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Francois Parnet, Julien Fade, Noé Ortega-Quijano, Goulc'hen Loas, Ludovic Frein, Mehdi Alouini
We report the design and optimization of an active polarimetric imaging demonstrator operating at 1.55 μm that is based on the orthogonality breaking technique. It relies on the use of a fibered dual-frequency dual-polarization source raster scanned over the scene. A dedicated opto-electronic detection chain is developed to demodulate the optical signal backscattered at each location of the scene in real time, providing multivariate polarimetric image data in one single scan with limited acquisition time. We experimentally show on a homemade scene that contrast maps can be built to reveal hidden dichroic objects over a depolarizing background, as well as their orientation...
February 15, 2017: Optics Letters
Bo Zhang, Chao Wang, Hong Zhang, Fan Wu, Yi-Xian Tang
By acquiring information over a wide area regardless of weather conditions and solar illumination, space-borne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) has the potential to be a promising application for traffic monitoring. However, the backscatter character of a vehicle in a SAR image is unstable and varies with image parameters, such as aspect and incidence angle. To investigate vehicle detectability in SAR images for traffic monitoring applications, images of four common types of vehicles in China were acquired using the fully polarimetric (FP) SAR of Radarsat-2 in our experiments...
February 6, 2017: Sensors
Wenfei Zhang, Jian Liang, Liyong Ren, Haijuan Ju, Enshi Qu, Zhaofeng Bai, Yao Tang, Zhaoxin Wu
Polarimetric dehazing methods have been proven to be effective in enhancing the quality of images acquired in turbid media. We report a new full-Stokes polarimetric camera, which is based on the division of aperture structure. We design a kind of automatic polarimetric dehazing algorithm and load it into the field programmable gate array (FPGA) modules of our designed polarimetric camera, achieving a real-time image haze removal with an output rate of 25 fps. We demonstrate that the image quality can be significantly improved together with a good color restoration...
February 1, 2017: Applied Optics
Xiao Huang, Jian Bai, Kaiwei Wang, Qun Liu, Yujie Luo, Kailun Yang, Xianjing Zhang
Structured light is a prevailing and reliable active approach of 3D object reconstruction. But complex ambience is undesirable in the measurement because it could cause severe noise and increase computing overhead. In this paper, we propose a structured light coded by spatially-distributed polarization state of the illuminating patterns. The proposed structured light has the advantage of enhancing target in 3D reconstruction by polarization cues. Specifically, this method can estimate the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) in the scene, distinguish target by DOLP and selectively reconstruct it...
January 23, 2017: Optics Express
Alex J Yuffa, Vadym Kaydash, Viktor Korokhin, Yuriy Shkuratov, Evgenij Zubko, Gorden Videen
The phase function is a measure of the light-scattered intensity, or radiance, as a function of scattering angle θ. A phase ratio is the ratio of two values of the phase function measured at different scattering angles and relates to the slope of the phase function. By taking the ratio of two images acquired at different illumination or observation conditions, a phase-ratio image can be constructed. Such images accentuate differences in the phase curves, rather than their intensities, and are more sensitive to microtopography than to material properties...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Moshe Hamaoui
Vehicle state estimation is an essential prerequisite for navigation. The present approach seeks to use skylight polarization to facilitate state estimation under autonomous unconstrained flight conditions. Atmospheric scattering polarizes incident sunlight such that solar position is mathematically encoded in the resulting skylight polarization pattern. Indeed, several species of insects are able to sense skylight polarization and are believed to navigate polarimetrically. Sun-finding methodologies for polarized skylight navigation (PSN) have been proposed in the literature but typically rely on calibration updates to account for changing atmospheric conditions and/or are limited to 2D operation...
January 20, 2017: Applied Optics
Kai Wang, Jingping Zhu, Hong Liu, Bingzheng Du
An expression of the degree of polarization (DOP) based on the geometrical optics polarimetric bidirectional reflectance distribution function model is presented. In this expression, the DOP is related to the surface roughness and decreases at different reflection angles because diffuse reflection is taken into consideration. A shadowing/masking function introduced into the specular reflection expression makes the DOP values decrease as the angle of incidence or observation approaches grazing. Different kinds of materials were measured to validate the accuracy of this DOP expression...
