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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324671/dose-de-escalation-of-intrapleural-tissue-plasminogen-activator-therapy-for-pleural-infection-the-adapt-project
#1
Natalia Popowicz, Oliver Bintcliffe, Duneesha De Fonseka, Kevin G Blyth, Nicola A Smith, Francesco Piccolo, Geoffrey Martin, Donny Wong, Anthony Edey, Nick Maskell, Y C Gary Lee
RATIONALE: Intrapleural therapy with a combination of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) 10mg and deoxyribonuclease (DNase) 5mg administered twice daily has been shown in randomized and open-label studies to enable adequate drainage of over 90% of infected pleural effusions without surgery. Potential bleeding risks associated with intrapleural tPA and the drug costs remain important concerns. The ongoing ADAPT (Alteplase Dose Assessment for Pleural infection Therapy) project aims to investigate the efficacy and safety of dose de-escalation for intrapleural tPA...
March 21, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324274/bioavailability-of-generic-0-05-difluprednate-emulsion-in-the-aqueous-humor-cornea-and-conjunctiva-of-new-zealand-rabbits-after-a-single-dose-compared-with-commercial-difluprednate
#2
Arieh Mercado-Sesma, Angélica Contreras-Rubio, Leopoldo Baiza-Durán, Oscar Olvera-Montaño, Mónica Miranda-Robles, José Bonilla-García
BACKGROUND: To determine the concentration after a single dose of generic 0.05% difluprednate and commercial difluprednate in the aqueous humor, cornea, and conjunctiva of New Zealand rabbits, a preclinical study in 72 male New Zealand white rabbits was performed. A single dose (50 μL) of two 0.05% difluprednate ophthalmic formulations was instilled in both eyes. Conjunctiva, cornea, and aqueous humor samples were collected at nine time points over 8 h (four animals per time point)...
December 2017: Journal of Ophthalmic Inflammation and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320052/soft-tissue-infections-from-fish-spike-wounds-normal-commensal-bacteria-are-more-common-than-marine-pathogens
#3
Hannah Collins, Kin Mun Lee, Paul T-Y Cheng, Sarah Hulme
BACKGROUND: A fish spike injury can be sustained by anyone handling fish; during fishing, meal preparation or in retail. Case reports of fish spikes inoculating victims with virulent marine-specific pathogens and causing systemic illness led us to question whether empirical treatment of these injuries with amoxicillin and clavulanic acid is adequate. METHODS: This 2-year prospective observational study was conducted at Middlemore Hospital, Auckland, New Zealand...
March 20, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319316/barriers-to-the-management-of-obstructed-defecation-according-to-colorectal-surgeons
#4
Nagham Al-Mozany, Caroline Wright, Greg O'Grady, Christopher J Young, Michael J Solomon
INTRODUCTION: Obstructive defecation (OD) has a high prevalence and disease impact, however patients often experience suboptimal management. This problem reflects the complex pathophysiology of OD, as well as health service delivery factors. This study aimed to identify factors acting as a barrier to effective OD management as perceived by specialist colorectal surgeons treating this disorder. METHOD: A postal questionnaire was administered to a bi-national sampling of colorectal specialists in Australia and New Zealand who were registered with their specialty society...
March 20, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319190/the-public-s-belief-in-climate-change-and-its-human-cause-are-increasing-over-time
#5
Taciano L Milfont, Marc S Wilson, Chris G Sibley
Polls examining public opinion on the subject of climate change are now commonplace, and one-off public opinion polls provide a snapshot of citizen's opinions that can inform policy and communication strategies. However, cross-sectional polls do not track opinions over time, thus making it impossible to ascertain whether key climate change beliefs held by the same group of individuals are changing or not. Here we examine the extent to which individual's level of agreement with two key beliefs ("climate change is real" and "climate change is caused by humans") remain stable or increase/decrease over a six-year period in New Zealand using latent growth curve modelling (n = 10,436)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319109/the-broad-study-a-randomised-controlled-trial-using-a-whole-food-plant-based-diet-in-the-community-for-obesity-ischaemic-heart-disease-or-diabetes
#6
N Wright, L Wilson, M Smith, B Duncan, P McHugh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: There is little randomised evidence using a whole food plant-based (WFPB) diet as intervention for elevated body mass index (BMI) or dyslipidaemia. We investigated the effectiveness of a community-based dietary programme. Primary end points: BMI and cholesterol at 6 months (subsequently extended). SUBJECTS: Ages 35-70, from one general practice in Gisborne, New Zealand. Diagnosed with obesity or overweight and at least one of type 2 diabetes, ischaemic heart disease, hypertension or hypercholesterolaemia...
