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Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi
Since early 2015, Yemen has been in the throes of a grueling civil war, which has devastated the health system and public services, and created one of the world's worst humanitarian disasters. The country is currently facing a cholera epidemic the world's largest on record, surpassing one million (1,061,548) suspected cases, with 2,373 related deaths since October 2016. Cases were first confirmed in Sana'a city and then spread to almost all governorates except Socotra Island. Continued efforts are being made by the World Health Organization and international partners to contain the epidemic through improving water, sanitation and hygiene, setting up diarrhea treatment centers, and improving the population's awareness about the disease...
March 19, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Mads Gilbert
BACKGROUND: The atrocities in Syria have been covered in the four general medical weekly journals in the USA and the UK. Medical journal articles addressing political determinants of public health have rightly described and criticised the international community's failure to enforce humanitarian law while urging global bodies of power to ensure protection of civilians and civilian infrastructure and medical services. Discussions of the political influences on health of people in the occupied Palestinian territory (West Bank and Gaza Strip) seem to be considered politically out-of-bounds by some medical journals...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Raimund Lechner, Thomas Küpper, Markus Tannheimer
INTRODUCTION: History is full of examples of the influence of the mountain environment on warfare. The aim of this article is to identify the main environmental hazards and summarize countermeasures to mitigate the impact of this unique environment. METHODS: A selective PubMed and Internet search was conducted. Additionally, we searched bibliographies for useful supplemental literature and included the recommendations of the leading mountain medicine and wilderness medicine societies...
March 15, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Pete Buth, Benoit de Gryse, Sean Healy, Vincent Hoedt, Tara Newell, Giovanni Pintaldi, Hernan Del Valle, Julian C Sheather, Sidney Wong
Humanitarian organisations often work alongside those responsible for serious wrongdoing. In these circumstances, accusations of moral complicity are sometimes levelled at decision makers. These accusations can carry a strong if unfocused moral charge and are frequently the source of significant moral unease. In this paper, we explore the meaning and usefulness of complicity and its relation to moral accountability. We also examine the impact of concerns about complicity on the motivation of humanitarian staff and the risk that complicity may lead to a retreat into moral narcissism...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Arun Mitra
Despite ongoing tensions in various parts of the world, the year 2017 ended on a positive note. The Treaty Prohibiting Nuclear Weapons (TPNW) was passed by the UN General Assembly on July 7, 2017, which will always be a red-letter day in history. It has raised many hopes for a future world without nuclear weapons and staved off the impending humanitarian catastrophe. Good health is a basic need of every individual. Therefore, each person yearns for a life free of violence and free of man-made catastrophes like the ones at Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, which killed over two hundred thousand people and resulted in genetic mutations affecting generations thereafter...
March 7, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
George Richard Holt, Kevin Christopher McMains, Randal A Otto
Evaluating and providing global health assistance, humanitarian aid, and medical missions to Middle Eastern countries can be rewarding and challenging. A broad spectrum of financial capabilities supports effective health care delivery and infrastructure. Middle East tension can make obtaining a visa difficult. Personal safety considerations may hinder efforts to develop and carry out clinical and educational programs. Several Middle East countries have sophisticated and modern health care systems. Medical education and specialty training compares with that of Western medicine...
March 12, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Ali Bin Nadeem, Ysa Chandna
The majority of the Pakistani public has known little of the unmanned aerial vehicles, also known for their onomatopoeically inspired name "drones," except the fact that it regularly rains Hellfire missiles in Pakistan, claiming the lives of many innocent Pakistanis settled in the western provinces. In actuality, in addition to their destructive capacities, these remotely piloted vehicles have been used since the turn of the century in a variety of live-saving and risk-reducing roles. This research article primarily addresses the third stage of Emergency management-response, with Pakistan being the primary region of research...
January 2018: Journal of Emergency Management: JEM
Angel Lopez-Candales, Dagmar F Hernandez-Suarez, Anthony D Osterman-Pla, José G Conde-Santiago
On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria hit Puerto Rico, causing an unprecedented humanitarian crisis on a level that none of us have experienced before. The following editorial intends to show a physician's perspective of the impact of this storm on healthcare, particularly in triggering cardiovascular events.
January 8, 2018: Curēus
Jinwook Bahk, Majid Ezzati, Young-Ho Khang
Background: Comparative research on health outcomes in North and South Korea offers a unique opportunity to explore political and social determinants of health. We examined the age- and cause-specific contributions to the life expectancy (LE) gap between the two Koreas. Methods: We calculated the LE at birth in 1993 and 2008 among North and South Koreans, and cause-specific contributions to the LE discrepancy between the two Koreas in 2008. The cause-specific mortality data from South Korea were used as proxies for the cause-specific mortality data in North Korea in 2008...
March 12, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
G F Pierce, A Haffar, G Ampartzidis, F Peyvandi, S Diop, M El-Ekiaby, H M van den Berg
INTRODUCTION: The gaps in haemophilia treatment around the world are enormous; approximately 60% of an estimated 475 000 individuals are not identified. Of the 187 000 diagnosed, 30% (57 000) access clotting factor replacement therapy. Since 1996, humanitarian aid distributed by the World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) has played a minor, yet vital role providing life-saving clotting factor to countries in emergency situations. Donated amounts have been small and sporadic, often salvaging short-dated products, providing little opportunity to leverage donations with governments...
