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Jaepyeong Cha, Aline Broch, Scott Mudge, Kihoon Kim, Jung-Man Namgoong, Eugene Oh, Peter Kim
Accurate, real-time identification and display of critical anatomic structures, such as the nerve and vasculature structures, are critical for reducing complications and improving surgical outcomes. Human vision is frequently limited in clearly distinguishing and contrasting these structures. We present a novel imaging system, which enables noninvasive visualization of critical anatomic structures during surgical dissection. Peripheral nerves are visualized by a snapshot polarimetry that calculates the anisotropic optical properties...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Isabel de la Cueva-Alique, Sara Sierra, Laura Muñoz-Moreno, Adrián Pérez-Redondo, Ana M Bajo, Isabel Marzo, Lourdes Gude, Tomás Cuenca, Eva Royo
New water soluble, enantiopure arene ruthenium compound SRu SN -(1R,4S)-[(η6 -p-cymene)Ru{ĸNH(Bn),ĸNOH}Cl]Cl (Bn = benzyl, 1a') has been synthesized. The novel compound along with that previously described RRu RN -(1S,4R)-[(η6 -p-cymene)Ru{ĸNH(Bn),ĸNOH}Cl]Cl (1a) was evaluated by polarimetry, ultra-violet and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The structure of novel ruthenium derivative 1a' was determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography. Both enantiomers have been tested against several cancer cell lines in vitro: prostate PC-3, lung A-549, pancreas MIA PaCa-2, colorectal HCT-116, leukemia Jurkat and cervical HeLa...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
C H Lucas Patty, David A Luo, Frans Snik, Freek Ariese, Wybren Jan Buma, Inge Loes Ten Kate, Rob J M van Spanning, William B Sparks, Thomas A Germer, Győző Garab, Michael W Kudenov
Spectropolarimetry of intact plant leaves allows to probe the molecular architecture of vegetation photosynthesis in a non-invasive and non-destructive way and, as such, can offer a wealth of physiological information. In addition to the molecular signals due to the photosynthetic machinery, the cell structure and its arrangement within a leaf can create and modify polarization signals. Using Mueller matrix polarimetry with rotating retarder modulation, we have visualized spatial variations in polarization in transmission around the chlorophyll a absorbance band from 650 nm to 710 nm...
March 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
T R Gentile, P J Nacher, B Saam, T G Walker
This article reviews the physics and technology of producing large quantities of highly spin-polarized3 He nuclei using spin-exchange (SEOP) and metastability-exchange (MEOP) optical pumping. Both technical developments and deeper understanding of the physical processes involved have led to substantial improvements in the capabilities of both methods. For SEOP, the use of spectrally narrowed lasers and K-Rb mixtures has substantially increased the achievable polarization and polarizing rate. For MEOP nearly lossless compression allows for rapid production of polarized3 He and operation in high magnetic fields has likewise significantly increased the pressure at which this method can be performed, and revealed new phenomena...
October 2017: Reviews of Modern Physics
Tran Trung Luu, Hans Jakob Wörner
Berry phase and Berry curvature have become ubiquitous concepts in physics, relevant to a variety of phenomena, such as polarization, various Hall effects, etc. Studies of these phenomena call for characterization of Berry phase or curvature which is largely limited to theory, and a few measurements in optical lattices. In this work, we report polarimetry of high-harmonic emission from solids and exploit this novel capability to directly retrieve the Berry curvature of α-quartz. We show that the two manifestations of broken inversion symmetry in solids lead to perpendicular or parallel polarization of even harmonics with respect to the driving field...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Yong Liu, Xuezhen Zhou, C Benjamin Naman, Yanbin Lu, Lijian Ding, Shan He
The contamination of foods and animal feeds with trichothecene mycotoxins is a growing concern for human and animal health. As such, large quantities of pure trichothecene mycotoxins are necessary for food safety monitoring and toxicological research. A new and effective method for the purification of trichothecene mycotoxins from a marine fungus, Fusarium sp. LS68, is described herein. Preparative high-speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) was utilized for the scalable isolation and purification of four trichothecene mycotoxins for the first time in stepwise elution mode, with a biphasic solvent system composed of hexanes-EtOAc-CH₃OH-H₂O (6:4:5:5, v / v / v / v ) and (8...
