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Amare Sewnet Minale, Kalkidan Alemu
The main objective of this study was to develop a malaria risk map for Bahir Dar City, Amhara, which is situated south of Lake Tana on the Ethiopian plateau. Rainfall, temperature, altitude, slope and land use/land cover (LULC), as well as proximity measures to lake, river and health facilities, were investigated using remote sensing and geographical information systems. The LULC variable was derived from a 2012 SPOT satellite image by supervised classification, while 30-m spatial resolution measurements of altitude and slope came from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission...
May 7, 2018: Geospatial Health
Lei Wang, Bing Han, Xinzhe Yuan, Bin Lei, Chibiao Ding, Yulin Yao, Qi Chen
This paper presents an analysis of measurements of the normalized radar cross-(NRCS) in Wave Mode for Chinese C-band Gaofen-3(GF-3) synthetic aperture radar (SAR). Based on 2779 images from GF-3 quad-polarization SAR in Wave Mode and collocated wind vectors from ERA-Interim, this experiment verifies the feasibility of using ocean surface wind fields and VV-polarized NRCS to perform normalized calibration. The method uses well-validated empirical C-band geophysical model function (CMOD4) to estimate the calibration constant for each beam...
May 17, 2018: Sensors
Xiaoxiang Zhu, Feng He, Fan Ye, Zhen Dong, Manqing Wu
Severe sidelobe interference is one of the major problems with traditional Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. In the observation scene of sea areas, the number of targets in the observation scene is so small that targets can be regarded as sparse. Taking this into account, a method of sidelobe suppression, on the basis of sparsity constraint regularization, is proposed to reduce sidelobes of Gaofen-3 (GF-3) images in sea areas of the image domain. This proposed method has a prominent sidelobe suppression effect with resolution maintenance and without destruction of amplitude and phase information...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Yifan Zhang, Xunzhang Gao, Xuan Peng, Jiaqi Ye, Xiang Li
The High Resolution Range Profile (HRRP) recognition has attracted great concern in the field of Radar Automatic Target Recognition (RATR). However, traditional HRRP recognition methods failed to model high dimensional sequential data efficiently and have a poor anti-noise ability. To deal with these problems, a novel stochastic neural network model named Attention-based Recurrent Temporal Restricted Boltzmann Machine (ARTRBM) is proposed in this paper. RTRBM is utilized to extract discriminative features and the attention mechanism is adopted to select major features...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Shuo Chen, Xiaoqiang Hua, Hongqiang Wang, Chenggao Luo, Yongqiang Cheng, Bin Deng
For synthetic aperture radars, it is difficult to achieve forward-looking and staring imaging with high resolution. Fortunately, terahertz coded-aperture imaging (TCAI), an advanced radar imaging technology, can solve this problem by producing various irradiation patterns with coded apertures. However, three-dimensional (3D) TCAI has two problems, including a heavy computational burden caused by a large-scale reference signal matrix, and poor resolving ability at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). This paper proposes a 3D imaging method based on geometric measures (GMs), which can reduce the computational burden and achieve high-resolution imaging for low SNR targets...
May 16, 2018: Sensors
Galina Shevchenko, Kevin V Morris
Adenosine to inosine (A-to-I) editing is the most abundant form of RNA modification in mammalian cells, which is catalyzed by adenosine deaminase acting on the double-stranded RNA (ADAR) protein family. A-to-I editing is currently known to be involved in the regulation of the immune system, RNA splicing, protein recoding, microRNA biogenesis, and formation of heterochromatin. Editing occurs within regions of double-stranded RNA, particularly within inverted Alu repeats, and is associated with many diseases including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic syndromes...