March 14, 2018: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Liza Jachens, Jonathan Houdmont, Roslyn Thomas
There is a paucity of research on the subjective stress-related experiences of humanitarian aid workers. Most evaluations of stress among these individuals focus on trauma and related conditions or adopt a quantitative approach. This interview-based study explored how 58 humanitarian aid workers employed by a United Nations-aligned organisation perceived the transactional stress process. The thematic analysis revealed eight main topics of interest: an emergency culture was found where most employees felt compelled to offer an immediate response to humanitarian needs; employees identified strongly with humanitarian goals and reported a high level of engagement; the rewards of humanitarian work were perceived as motivating and meaningful; constant change and urgent demands resulted in work overload; and managing work-life boundaries and receiving positive support from colleagues and managers helped to buffer perceived stress, work overload, and negative health outcomes...
March 13, 2018: Disasters
Anna Chiumento, Laura Machin, Atif Rahman, Lucy Frith
PURPOSE: Recognising that one way to address the logistical and safety considerations of research conducted in humanitarian emergencies is to use internet communication technologies to facilitate interviews online, this article explores some practical and methodological considerations inherent to qualitative online interviewing. METHOD: Reflections from a case study of a multi-site research project conducted in post-conflict countries are presented.  Synchronous online cross-language qualitative interviews were conducted in one country...
December 2018: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Vin Gupta, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Zoe M Lyon, Endel John Orav, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Growing evidence suggests that health aid can serve humanitarian and diplomatic ends. This study utilised the Fragile States Index (FSI) for the 47 nations of the World Health Organizations' Africa region for the years 2005-2014 and data on health and non-health development aid spending from the United States (US) for those same years. Absolute amounts of health and non-health aid flows from the US were used as predictors of state fragility. We used time-lagged, fixed-effects multivariable regression modelling with change in FSI as the outcome of interest...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Marianna Purgato, Alden L Gross, Theresa Betancourt, Paul Bolton, Chiara Bonetto, Chiara Gastaldon, James Gordon, Paul O'Callaghan, Davide Papola, Kirsi Peltonen, Raija-Leena Punamaki, Justin Richards, Julie K Staples, Johanna Unterhitzenberger, Mark van Ommeren, Joop de Jong, Mark J D Jordans, Wietse A Tol, Corrado Barbui
BACKGROUND: Results from studies evaluating the effectiveness of focused psychosocial support interventions in children exposed to traumatic events in humanitarian settings in low-income and middle-income countries have been inconsistent, showing varying results by setting and subgroup (eg, age or gender). We aimed to assess the effectiveness of these interventions, and to explore which children are likely to benefit most. METHODS: We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data (IPD) from 3143 children recruited to 11 randomised controlled trials of focused psychosocial support interventions versus waiting list...
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
Brandon A Kohrt, Suzan J Song
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Lancet Global Health
George Odwe, Chi-Chi Undie, Francis Obare
BACKGROUND: Sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) remains a silent epidemic in many humanitarian settings with many survivors concealing their experiences. Attitudes towards help-seeking for SGBV is an important determinant of SGBV service use. This paper examined the association between attitudes towards seeking care and knowledge and perceptions about SGBV among men and women in a humanitarian setting in Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from May to June 2015 among 601 heads of refugee households (261 females and 340 males) in Rwamwanja Refugees Settlement Scheme, South West Uganda...
March 12, 2018: BMC International Health and Human Rights
Jody C Gan
Service learning experiences abroad provide an excellent opportunity for seasoned health educators to share their skills with underresourced communities in other parts of the world while enriching their own professional development. Health educators have not traditionally participated in short-term medical service trips, which have become a popular humanitarian effort, yet their contributions can expand the scope of these efforts. With our responsibilities often focused on assessing needs, planning, implementing, and evaluation, seasoned health educators can provide guidance for new initiatives and share health promotion materials and other resources with communities in other parts of the world...
March 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Richa Sharma, Gita Radhakrishnan, M S Bhatia, Rashmi Gupta, Anita Mehdiratta
Psychological assessment using the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI) on 196 eligible Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) seekers showed that the depression rate prior to MTP was 12 (6.1%) and had increased to 21 (10.7%) 1 month after MTP. Risk factors included primipara, second-trimester abortion, MTP on humanitarian grounds (rape), foetal congenital anomalies and maternal illness. Psychological morbidity due to abortion greatly interferes with the interpersonal, spousal and mother-child relationships. This demands the need of counselling centres so that each MTP seeker could be counselled prior to and after MTP...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ryan H Belcher, David W Molter, Steven L Goudy
Despite humanitarian otolaryngology groups traveling in record numbers to resource-limited areas treating pediatric otolaryngology disease processes and training local providers, there remains a large burden of unmet needs. There is a meager amount of published information that comes from the developing world from an otolaryngology standpoint. As would be expected, the little information that does comes involves some of the most common pediatric otolaryngology diseases and surgical burdens including childhood hearing loss, otitis media, adenotonsillectomies, airway obstructions requiring tracheostomies, foreign body aspirations, and craniomaxillofacial surgeries, including cleft lip and palate...
March 7, 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
A F Crawshaw, H Kirkbride
Approximately 13% of the UK population in 2015 was born overseas. Most migrants have come to the UK to work or study although there has been a small increase in the number of asylum applications in the UK in recent years, reflective of the ongoing humanitarian situation across Europe. Migrants in the UK tend to be young and healthy, but some may face unique health needs as a result of their experiences before, during and after migration. For these needs to be appropriately recognised and addressed, evidence-based advice is needed for UK professionals...
March 7, 2018: Public Health
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