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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793039/antimicrobial-resistance-in-the-context-of-the-syrian-conflict-drivers-before-and-after-the-onset-of-conflict-and-key-recommendations
#1
REVIEW
Aula Abbara, Timothy M Rawson, Nabil Karah, Wael El-Amin, James Hatcher, Bachir Tajaldin, Osman Dar, Omar Dewachi, Ghassan Abu Sitta, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Annie Sparrow
Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. In this paper we explore and report the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers which existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over the counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict which were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment...
May 21, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792994/lumbar-spinal-stenosis-comparison-of-surgical-practice-variation-and-clinical-outcome-in-three-national-spine-registries
#2
Greger Lønne, Peter Fritzell, Olle Hägg, Dennis Nordvall, Paul Gerdhem, Tobias Lagerbäck, Mikkel Andersen, Søren Eiskjaer, Martin Gehrchen, Wilco Jacobs, Miranda L van Hooff, Tore K Solberg
BACKGROUND: Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains controversial, resulting in practice-based variation. PURPOSE: To evaluate in a pragmatic study if surgical selection criteria and variation in use of arthrodesis in three Scandinavian countries can be linked to variation in treatment effectiveness...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792993/responsiveness-of-the-japanese-orthopaedic-association-back-pain-evaluation-questionnaire-in-lumbar-surgery-and-its-threshold-for-indicating-clinically-important-differences
#3
Takahito Fujimori, Toshitada Miwa, Takenori Oda
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Introduced in 2007, the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) has been widely used, but its psychometric properties have not been well studied. PURPOSE: To assess the responsiveness and the clinically important differences of JOABPEQ for lumbar surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study. PATIENT SAMPLE: Two hundreds and three consecutive patients underwent lumbar surgeries between July 2013 and November 2015 in a single hospital...
May 21, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792726/i-like-them%C3%A2-will-they-like-me-evidence-for-the-role-of-the-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-during-mismatched-social-appraisals-in-anxious-youth
#4
Ashley R Smith, Eric E Nelson, Brent I Rappaport, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Johanna M Jarcho
OBJECTIVE: Socially anxious adolescents report distress during social decision-making, wherein their favorable view of peers directly conflicts with their expectation to be viewed negatively by peers; a phenomenon we refer to as "mismatch bias." The present study utilizes a novel paradigm with dynamic social stimuli to explore the correlates of mismatch biases in anxious and healthy youth. METHOD: The behavioral and neural correlates of mismatch biases were assessed in healthy (N = 17) and anxious (N = 14) youth during functional MRI...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792509/modulation-of-excitability-in-the-temporoparietal-junction-relieves-virtual-reality-sickness
#5
Naoyuki Takeuchi, Takayuki Mori, Yoshimi Suzukamo, Shin-Ichi Izumi
Virtual reality (VR) immersion often provokes subjective discomfort and postural instability, so called VR sickness. The neural mechanism of VR sickness is speculated to be related to visual-vestibular information mismatch and/or postural instability. However, the approaches proposed to relieve VR sickness through modulation of brain activity are poorly understood. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), we aimed to investigate whether VR sickness could be relieved by the modulation of cortical excitability in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ), which is known to be involved in processing of both vestibular and visual information...
May 24, 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792479/-fewer-but-not-weaker-understanding-the-intersectional-identities-among-chinese-immigrant-young-gay-men-in-toronto
#6
Yu-Te Huang, Lin Fang
Sexual minorities of color in North America are frequently defined as a "double minority" group. Intersectionality theory has inspired investigations into how different forms of marginalization intersect to shape the lives of people with multiple minority statuses. In this constructivist grounded theory study, 18 Chinese immigrant gay men between 18 and 28 years of age participated in a semistructured individual interview to narrate their lived experiences in relation to their intersectional identities...