May 16, 2018: FEBS Letters
Shuaifeng Yan, Kai Wang, Yunfan Zhang, Song Guo, Yan Zhang, Jun Tan
The purpose of this study was to explore the morphological changes in L4/5 intervertebral foramen with age using a digital method. The closed boundaries of the intervertebral foramen (IGES) in different sagittal slices (inside, middle and outside) were obtained from Mimics, and then imported to a custom-written program, which provided quantitative distance between the nerve root and the closed curves. The quantitative information of each age group was used to produce radar chart and line chart for morphological and statistical analyses...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Josh T Kohut, Peter Winsor, Hank Statscewich, Matthew J Oliver, Erick Fredj, Nicole Couto, Kim Bernard, William Fraser
Palmer Deep canyon along the central West Antarctic Peninsula is known to have higher phytoplankton biomass than the surrounding non-canyon regions, but the circulation mechanisms that transport and locally concentrate phytoplankton and Antarctic krill, potentially increasing prey availability to upper-trophic-level predators such as penguins and cetaceans, are currently unknown. We deployed a three-site high-frequency radar network that provided hourly surface circulation maps over the Palmer Deep hotspot...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Bongseok Kim, Sangdong Kim, Jonghun Lee
We propose a novel discrete Fourier transform (DFT)-based direction of arrival (DOA) estimation by a virtual array extension using simple multiplications for frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar. DFT-based DOA estimation is usually employed in radar systems because it provides the advantage of low complexity for real-time signal processing. In order to enhance the resolution of DOA estimation or to decrease the missing detection probability, it is essential to have a considerable number of channel signals...
May 14, 2018: Sensors
Jun Tan, Zaiping Nie
Direction of Arrival (DOA) estimation of low-altitude targets is difficult due to the multipath coherent interference from the ground reflection image of the targets, especially for very high frequency (VHF) radars, which have antennae that are severely restricted in terms of aperture and height. The polarization smoothing generalized multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, which combines polarization smoothing and generalized MUSIC algorithm for polarization sensitive arrays (PSAs), was proposed to solve this problem in this paper...
May 12, 2018: Sensors
Giovanni Nardini, Antonio Virdis, Claudia Campolo, Antonella Molinaro, Giovanni Stea
Platooning is a cooperative driving application where autonomous/semi-autonomous vehicles move on the same lane in a train-like manner, keeping a small constant inter-vehicle distance, in order to reduce fuel consumption and gas emissions and to achieve safe and efficient transport. To this aim, they may exploit multiple on-board sensors (e.g., radars, LiDARs, positioning systems) and direct vehicle-to-vehicle communications to synchronize their manoeuvres. The main objective of this paper is to discuss the design choices and factors that determine the performance of a platooning application, when exploiting the emerging cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication technology and considering the scheduled mode, specified by 3GPP for communications over the sidelink assisted by the eNodeB...
May 11, 2018: Sensors
Fulai Wang, Chao Li, Chen Pang, Yongzhen Li, Xuesong Wang
To precisely obtain the polarimetric scattering matrix (PSM) of moving target, a measurement model for the simultaneous fully polarimetric radar is formulated. The calibration errors and isolation of the transmitted waveforms are considered. To address the decline in performance of the traditional PSM estimation methods when the target moves, a novel method with measurement selection is proposed. Numerical experiments are conducted to demonstrate and validate the superiority of the proposed method, especially for the PSM estimation of the target with non-uniform motion...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Guillermo Robles, José Manuel Fresno, Juan Manuel Martínez-Tarifa
Spatial localization of emitting sources is especially interesting in different fields of application. The focus of an earthquake, the determination of cracks in solid structures, or the position of bones inside a body are some examples of the use of multilateration techniques applied to acoustic and vibratory signals. Radar, GPS and wireless sensors networks location are based on radiofrequency emissions and the techniques are the same as in the case of acoustic emissions. This paper is focused on the determination of the position of sources of partial discharges in electrical insulation for maintenance based on the condition of the electrical equipment...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Nisan Ozana, Reuven Bauer, Koby Ashkenazy, Nissim Sasson, Ariel Schwarz, Amir Shemer, Zeev Zalevsky
In previous works, an optical technique for extraction and separation of remote static vibrations has been demonstrated. In this paper, we will describe an approach in which RF speckle movement is used to extract remote vibrations of a static target. The use of conventional radar Doppler methods is not suitable for detecting vibrations of static targets. In addition, the speckle method has an important advantage, in that it is able to detect vibrations at far greater distances than what is normally detected in classical optical methods...
