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Arup K Ghose, Gregory R Ott, Robert L Hudkins
At the drug discovery stage, it is important to understand the design concepts of a CNS drug compared to a non-CNS drug. Previously we published on ideal CNS drug space and defined in detail the physicochemical property space distribution of CNS and non-CNS oral drugs, the application of radar charting (a graphical representation of multiple physicochemical properties used during CNS lead optimization) and a recursive partition classification tree to differentiate between CNS and non-CNS drugs. The objective of the present study was to further the understanding of differentiations between CNS and non-CNS oral drugs into the development and application of an effective CNS algorithm TEMPO (Technically Extended Multiparameter Optimization)...
October 14, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Gregory Roe, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Christopher Black, William Shaw, Kevin Till, Ben Jones
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the validity of timing gates and 10 Hz GPS units (Catapult Optimeye S5) against a criterion measure (50 Hz radar gun) for assessing maximum sprint velocity (Vmax). METHODS: Nine male professional rugby union players performed three maximal 40 m sprints with three minutes rest between each effort with Vmax assessed simultaneously via timing gates, 10 Hz GPSOpen (Openfield software), GPSSprint (Sprint software) and radar gun...
October 13, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Andrew L Skowno, Mark W Thompson, Jens Hiestermann, Brad Ripley, Adam G West, William J Bond
Increases in woody plant cover in savanna-grassland environments have been reported on globally for over 50 years and are generally perceived as a threat to rangeland productivity and biodiversity. Despite this few attempts have been made to estimate the extent of woodland increase at a national scale, principally due to technical constraints such as availability of appropriate remote sensing products. In this study we aim to measure the extent to which woodlands have replaced grasslands in South Africa's grassy biomes...
October 12, 2016: Global Change Biology
Yang Zhang, Chenglin Zhao, Juan Meng, Shibao Li, Li Li
It is very important that the radar sensor network has autonomous capabilities such as self-managing, etc. Quite often, MIMO interference channels are applied to radar sensor networks, and for self-managing purpose, interference management in MIMO interference channels is critical. Interference alignment (IA) has the potential to dramatically improve system throughput by effectively mitigating interference in multi-user networks at high signal-to-noise (SNR). However, the implementation of IA predominantly relays on perfect and global channel state information (CSI) at all transceivers...
2016: EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking
Ziho Kang, Saptarshi Mandal, Jerry Crutchfield, Angel Millan, Sarah N McClung
Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
A Cicchetti, T Rancati, M Ebert, C Fiorino, F Palorini, A Kennedy, D J Joseph, J W Denham, V Vavassori, G Fellin, B Avuzzi, C Stucchi, R Valdagni
AIM: To investigate late gastrointestinal toxicity in a large pooled population of prostate cancer patients treated with radical radiotherapy. Normal tissue complication probability models were developed for late stool frequency and late rectal pain. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Population included 1336 patients, 3-year minimum follow-up, treated with 66-80Gy. Toxicity was scored with LENT-SOMA-scale. Two toxicity endpoints were considered: grade ⩾2 rectal pain and mean grade (average score during follow-up) in stool frequency >1...
October 6, 2016: Physica Medica: PM
Stevan Geoffrey Severtson, Matthew S Ellis, Steven P Kurtz, Andrew Rosenblum, Theodore J Cicero, Mark W Parrino, Michael K Gilbert, Mance E Buttram, Nabarun Dasgupta, Becki BucherBartelson, Jody L Green, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND: The development of abuse deterrent formulations is one strategy for reducing prescription opioid misuse and abuse. A putative abuse deterrent formulation of oxycodone extended release (OxyContin(®)) was introduced in 2010. Early reports demonstrated reduced abuse and diversion, however, an analysis of social media found 32 feasible methods to circumvent the abuse deterrent mechanism. We measured trends of diversion, abuse and street price of OxyContin to assess the durability of the initial reduction in abuse...