May 24, 2018: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792470/the-science-of-teamwork-progress-reflections-and-the-road-ahead
#7
Eduardo Salas, Denise L Reyes, Susan H McDaniel
We need teams in nearly every aspect of our lives (e.g., hospitals, schools, flight decks, nuclear power plants, oil rigs, the military, and corporate offices). Nearly a century of psychological science has uncovered extensive knowledge about team-related processes and outcomes. In this article, we draw from the reviews and articles of this special issue to identify 10 key reflections that have arisen in the team literature, briefly summarized here. Team researchers have developed many theories surrounding the multilayered aspects of teams, such that now we have a solid theoretical basis for teams...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792461/teamwork-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#8
Jennifer N Ervin, Jeremy M Kahn, Taya R Cohen, Laurie R Weingart
Intensive care units (ICUs) provide care to the most severely ill hospitalized patients. Although ICUs increasingly rely on interprofessional teams to provide critical care, little about actual teamwork in this context is well understood. The ICU team is typically comprised of physicians or intensivists, clinical pharmacists, respiratory therapists, dieticians, bedside nurses, clinical psychologists, and clinicians-in-training. ICU teams are distinguished from other health care teams in that they are low in temporal stability, which can impede important team dynamics...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792350/management-of-veins-during-microvascular-decompression-for-idiopathic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#9
Xu Zhao, Shuai Hao, Minqing Wang, Chao Han, Deguang Xing, Chengwei Wang
OBJECT: To summarize our experience in treating veins during microvascular decompression (MVD) procedures for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN). METHODS: A total of 210 patients who underwent single MVD for idiopathic TN were retrospectively studied. The offending vessels were summarized. The treatment choices for veins during the operation were reviewed. Postoperative long-term outcomes were determined by follow-up. RESULTS: Veins accounted for 26...
May 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792264/paradoxical-brain-embolism-shadowing-massive-pulmonary-embolism
#10
François Bagate, Alexandre Bedet, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Guillaume Carteaux
Patent foramen ovale is frequently observed in the general population. In case of massive pulmonary embolism, the sudden increase in the right heart cavity's pressure may cause a right-to-left shunting across this foramen, which could be associated with conflicting outcomes. Herein, we report a case of reversible cardiac arrest preceded by seizures, and followed by hemodynamic stability without any vasopressor. A brain CT-scan showed a limited ischemic stroke. Initial echocardiographic assessment revealed an acute cor pulmonale and a right-to-left intracardiac shunt across a large patent foramen ovale, suggesting the diagnosis of massive pulmonary embolism that was lately confirmed by a multidetector CT-angiography...
May 20, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792253/genocide-rape-trauma-a-conceptual-framework-for-understanding-the-psychological-suffering-of-rwandan-survivors
#11
Donatilla Mukamana, Anthony Collins, William E Rosa
In 1994, the Rwandan genocide claimed the lives of approximately 1 million Tutsi and moderate Hutu citizens. Systematic rape was a strategic component of the Hutu extremist plan to eradicate the Tutsi minority population. This involved collective and repeated sexual assaults with brutal violence, public humiliation, and torture. This article maps the ongoing psychological impact on Rwandan genocide rape survivors and identifies implications for international nursing practice. The research formalizes their narratives, identifying a number of interconnected elements that combine to produce myriad forms of chronic psychological suffering in the Rwandan context...
May 1, 2018: Research and Theory for Nursing Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792080/stakeholders-resistance-to-telemedicine-with-focus-on-physicians-utilizing-the-delphi-technique
#12
Woo Seok Choi, Joowoong Park, Jin Young Brian Choi, Jae-Suk Yang
Introduction Sufficient infrastructure for information and communications technology (ICT) and a well-established policy are necessary factors for smooth implementation of telemedicine. However, despite these necessary conditions being met, there are situations where telemedicine still fails to be accepted as a system due to the low receptivity of stakeholders. In this study, we analyse stakeholders' resistance to an organization's implementation of telemedicine. Focusing on the physicians' interests, we propose a strategy to minimize conflicts and improve acceptance...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792077/symptoms-of-ptsd-in-frontline-journalists-a-retrospective-examination-of-18-years-of-war-and-conflict
#13
Anthony Feinstein, Jonas Osmann, Viral Patel
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the current study was to determine the frequency and severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in journalists covering conflict. METHODS: PTSD data (Impact of Event Scale-Revised) collected over an 18-year period from 684 conflict journalists were analyzed retrospectively for frequency and severity of reexperiencing, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Conflicts covered were civil wars in the Balkans ( n = 140 journalists), 9/11 attack in New York City ( n = 46), Iraq war ( n = 84), Mexico drug wars ( n = 104), civil war in Syria ( n = 59), Kenya election violence/Al-Shabab terror ( n = 57), state-sanctioned media intimidation in Iran ( n = 114), and the current migration crisis in Europe ( n = 80)...
January 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792072/contextualizing-acculturative-stress-among-latino-immigrants-in-the-united-states-a-systematic-review
#14
Venera Bekteshi, Sung-Wan Kang
PURPOSE: This systematic review of the literature informed of (a) the relationship between acculturation and acculturative stress, (b) examined the determinants of acculturative stress among Latino immigrants in the U.S., and (c) provided a conceptual framework that can be used to specify the interactive effect of various factors on acculturative stress. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA), this review synthesized the results of thirty studies published between 2000 and 2015 that investigated the influence of several socio-demographic and cultural contexts on acculturative stress among Latino immigrants categorized using Family Stress Management (FSM) theory as a framework...