February 24, 2018: Marine Drugs
W Y Gong, S Q Liu, Y M Dong, X J Gao, X F Chen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the osteogenic effects of a nano-sized 58S bioactive glass (nano-58S BG) and a traditional 45S5 bioactive glass(45S5 BG) in penetrating parietal critical bone defects. METHODS: Critical bone defect with 9 mm diameter was created in the parietal bone of New Zealand rabbits. The bone defects were then filled with either nano-58S BG, or 45S5 BG, or nothing but the newly-formed blood clot as the blank control at random. For histological observation, specimens were gained 4 and 8 weeks after the surgery, sectioned and stained by HE...
February 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Pengcheng Li, Donghong Lv, Honghui He, Hui Ma
Polarization imaging and Mueller polarimetry provide powerful tools for probing the microstructure of complex anisotropic media, which is a core task in material science, biomedical diagnosis and many research fields. However, Mueller matrix elements and many polarization parameters are sensitive to the spatial orientation of the sample and experimental configurations, hindering the effectiveness for distinguishing different sources of anisotropies. In this paper, we propose a set of rotation invariant parameters and corresponding orientation parameters, which are explicit functions of the Mueller matrix elements...
February 19, 2018: Optics Express
Patrick Janassek, Sébastien Blumenstein, Wolfgang Elsäßer
By exploiting polarization correlations of light from a broadband fiber-based amplified spontaneous emission source we succeed in reconstructing a hidden polarization in a ghost polarimetry experiment in close analogy to ghost imaging and ghost spectroscopy. Thereby, an original linear polarization state in the object arm of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration which has been camouflaged by a subsequent depolarizer is recovered by correlating it with light from a reference beam. The variation of a linear polarizer placed inside the reference beam results in a Malus law type second-order intensity correlation with high contrast, thus measuring a ghost polarigram...
February 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Debora Zanolla, Beatrice Perissutti, Nadia Passerini, Michele R Chierotti, Dritan Hasa, Dario Voinovich, Lara Gigli, Nicola Demitri, Silvano Geremia, Jennifer Keiser, Paolo Cerreia Vioglio, Beatrice Albertini
Praziquantel is the only available drug to treat Schistosomiasis. However, its utilization is limited by many drawbacks, including the high therapeutic dose needed, resulting in large tablets and capsules difficult to be swallowed, especially from pediatric patients. In this study, an alternative option to overcome these disadvantages is proposed: to switch to a novel crystalline polymorph of racemic compound praziquantel. The preparation of the crystalline polymorph was realized via a neat grinding process in a vibrational mill...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
A E H Gaballah, P Nicolosi, Nadeem Ahmed, K Jimenez, G Pettinari, A Gerardino, P Zuppella
The knowledge and the manipulation of light polarization state in the vacuum ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral regions play a crucial role from materials science analysis to optical component improvements. In this paper, we present an EUV spectroscopic ellipsometer facility for polarimetry in the 90-160 nm spectral range. A single layer aluminum mirror to be used as a quarter wave retarder has been fully characterized by deriving the optical and structural properties from the amplitude component and phase difference δ measurements...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
N Daugey, N De Rycke, T Brotin, T Buffeteau
The two enantiomers of 2,2'-bioxirane were synthesized, and their chiroptical properties were thoroughly investigated in various solvents by polarimetry, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and Raman optical activity (ROA). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ level revealed the presence of three conformers (G+ , G- , and cis) with Gibbs populations of 51, 44, and 5% for the isolated molecule, respectively. The population ratios of the two main conformers were modified for solvents exhibiting higher dielectric constants (G- form decreases whereas G+ form increases)...
January 9, 2018: Chirality
Gábor Horváth, Tamás Szörényi, Ádám Pereszlényi, Balázs Gerics, Ramón Hegedüs, András Barta, Susanne Åkesson
Horseflies (Tabanidae) are polarotactic, being attracted to linearly polarized light when searching for water or host animals. Although it is well known that horseflies prefer sunlit dark and strongly polarizing hosts, the reason for this preference is unknown. According to our hypothesis, horseflies use their polarization sensitivity to look for targets with higher degrees of polarization in their optical environment, which as a result facilitates detection of sunlit dark host animals. In this work, we tested this hypothesis...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
M T Hartman, A Rivère, R Battesti, C Rizzo
In this work we present data characterizing the sensitivity of the Biréfringence Magnetique du Vide (BMV) instrument. BMV is an experiment attempting to measure vacuum magnetic birefringence (VMB) via the measurement of an ellipticity induced in a linearly polarized laser field propagating through a birefringent region of vacuum in the presence of an external magnetic field. Correlated measurements of laser noise alongside the measurement in the main detection channel allow us to separate measured sensing noise from the inherent birefringence noise of the apparatus...