February 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Licheng Jiao, Fang Liu
Inspired by the popular deep learning architecture - Deep Stacking Network (DSN), a specific deep model for polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (POLSAR) image classification is proposed in this paper, which is named as Wishart Deep Stacking Network (W-DSN). First of all, a fast implementation of Wishart distance is achieved by a special linear transformation, which speeds up the classification of POLSAR image and makes it possible to use this polarimetric information in the following Neural Network (NN). Then a single-hidden-layer neural network based on the fast Wishart distance is defined for POLSAR image classification, which is named as Wishart Network (WN) and improves the classification accuracy...
May 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Andre Neumann, Jessica Lindlau, Léo Colombier, Manuel Nutz, Sina Najmaei, Jun Lou, Aditya D Mohite, Hisato Yamaguchi, Alexander Högele
Transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors represent elementary components of layered heterostructures for emergent technologies beyond conventional optoelectronics. In their monolayer form they host electrons with quantized circular motion and associated valley polarization and valley coherence as key elements of opto-valleytronic functionality. Here, we introduce two-dimensional polarimetry as means of direct imaging of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides...
January 16, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Tingkui Mu, Zeyu Chen, Chunmin Zhang, Rongguang Liang
In this paper, the design, optimization and analysis of broadband full-Stokes polarimeters with immunity to both Poisson and Gaussian noise are presented. Different from the commonly-used optimization metrics such as, the condition number (CN), the equally weighted variance (EWV), or the polarimetric modulation efficiency (PME) for Gaussian noise, the optimally balanced condition for Poisson noise (BCPN) is, for the first time, proposed and used as a metric for the optimization of polarimeters. The numerical results show that the polarimeters optimized with the BCPN have immunity to both Poisson and Gaussian noise...
December 26, 2016: Optics Express
Amalya Minasyan, Clément Trovato, Jérôme Degert, Eric Freysz, Etienne Brasselet, Emmanuel Abraham
We propose a topological beam-shaping strategy of terahertz (THz) beams using geometric phase elements made of space-variant birefringent slabs. Quasi-monochromatic THz vortex beams are produced and characterized both in amplitude and phase from the reconstructed real-time two-dimensional imaging of the electric field. Nonseparable superpositions of such vortex beams are also obtained and characterized by two-dimensional polarimetric analysis. These results emphasize the versatility of the spin-orbit electromagnetic toolbox to prepare on-demand structured light endowed with polarization-controlled orbital angular momentum content in the THz domain, which should find many uses in future THz technologies...
January 1, 2017: Optics Letters
Bence Kutus, Dániel Ozsvár, Norbert Varga, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos
The complex formation equilibria between Ca(2+) ions and six carbohydrate derivatives related to d-glucose was quantitatively characterized by potentiometry, freezing point depression and polarimetry. Complexation could not be observed for d-glucose, while weak association was deduced for d-sorbitol and d-mannitol. Stronger complexes are formed with d-gluconate and d-heptagluconate due to the presence of the carboxylate group. In addition to the plausible 1 : 1 species, the 1 : 2 species can also be detected at higher ligand to metal ratios...
January 5, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Mohammed El-Amin Said, Isabelle Bombarda, Jean-Valère Naubron, Pierre Vanloot, Marion Jean, Abdelkrim Cheriti, Nathalie Dupuy, Christian Roussel
The chirality issues in the essential oils (EOs) of leaves and flowers from Bubonium graveolens were addressed by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with polarimetric detection and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD). The chemical compositions of the crude oils of three samples were established by gas chromatography / mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The well-known cis-chrysanthenyl acetate (1), oxocyclonerolidol (2), and the recently disclosed cis-acetyloxychrysanthenyl acetate (3), the three major chiral compounds, were isolated by preparative HPLC...
December 26, 2016: Chirality
Ivan S Ferreira, Camilo Tello, Miguel Bergano, Thyrso Villela, Domingos Barbosa, George F Smoot
BACKGROUND: We describe the design, the construction and performance of a narrow band ortho-mode transducer, currently used in the 5 GHz polarimetric receiver of the Galactic Emission Mapping project. RESULTS: The ortho-mode transducer was designed to achieve a high degree of transmission within the 400 MHz of the GEM band around the 5 GHz (4.8-5.2 GHz). It is composed of a circular-to-square waveguide transition, a septum polarizer, a thin waveguide coupler and a smooth square-to-rectangular waveguide transition with custom waveguide bends to the output ports...