May 3, 2018: Sensors
Ming Lian, Lihai Shang, Zheng Duan, Yiyun Li, Guangyu Zhao, Shiming Zhu, Guangle Qiu, Bo Meng, Jonas Sommar, Xinbin Feng, Sune Svanberg
A novel mobile laser radar system was used for mapping gaseous atomic mercury (Hg0 ) atmospheric pollution in the Wanshan district, south of Tongren City, Guizhou Province, China. This area is heavily impacted by legacy mercury from now abandoned mining activities. Differential absorption lidar measurements were supplemented by localized point monitoring using a Lumex RA-915M Zeeman modulation mercury analyzer. Range-resolved concentration measurements in different directions were performed. Concentrations in the lower atmospheric layers often exceeded levels of 100 ng/m3 for March conditions with temperature ranging from 5 °C to 20 °C...
May 8, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Nathaniel E Putzig, Isaac B Smith, Matthew R Perry, Frederick J Foss, Bruce A Campbell, Roger J Phillips, Roberto Seu
Over the last decade, observations acquired by the Shallow Radar (SHARAD) sounder on individual passes of the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed the internal structure of the Martian polar caps and provided new insights into the formation of the icy layers within and their relationship to climate. However, a complete picture of the cap interiors has been hampered by interfering reflections from off-nadir surface features and signal losses associated with sloping structures and scattering. Foss et al...
July 1, 2018: Icarus
Teng Wang, Qibin Shi, Mehdi Nikkhoo, Shengji Wei, Sylvain Barbot, Douglas Dreger, Roland Bürgmann, Mahdi Motagh, Qi-Fu Chen
Surveillance of clandestine nuclear tests relies on a global seismic network, but the potential of spaceborne monitoring has been underexploited. Here, we determined the complete surface displacement field of up to 3.5 m of divergent horizontal motion with 0.5 m of subsidence associated with North Korea's largest underground nuclear test using satellite radar imagery. Combining insight from geodetic and seismological remote sensing, we found that the aftermath of the initial explosive deformation involved subsidence associated with sub-surface collapse and aseismic compaction of the damaged rocks of the test site...
May 10, 2018: Science
Caitlin Humphrey, Maciej Henneberg, Christian Wachsberger, Jaliya Kumaratilake
Firearm injuries are common in the world today, in both military and civilian settings. Research into the effects different ammunition has on the human body has been conducted using tissue simulants such as Ballistics Ordnance Gelatine. Previous research has found that with low velocity projectiles, the tissue simulants only represent a selected few organs, as the human body and its organs/tissues are not homogeneous. The aim of this research was to determine which ballistic simulants best represent the abdomen and thorax, for the purposes of anatomical modelling...
April 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Kelechi R Okoroha, Vincent A Lizzio, Fabien Meta, Christopher S Ahmad, Vasilios Moutzouros, Eric C Makhni
BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing incidence of overuse elbow injuries among youth and adolescent pitchers. Pitch type has been implicated as a risk factor for excess torque at the medial elbow; however, this has not been definitively demonstrated. PURPOSE: To assess predictors of torque across the medial elbow in youth and adolescent pitchers with a mobile sensor. In addition, the authors aimed to determine the differences in elbow torque produced according to pitch type (fastball, curveball, changeup) and pitcher demographics...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jacob Kamminga, Eyuel Ayele, Nirvana Meratnia, Paul Havinga
Between 1960 and 1990, 95% of the black rhino population in the world was killed. In South Africa, a rhino was killed every 8 h for its horn throughout 2016. Wild animals, rhinos and elephants, in particular, are facing an ever increasing poaching crisis. In this paper, we review poaching detection technologies that aim to save endangered species from extinction. We present requirements for effective poacher detection and identify research challenges through the survey. We describe poaching detection technologies in four domains: perimeter based, ground based, aerial based, and animal tagging based technologies...
May 8, 2018: Sensors
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