December 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
Martin Villiger, Kenichiro Otsuka, Antonios Karanasos, Pallavi Doradla, Jian Ren, Norman Lippok, Milen Shishkov, Joost Daemen, Roberto Diletti, Robert-Jan van Geuns, Felix Zijlstra, Gijs van Soest, Peter Libby, Evelyn Regar, Seemantini K Nadkarni, Brett E Bouma
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate whether polarimetry, performed using a modified optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) system, can improve the assessment of histological features relevant to characterizing human coronary atherosclerosis. BACKGROUND: The microscopic structure and organization of the arterial wall influence the polarization of the infrared light used by OFDI. Modification of the OFDI apparatus, along with recently developed image reconstruction methods, permits polarimetric measurements simultaneously with conventional OFDI cross-sectional imaging through standard intravascular imaging catheters...
December 9, 2017: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
David A Luo, Enrique T Barraza, Michael W Kudenov
Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the most widely used material for thermal plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) used to protect gas turbine engine parts in demanding operation environments. The superior material properties of YSZ coatings are related to their internal porosity level. By quantifying the porosity level, tighter control on the spraying process can be achieved to produce reliable coatings. Currently, destructive measurement methods are widely used to measure the porosity level. In this paper, we describe a novel nondestructive approach that is applicable to classify the porosity level of plasma sprayed YSZ TBCs via Mueller matrix polarimetry...
December 10, 2017: Applied Optics
Shijie Deng, Peng Wang, Xinglong Yu
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is an optical sensing technique that is capable of performing real-time, label-free and high-sensitivity monitoring of molecular interactions. SPR biosensors can be divided according to their operating principles into angle-, wavelength-, intensity- and phase-interrogated devices. With their complex optical configurations, phase-interrogated SPR sensors generally provide higher sensitivity and throughput, and have thus recently emerged as prominent biosensing devices. To date, several methods have been developed for SPR phase interrogation, including heterodyne detection, polarimetry, shear interferometry, spatial phase modulation interferometry and temporal phase modulation interferometry...
December 5, 2017: Sensors
Theresa Diekmann, Laura M Schrems-Hoesl, Christian Y Mardin, Robert Laemmer, Folkert K Horn, Friedrich E Kruse, Wolfgang A Schrems
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the ability of scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to predict future visual field conversion of subjects with ocular hypertension and early glaucoma. METHODS: All patients were recruited from the Erlangen glaucoma registry and examined using standard automated perimetry, 24-hour intraocular pressure profile, and optic disc photography. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) measurements were obtained by SLP (GDx-VCC) and SD-OCT (Spectralis OCT)...
February 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Justin B McKee, Charles L Cottriall, John Elston, Simon Epps, Nikos Evangelou, Stephen Gerry, Christopher Kennard, Yazhuo Kong, Abigail Koelewyn, Wilhelm Kueker, Maria Isabel Leite, Jacqueline Palace, Matthew Craner
BACKGROUND: Recent basic and clinical evidence suggests amiloride may be neuroprotective in multiple sclerosis (MS) through the blockade of the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC). OBJECTIVE: To examine the neuroprotective efficacy of amiloride in acute optic neuritis (ON). METHODS: A total of 48 patients were recruited to a phase 2, double blind, single site, randomised controlled trial. Scanning laser polarimetry (GDx) at 6 months was the primary outcome measure and optical coherence tomography (OCT) and visual and electrophysiological measures were secondary outcome measures...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Thomas Würthwein, Maximilian Brinkmann, Tim Hellwig, Carsten Fallnich
We present the simultaneous detection of the spectrum and the complete polarization state of a multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering signal with a fast division-of-amplitude spectro-polarimeter. The spectro-polarimeter is based on a commercial imaging spectrograph, a birefringent wedge prism, and a segmented polarizer. Compared to the standard rotating-retarder fixed-analyzer spectro-polarimeter, only a single measurement is required and an up to 21-fold reduced acquisition time is shown. The measured Stokes parameters allow us to differentiate between vibrational symmetries and to determine the depolarization ratio ρ by data post-processing...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
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