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Emma F Thomas, Craig McGarty, Gerhard Reese, Mariette Berndsen, Ana-Maria Bliuc
The 21st century has borne witness to catastrophic natural and human-induced tragedies. These disasters necessitate humanitarian responses; however, the individual and collective bases of support are not well understood. Drawing on Duncan's motivational model of collective action, we focus on how individual differences position a person to adopt group memberships and develop a "group consciousness" that provides the basis for humanitarian action. Longitudinal mediation analyses involving supporters of international humanitarian action (N = 384) sampled annually for 3 years provided support for the hypothesized model, with some twists...
October 20, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
S Scambler, M Delgado, K Asimakopoulou
Objective This paper presents the results of a systematic review, designed to explore how patient-centred care (PCC) is defined in the dental literature.Method An electronic search of MEDLINE (1946-2012), Embase (1980-2012) PsycINFO (1806-2012), the Cochrane Library and non-peer reviewed literature was conducted using a standardised search protocol. Definitions of patient centred care were identified and scored on two criteria to evaluate quality of definition and quality/type of evidence.Results Of the 28 papers included in the review the majority provided definitions of PCC synonymous with good quality general care (holistic, humanitarian)...
October 21, 2016: British Dental Journal
Alexander van Tulleken
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Kiemanh Pham, Emily Chambers Sharpe, William M Weiss, Alexander Vu
BACKGROUND: Organizations working in conflict-affected areas have a need to monitor and evaluate their programs, however this is often difficult due to the logistical challenges of conflict areas. Lot quality assurance sampling may be a suitable method of assessing programs in these situations. METHODS: We conducted a secondary data analysis of information collected during Medair's routine program management functions. Medair's service area in West Darfur, Sudan was divided into seven supervisory areas...
2016: Population Health Metrics
Kerryn L Story, Asma S Bukhari, Maria Bovill
Military dietitians have long been valued members of the health care team, called on for their expertise as early as World War I. However, in the more recent conflicts over the past two decades, their role in health care delivery as a component of medical stability operations has been largely undefined. The purpose of this study was to explore the types of missions supported by U.S. military dietitians and characterize any unique competencies critical to their success during these missions using an online questionnaire...
October 2016: Military Medicine
R Hurlemann, N Marsh
Numerous honorary initiatives for humanitarian aid towards refugees illustrate the high prevalence of altruistic behavior in the population. In medicine, an exquisite example of a human propensity for altruism is organ donation. Current perspectives on the neurobiology of altruism suggest that it is deeply rooted in the motivational architecture of the social brain. This is reflected by the social evolution of cooperation and parochialism, both of which are modulated by the evolutionarily conserved peptide hormone oxytocin...
October 17, 2016: Der Nervenarzt
Bérangère Gohy, Engy Ali, Rafael Van den Bergh, Erin Schillberg, Masood Nasim, Muhammad Mahmood Naimi, Sophia Cheréstal, Pauline Falipou, Eric Weerts, Peter Skelton, Catherine Van Overloop, Miguel Trelles
BACKGROUND: In Afghanistan, Médecins Sans Frontières provided specialised trauma care in Kunduz Trauma Centre (KTC), including physiotherapy. In this study, we describe the development of an adapted functional score for patient outcome monitoring, and document the rehabilitation care provided and patient outcomes in relation to this functional score. METHODS: A descriptive cohort study was done, including all patients admitted in the KTC inpatient department (IPD) between January and June 2015...
October 13, 2016: International Health
Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Gerlant van Berlaer, Mohammad Al Safadi, Michel Debacker, Ronald Buyl, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
OBJECTIVE: The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. RESULTS: The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%)...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Donatella Lippi, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Saverio Caini
Cholera is an acute disease of the gastrointestinal tract caused by Vibrio cholerae. Cholera was localized in Asia until 1817, when a first pandemic spread from India to several other regions of the world. After this appearance, six additional major pandemics occurred during the 19th and 20th centuries, the latest of which originated in Indonesia in the 1960s and is still ongoing. In 1854, a cholera outbreak in Soho, London, was investigated by the English physician John Snow (1813 to 1858). He described the time course of the outbreak, managed to understand its routes of transmission, and suggested effective measures to stop its spread, giving rise to modern infectious disease epidemiology...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
J J Fagan, J Aswani, J Otiti, V Mushamba, E Liyombo, G Woodson, D Weed, C Zender, K Mannion, J L Netterville, R Wagner, Mark Zafereo
The University of Cape Town Karl Storz Head and Neck Surgery Fellowship is the only head and neck surgery fellowship in Sub-Saharan Africa. This article briefly describes this fellowship and outlines the experience and ongoing collaborative efforts of members of the American Academy of otolaryngology-head and neck surgery with graduates of this program who are now building head and neck surgery programs in East Africa. This educational collaboration avoids many common pitfalls associated with short-term humanitarian outreach and represents a successful model for international collaborative educational efforts with head and neck surgeons in developing countries in Africa...