2016: SpringerPlus
Delphine Pitrat, Nicolas Daugey, Marion Jean, Nicolas Vanthuyne, Frank Wien, Laurent Ducasse, Nathalie Calin, Thierry Buffeteau, Thierry Brotin
Enantiopure cryptophane-222 derivative (1) devoid of substituents was obtained via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using chiral stationary phases. The chiroptical properties of 1 were determined from polarimetry, electronic circular dichroism (ECD), synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD), vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), and Raman optical activity (ROA) experiments and were compared to those of the cryptophane-A (2) derivative. Unusual polarimetric results were obtained for 1 in CHCl3 solvent as the sign of the optical rotation (OR) values changes in the nonresonance region above 365 nm, whereas no change was observed in the CH2Cl2 solvent...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Marco Talone, Giuseppe Zibordi
The polarimetric characteristics of a class of hyperspectral radiometers commonly applied for above-water radiometry have been investigated by analyzing a sample of sensors. Results indicate polarization sensitivity increasing with wavelength and exhibiting values varying from sensor to sensor. In the case of radiance sensors, the maximum differences increase from approximately 0.4% at 400 nm to 1.3% at 750 nm. In the case of irradiance sensors, due to depolarizing effects of the diffusing collector, the maximum differences between horizontal and vertical polarization sensitivities vary from approximately 0...
December 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Michael I Mishchenko, Janna M Dlugach, Li Liu
We use the numerically exact (superposition) T-matrix method to analyze recent measurements of the backscattering linear depolarization ratio (LDR) for a plume of aged smoke at lidar wavelengths ranging from 355 to 1064 nm. We show that the unique spectral dependence of the measured LDRs can be modeled, but only by assuming expressly nonspherical morphologies of smoke particles containing substantial amounts of nonabsorbing (or weakly absorbing) refractory materials such as sulfates. Our results demonstrate that spectral backscattering LDR measurements can be indicative of the presence of morphologically complex smoke particles, but additional (e...
December 10, 2016: Applied Optics
P Shi, J Chen, L Gao, Y Liu, H Liu, Y N Zhou, G Zhuang
The multi-channel three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system on J-TEXT tokamak has been exploited to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The diagnostic utilizes far infrared lasers operated at 432 μm with 17-channel vertical chords (3 cm chord spacing), covering the entire cross section of plasma. Scattering laser power is measured using a high-sensitivity Schottky planar diode mixer which can also detect polarimetric and interferometric phase simultaneously. The system provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations with maximum measurable wave number: k⊥max ≤ 2 cm(-1) and time response up to 350 kHz...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
H Q Liu, J P Qian, Y X Jie, W X Ding, D L Brower, Z Y Zou, W M Li, H Lian, S X Wang, Y Yang, L Zeng, T Lan, Y Yao, L Q Hu, X D Zhang, B N Wan
A double-pass, radially viewing, far-infrared laser-based POlarimeter-INTerferometer (POINT) system utilizing the three-wave technique has been implemented for diagnosing the plasma current and electron density profiles in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). POINT has been operated routinely during the most recent experimental campaign and provides continuous 11 chord line-integrated Faraday effect and density measurement throughout the entire plasma discharge for all heating schemes and all plasma conditions (including ITER relevant scenario development)...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Ahmad Golaraei, Lukas Kontenis, Richard Cisek, Danielle Tokarz, Susan J Done, Brian C Wilson, Virginijus Barzda
Second-harmonic generation (SHG) double Stokes-Mueller polarimetric microscopy is applied to study the alteration of collagen ultrastructure in a tissue microarray containing three pathological human breast cancer types with differently overexpressed estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Kleinman symmetry is experimentally validated in breast tissue for 1028 nm laser wavelength and it has been shown that measurements with only linearly polarized incoming and outgoing states can determine molecular nonlinear susceptibility tensor component ratio, average in-plane orientation of collagen fibers and degree of linear polarization of SHG...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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