October 3, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Philipp Del Hougne, Fabrice Lemoult, Mathias Fink, Geoffroy Lerosey
Controlling waves in complex media has become a major topic of interest, notably through the concepts of time reversal and wave front shaping. Recently, it was shown that spatial light modulators can counterintuitively focus waves both in space and time through multiple scattering media when illuminated with optical pulses. In this Letter, we transpose the concept to a microwave cavity using flat arrays of electronically tunable resonators. We prove that maximizing the Green's function between two antennas at a chosen time yields diffraction limited spatiotemporal focusing...
September 23, 2016: Physical Review Letters
A Battaglia, K Mroz, Tim Lang, F Tridon, S Tanelli, Lin Tian, Gerald M Heymsfield
Due to the large natural variability of its microphysical properties, the characterization of solid precipitation is a longstanding problem. Since in situ observations are unavailable in severe convective systems, innovative remote sensing retrievals are needed to extend our understanding of such systems. This study presents a novel technique able to retrieve the density, mass, and effective diameter of graupel and hail in severe convection through the combination of airborne microwave remote sensing instruments...
August 27, 2016: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Manoochehr Shirzaei, William L Ellsworth, Kristy F Tiampo, Pablo J González, Michael Manga
Observations that unequivocally link seismicity and wastewater injection are scarce. Here we show that wastewater injection in eastern Texas causes uplift, detectable in radar interferometric data up to >8 kilometers from the wells. Using measurements of uplift, reported injection data, and a poroelastic model, we computed the crustal strain and pore pressure. We infer that an increase of >1 megapascal in pore pressure in rocks with low compressibility triggers earthquakes, including the 4.8-moment magnitude event that occurred on 17 May 2012, the largest earthquake recorded in eastern Texas...
September 23, 2016: Science
L A Silva, R T Resende, R A D C Ferreira, G N Silva, V Kist, M H P Barbosa, M Nascimento, L L Bhering
This study aimed to develop a multivariate selection index based on the graphical area of a polygon formed by standardized values, also known as radar chart. This methodology may be used to assist selection of superior genotypes in sugarcane breeding programs. Seven technological traits in 37 sugarcane genotypes were evaluated. An area index (AI) was constructed and the resulting polygon areas were used to rank genotypes under selection. In this study, we propose the use of restricted maximum likelihood to estimate genetic parameters and mixed model equations to predict genotypic and breeding values...
September 16, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Tiago Ventura, Maria do Carmo Lopes, Brigida Costa Ferreira, Leila Khouri
AIM: In this work, a graphical method for radiotherapy treatment plan assessment and comparison, named SPIDERplan, is proposed. It aims to support plan approval allowing independent and consistent comparisons of different treatment techniques, algorithms or treatment planning systems. BACKGROUND: Optimized plans from modern radiotherapy are not easy to evaluate and compare because of their inherent multicriterial nature. The clinical decision on the best treatment plan is mostly based on subjective options...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Lawrence R Frank, Vitaly L Galinsky
A new data analysis method that addresses a general problem of detecting spatio-temporal variations in multivariate data is presented. The method utilizes two recent and complimentary general approaches to data analysis, information field theory (IFT) and entropy spectrum pathways (ESP). Both methods reformulate and incorporate Bayesian theory, thus use prior information to uncover underlying structure of the unknown signal. Unification of ESP and IFT creates an approach that is non-Gaussian and non-linear by construction and is found to produce unique spatio-temporal modes of signal behavior that can be ranked according to their significance, from which space-time trajectories of parameter variations can be constructed and quantified...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Physics. A, Mathematical and Theoretical
Jacqueline Degen, Andreas Kirbach, Lutz Reiter, Konstantin Lehmann, Philipp Norton, Mona Storms, Miriam Koblofsky, Sarah Winter, Petya B Georgieva, Hai Nguyen, Hayfe Chamkhi, Hanno Meyer, Pawan K Singh, Gisela Manz, Uwe Greggers, Randolf Menzel
Exploration is an elementary and fundamental form of learning about the structure of the world [1-3]. Little is known about what exactly is learned when an animal seeks to become familiar with the environment. Navigating animals explore the environment for safe return to an important place (e.g., a nest site) and to travel between places [4]. Flying central-place foragers like honeybees (Apis mellifera) extend their exploration into distances from which the features of the nest cannot be directly perceived [5-10]...