2016: SpringerPlus
Kirk Bansak, Jens Hainmueller, Dominik Hangartner
What types of asylum seekers are Europeans willing to accept? We conducted a conjoint experiment asking 18,000 eligible voters in 15 European countries to evaluate 180,000 profiles of asylum seekers that randomly varied on nine attributes. Asylum seekers who have higher employability, have more consistent asylum testimonies and severe vulnerabilities, and are Christian rather than Muslim received the greatest public support. These results suggest that public preferences over asylum seekers are shaped by sociotropic evaluations of their potential economic contributions, humanitarian concerns about the deservingness of their claims, and anti-Muslim bias...
October 14, 2016: Science
Irene Bruna Seu
This study investigates everyday moral reasoning in relation to donations and prosocial behaviour in a humanitarian context. The discursive analysis focuses on the principles of deservingness which members of the public use to decide who to help and under what conditions. The study discusses three repertoires of deservingness - 'seeing a difference', 'waiting in queues', and 'something for nothing' - to illustrate participants' dilemmatic reasoning and to examine how the position of 'being deserving' is negotiated in humanitarian crises...
October 3, 2016: British Journal of Social Psychology
Guy Roth, Noa Shane, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon
Considering that negative intergroup emotions can hinder conflict resolution, we proposed integrative emotion regulation (IER) as possibly predicting conciliatory policies towards outgroups in violent conflict. Two studies examined Jewish Israelis' self-reported IER, empathy, liberal attitudes, and support for humanitarian aid to Palestinians in Gaza. Study 1 (N = 298) found that unlike reappraisal Jewish Israelis' ability to explore emotions (e.g. IER) promoted concern for others' emotions (empathy), which in turn predicted support for humanitarian aid (while controlling for education level, and religiosity)...
October 3, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
Reshma Roshania, Michaela Mallow, Nelson Dunbar, David Mansary, Pranav Shetty, Taralyn Lyon, Kacey Pham, Matthew Abad, Erin Shedd, Anh-Minh A Tran, Sarah Cundy, Adam C Levine
BACKGROUND: The 2014 outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa was the largest ever recorded. Starting in September 2014, International Medical Corps (IMC) managed 5 Ebola treatment units (ETUs) in Liberia and Sierra Leone, which cumulatively cared for about 2,500 patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patient data collected at the 5 ETUs over 1 year of operations. METHODS: To collect clinical and epidemiological data from the patient care areas, each chart was either manually copied across the fence between the high-risk zone and low-risk zone, imaged across the fence, or imaged in the high-risk zone...
September 28, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Daniel Esau
When first described in 1958, Burkitt lymphoma was considered by many to be an African curiosity. However, over the next few decades, over 10,000 publications on Burkitt lymphoma would influence many facets of oncology research including immunology, molecular genetics, chemotherapy, and viral oncology. At the time of discovery, its distribution in equatorial Africa was unique; it was where a child was born and lived, and not what race they were, that conveyed the greatest incidence risk. Its association with Epstein-Barr virus brought attention to the possibility that oncogenesis may be influenced by viruses...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Biography
Deon V Canyon, Frederick M Burkle
Outcomes of the World Humanitarian Summit were mixed with some refreshing new directions being endorsed and a lack of systemic reform. The selective agenda and OCHAs lack of success in engaging pre-meeting political participation not only hampered the Summit's ability to deal with global issues and institutional reform, but also alienated it from leading aid agencies and governments. The UN's failure to commit to humanitarian principles and global disarray of the humanitarian system indicates the need for extensive reform or a new global humanitarian body...
August 30, 2016: PLoS Currents
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
Fiona M Campbell, Dina Balabanova, Natasha Howard
INTRODUCTION: The paper presents a case study that critically assesses the role of global strategy 'Public Health on the Frontline 2014-2015' ('the Strategy') in supporting Merlin and Save the Children's organisational change and future programme of the combined organisation in Myanmar. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Research was undertaken in 2014 in Myanmar. Twenty-six individual and three group interviews were conducted with stakeholders, and 10 meetings relevant to the country organisational transition process were observed...
September 28, 2016: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Raffaella Ravinetto, Anja De Weggheleire, Thomas P C Dorlo, Sven Francque, An Sokkab, Corinne Pouget, Bruno Meessen, Patricia Tabernero, Paul N Newton, Lut Lynen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
Marco Caniato, Terry Louis Tudor, Mentore Vaccari
Health-care waste management requires technical, financial and human resources, and it is a challenge for low- and middle income countries, while it is often neglected in protracted crisis or emergency situations. Indeed, when health, safety, security or wellbeing of a community is threatened, solid waste management usually receives limited attention. Using the Gaza Strip as the case study region, this manuscript reports on health-care waste management within the context of a humanitarian crisis. The study employed a range of methods including content analyses of policies and legislation, audits of waste arisings, field visits, stakeholder interviews and evaluation of treatment systems...
September 20, 2016: Waste Management
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