March 20, 2017: Nutrition & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319002/hba1c-in-relation-to-incident-diabetes-and-diabetes-related-complications-in-non-diabetic-adults-at-baseline
#7
Patricia Anne Metcalf, Cam Kyle, Tim Kenealy, Rod T Jackson
AIMS: We compared the utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance (oGTT) in non-diabetic patients for identifying incident diabetes; all-cause mortality; cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality; CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD), and ischemic stroke events; and diabetes microvascular complications. METHODS: Data from a New Zealand community setting were prospectively linked to hospitalization, mortality, pharmaceutical and laboratory test results data...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316260/animal-physiology-and-genetic-aspects-of-ryegrass-staggers-in-grazing-sheep
#8
C A Morris, T T Wheeler, H V Henderson, N R Towers, S H Phua
Ryegrass staggers (RGS) is a metabolic disease of herbivores, caused by the ingestion of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) containing a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium lolii) which produces a tremorgenic toxin, lolitrem B. RGS has a major economic impact for agriculture in New Zealand as well as internationally. Management of RGS in grazing sheep can be problematic, and there is an incomplete knowledge of the interaction between the toxin and the grazing animal. This review is focused on recent advances in understanding the molecular physiology of RGS in the affected animal as well as the influence of animal genetics on the degree of susceptibility to RGS...
March 19, 2017: New Zealand Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315644/effects-of-buprenorphine-methylnaltrexone-and-their-combination-on-gastrointestinal-transit-in-healthy-new-zealand-white-rabbits
#9
Manuel Martin-Flores, Bhupinder Singh, Courtney A Walsh, Elizabeth P Brooks, Lacic Taylor, Lisa M Mitchell
Among the many analgesic agents available, buprenorphine appears to be the analgesic used most often in rabbits. Unfortunately, deleterious side effects of opioids, such as gastrointestinal stasis and anorexia, may discourage the use of these agents. Methylnaltrexone is a peripheral opioid antagonist that ameliorates opioid-induced gastrointestinal stasis in others species yet preserves the analgesic effects of buprenorphine. We evaluated whether methylnaltrexone reversed buprenorphine-induced gastrointestinal stasis in 8 healthy male New Zealand White rabbits...
March 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314708/to-prohibit-or-regulate-psychoactive-substances-has-new-zealand-got-the-right-approach
#10
Shakila B Rizwan, Andrea J Vernall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 17, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304118/causes-of-pain-and-loss-of-function-in-rotator-cuff-disease-analysis-of-1383-cases
#11
Anthony Maher, Warren Leigh, Matt Brick, Simon Young, Michael Caughey
BACKGROUND: The New Zealand Rotator Cuff Registry is a multicentre, nationwide prospective study of rotator cuff repairs established in March 2009. METHODS: A total of 1383 rotator cuff repairs were included in this study, all with completed baseline Flex-SF scores, pain scores and standardized operative forms. RESULTS: Increasing tear size and tear retraction, over 4 cm, were associated with decreasing Flex-SF scores but not pain. Tear area (a composite of tear size and retraction) is increased with advancing age, male gender and a traumatic history but not with smoking...
March 17, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303581/the-sigh-of-the-oppressed-the-palliative-effects-of-ideology-are-stronger-for-people-living-in-highly-unequal-neighbourhoods
#12
Nikhil K Sengupta, Lara M Greaves, Danny Osborne, Chris G Sibley
Ideologies that legitimize status hierarchies are associated with increased well-being. However, which ideologies have 'palliative effects', why they have these effects, and whether these effects extend to low-status groups remain unresolved issues. This study aimed to address these issues by testing the effects of the ideology of Symbolic Prejudice on well-being among low- and high-status ethnic groups (4,519 Europeans and 1,091 Māori) nested within 1,437 regions in New Zealand. Results showed that Symbolic Prejudice predicted increased well-being for both groups, but that this relationship was stronger for those living in highly unequal neighbourhoods...
March 16, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303579/endometriosis-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-specific-symptomatic-and-demographic-profile-and-response-to-the-low-fodmap-diet
#13
Judith S Moore, Peter R Gibson, Richard E Perry, Rebecca E Burgell
BACKGROUND: Women with endometriosis are frequently misdiagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) for some time before a correct diagnosis is made. Visceral hypersensitivity is a key feature in both conditions. AIMS: To determine if there are distinct symptom patterns in women with IBS and endometriosis, and to determine the response of these women to a low FODMAP diet in comparison to those with IBS alone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from women attending a specialist IBS service in Christchurch New Zealand...