September 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Raja Syamsul Azmir Raja Abdullah, Noor Hafizah Abdul Aziz, Nur Emileen Abdul Rashid, Asem Ahmad Salah, Fazirulhisyam Hashim
The passive bistatic radar (PBR) system can utilize the illuminator of opportunity to enhance radar capability. By utilizing the forward scattering technique and procedure into the specific mode of PBR can provide an improvement in target detection and classification. The system is known as passive Forward Scattering Radar (FSR). The passive FSR system can exploit the peculiar advantage of the enhancement in forward scatter radar cross section (FSRCS) for target detection. Thus, the aim of this paper is to show the feasibility of passive FSR for moving target detection and classification by experimental analysis and results...
2016: Sensors
Tatiana Martelli, Fabiola Colone, Enrico Tilli, Annarita Di Lallo
This paper investigates the possibility to improve target detection capability in a DVB-T- based passive radar sensor by jointly exploiting multiple digital television channels broadcast by the same transmitter of opportunity. Based on the remarkable results obtained by such a multi-frequency approach using other signals of opportunity (i.e., FM radio broadcast transmissions), we propose appropriate modifications to the previously devised signal processing techniques for them to be effective in the newly considered scenarios...
2016: Sensors
Gabriele Müller, Kerstin Stelzer, Susan Smollich, Martin Gade, Winny Adolph, Sabrina Melchionna, Linnea Kemme, Jasmin Geißler, Gerald Millat, Hans-Christian Reimers, Jörn Kohlus, Kai Eskildsen
The Wadden Sea along the North Sea coasts of Denmark, Germany, and the Netherlands is the largest unbroken system of intertidal sand and mud flats in the world. Its habitats are highly productive and harbour high standing stocks and densities of benthic species, well adapted to the demanding environmental conditions. Therefore, the Wadden Sea is one of the most important areas for migratory birds in the world and thus protected by national and international legislation, which amongst others requires extensive monitoring...
October 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Cunsuo Pang, Yan Han, Huiling Hou, Shengheng Liu, Nan Zhang
This paper proposes a time-frequency algorithm based on short-time fractional order Fourier transformation (STFRFT) for identification of a complicated movement targets. This algorithm, consisting of a STFRFT order-changing and quick selection method, is effective in reducing the computation load. A multi-order STFRFT time-frequency algorithm is also developed that makes use of the time-frequency feature of each micro-Doppler component signal. This algorithm improves the estimation accuracy of time-frequency curve fitting through multi-order matching...
2016: Sensors
Alexander Koelpin, Fabian Lurz, Sarah Linz, Sebastian Mann, Christoph Will, Stefan Lindner
Microwave technology plays a more important role in modern industrial sensing applications. Pushed by the significant progress in monolithic microwave integrated circuit technology over the past decades, complex sensing systems operating in the microwave and even millimeter-wave range are available for reasonable costs combined with exquisite performance. In the context of industrial sensing, this stimulates new approaches for metrology based on microwave technology. An old measurement principle nearly forgotten over the years has recently gained more and more attention in both academia and industry: the six-port interferometer...
2016: Sensors
Zhiwei Qiu, Yuxiao Ma, Xiantao Guo
Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GBSAR) is a powerful tool used in monitoring structures, such as bridges and dams. However, despite the extremely short range of GBSAR interferometry, the atmosphere effects cannot be neglected. The permanent scatterer technique is an effective operational tool that utilizes a long series of SAR data and detects information with high accuracy. An algorithm based on the permanent scatterer technique is developed in accordance with the phase model used in GBSAR interferometry...
2016: SpringerPlus
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