Parente, Domenico Salvatore, Giampiero Maria Gallo, Fabrizio Cipollini
BACKGROUND: In almost all healthcare systems, no-shows (scheduled appointments missed without any notice from patients) have a negative impact on waiting lists, costs and resource utilization, impairing the quality and quantity of cares that could be provided, as well as the revenues from the corresponding activity. Overbooking is a tool healthcare providers can resort to reduce the impact of no-shows. METHODS: We develop an overbooking algorithm, and we assess its effectiveness using two methods: an analysis of the data coming from a practical implementation in an healthcare center; a simulation experiment to check the robustness and the potential of the strategy under different conditions...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Mamadou Alpha Diallo, Khadim Diongue, Mame Cheikh Seck, Mouhamadou Ndiaye, Ibrahima Diallo, Younouss Diedhiou, Tolla Ndiaye, Yaye Die Ndiaye, Aida Sadikh Badiane, Daouda Ndiaye
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malaria diagnosis relies on microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests. In Senegal, national malaria control program (NMCP) regularly conducts supervisory visits in health services where malaria microscopy is performed. In this study, expert microscopists assessed the performance of laboratory technicians in malaria microscopy. METHODS: The present external quality assessment (EQA) was conducted in three different areas of malaria transmission...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
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