March 17, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303563/general-practitioners-and-preconception-weight-management-in-new-zealand
#14
Diana Fieldwick, Alesha Smith, Helen Paterson
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern internationally and a top priority for the World Health Organization. Preconception overweight, obesity and excess gestational weight gain significantly increase childhood obesity risk. Optimising preconception weight is a key preventative measure toward reducing childhood obesity. In 2014, the New Zealand (NZ) Ministry of Health released guidance for health practitioners on healthy weight gain in pregnancy in an effort to reduce the burden of childhood obesity...
March 17, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303535/hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-coating-does-not-affect-bone-apposition-at-the-implant-surface-in-a-rabbit-model
#15
W Boot, D Gawlitta, P G J Nikkels, B Pouran, M H P van Rijen, W J A Dhert, H Ch Vogely
BACKGROUND: Uncemented orthopaedic implants rely on the bone-implant interface to provide stability, therefore it is essential that a coating does not interfere with the bone-forming processes occurring at the implant interface. In addition, local application of high concentrations of antibiotics for prophylaxis or treatment of infection may be toxic for osteoblasts and could impair bone growth. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: In this animal study, we investigated the effect of a commercially available hydrogel, either unloaded or loaded with 2% vancomycin...
March 16, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303363/test-retest-reliability-of-scotopic-full-field-electroretinograms-in-rabbits
#16
Jan Luebke, Alexandra Anton, Michael Bach
PURPOSE: To explore test-retest reliability of standard scotopic full-field ERG measurements in New Zealand White rabbits. The ERG is widely used for testing of retinal integrity after any ocular treatment. We here present detailed stimulus-response dependencies for single healthy and untreated animals, concentrating on test-retest reproducibility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five New Zealand White rabbits (aged 8-10 weeks, weight about 2.0-2.5 kg) underwent binocular ERG measurements after intramuscular anesthesia and pharmaceutical pupillary dilatation at a baseline day and 10 days later...
March 16, 2017: Documenta Ophthalmologica. Advances in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303160/cervical-rotatory-manipulation-decreases-uniaxial-tensile-properties-of-rabbit-atherosclerotic-internal-carotid-artery
#17
Shaoqun Zhang, Ji Qi, Lei Zhang, Chao Chen, Shubhro Mondal, Kaike Ping, Yili Chen, Yikai Li
Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302088/a-systematic-review-including-meta-analysis-of-work-environment-and-burnout-symptoms
#18
Gunnar Aronsson, Töres Theorell, Tom Grape, Anne Hammarström, Christer Hogstedt, Ina Marteinsdottir, Ingmar Skoog, Lil Träskman-Bendz, Charlotte Hall
BACKGROUND: Practitioners and decision makers in the medical and insurance systems need knowledge on the relationship between work exposures and burnout. Many burnout studies - original as well as reviews - restricted their analyses to emotional exhaustion or did not report results on cynicism, personal accomplishment or global burnout. To meet this need we carried out this review and meta-analyses with the aim to provide systematically graded evidence for associations between working conditions and near-future development of burnout symptoms...
March 16, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301847/enhancement-of-healing-of-long-tubular-bone-defects-in-rabbits-using-a-mixture-of-atelocollagen-gel-and-bone-marrow-aspirate-concentrate
#19
Ho Youn Park, Asode Ananthram Shetty, Jang Mook Kim, Young Ju Kim, Jae-Deog Jang, Nam Yong Choi, Jae Ho Lee, Seok Jung Kim
We evaluated the bone-forming potential of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate which was transplanted into bone defects. Radial shaft defects of about 10 mm in size were created in 30 New Zealand white rabbits. Ten rabbits in the control group were not treated further, 10 rabbits in the first experimental group (E1) received an atelocollagen injection, and 10 rabbits in the second experimental group (E2) received an injection of a mixture of atelocollagen and bone marrow aspirate concentrate...
March 17, 2017: Cells, Tissues, Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301490/a-novel-flexible-microfluidic-meshwork-to-reduce-fibrosis-in-glaucoma-surgery
#20
Behzad Amoozgar, Xiaoling Wei, Jun Hui Lee, Michele Bloomer, Zhengtuo Zhao, Paul Coh, Fei He, Lan Luan, Chong Xie, Ying Han
PURPOSE/RELEVANCE: Fibrosis and hence capsule formation around the glaucoma implants are the main reasons for glaucoma implant failure. To address these issues, we designed a microfluidic meshwork and tested its biocompatibility in a rabbit eye model. The amount of fibrosis elicited by the microfluidic meshwork was compared to the amount elicited by the plate of conventional glaucoma drainage device. METHODS: Six eyes from 3 New Zealand albino rabbits were randomized to receive either the novel microfluidic meshwork or a plate of Ahmed glaucoma valve model PF7 (AGV PF7)...
2017: PloS One
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