May 23, 2018: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791782/obesity-leads-to-impairments-in-the-morphology-and-organization-of-human-skeletal-muscle-lipid-droplets-and-mitochondrial-networks-which-are-resolved-with-gastric-bypass-surgery-induced-improvements-in-insulin-sensitivity
#15
Marianne D Kristensen, Signe M Petersen, Kjestine E Møller, Michael T Lund, Merethe Hansen, Christina N Hansen, Julie Courraud, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela, Clara Prats
AIMS: Skeletal muscle lipid stores and mitochondrial function have been appointed as key players in obesity-induced insulin resistance. However, there are conflicting reports in the literature based on in vitro quantitative measurements. Here we test the hypothesis that it is not the quantity but the quality that matters. METHODS: The present study combines quantitative and qualitative structural measurements of lipid stores and mitochondrial dynamics in skeletal muscle from lean subjects, and subjects with morbid obesity, with and without type 2 diabetes, before and after gastric bypass surgery...
May 23, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791762/ethical-dilemmas-in-nursing-an-integrative-review
#16
REVIEW
Jennifer Rainer, Joanne Kraenzle Schneider, Rebecca A Lorenz
AIMS: The purpose of this integrative review was to identify themes and gaps in the literature to stimulate researchers to develop strategies to guide decision-making among clinical nurses faced with ethical dilemmas. BACKGROUND: The concept of ethical dilemmas has been well explored in nursing because of the frequency of ethical dilemmas in practice and the toll these dilemmas can take on nurses. Although ethical dilemmas are prevalent in nursing practice, frequently leading to moral distress, there is little guidance in the literature to help nurses resolve them...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791757/organ-donation-after-euthanasia-morally-acceptable-under-strict-procedural-safeguards
#17
Gert van Dijk, Rozemarijn van Bruchem-Visser, Inez de Beaufort
In this paper, we will present a case of organ donation after active euthanasia (ODE) in The Netherlands from a patient who had his life ended at his explicit and voluntary request. The form of ODE we describe here concerns patients who are not unconscious and on life support, but who are conscious and want to have their life ended because of their hopeless and unbearable suffering, for instance due to a terminal illness such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) or Multiple Sclerosis (MS). This form of ODE is of course only possible in jurisdictions where euthanasia is allowed...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791471/brown-bear-ursus-arctos-attacks-resulting-in-human-casualties-in-scandinavia-1977-2016-management-implications-and-recommendations
#18
Ole-Gunnar Støen, Andrés Ordiz, Veronica Sahlén, Jon M Arnemo, Solve Sæbø, Glenn Mattsing, Magnus Kristofferson, Sven Brunberg, Jonas Kindberg, Jon E Swenson
Human persecution and habitat loss have endangered large carnivore populations worldwide, but some are recovering, exacerbating old conflicts. Carnivores can injure and kill people; the most dramatic form of wildlife-human conflict. In Scandinavia, the brown bear (Ursus arctos) population increased from ~500 bears in 1977 to ~3300 in 2008, with an increase in injuries, fatalities, and public fear of bear attacks. We reviewed media coverage and interviewed victims to explore how bear population trends, hunter education, and other factors may have influenced the number of injuries and fatalities in Scandinavia from 1977 to 2016...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791460/are-saving-appearance-responses-typical-communication-patterns-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Masateru Matsushita, Yusuke Yatabe, Asuka Koyama, Akiko Katsuya, Daisuke Ijichi, Yusuke Miyagawa, Hiroto Ikezaki, Noboru Furukawa, Manabu Ikeda, Mamoru Hashimoto
INTRODUCTION: To keep up appearances, people with dementia sometimes pretend to know the correct answer, as seen during administration of neuropsychological tests such as the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). These saving appearance responses (SARs) of people with dementia often lead to caregivers and/or medical staff underestimating the severity of dementia and impede proper early initiation of treatment. However, most descriptions of SARs are based on empirical knowledge of clinicians...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791017/addressing-the-vexed-issue-of-authorship-and-author-order-a-discussion-paper
#20
Terence V McCann, Meg Polacsek
AIMS: To review and discuss authorship and author order in the context of nursing and midwifery publications and to present a set of principles to guide and justify author order. BACKGROUND: Variation in author order trends is evident across different authors, disciplines and countries. Confusion and conflict between authors give rise to important issues concerning ethics and collaboration and may delay publication. Lack of transparency in authorship practices also impedes judgements when individual contributions are used in support of employment, promotion, tenure and/or research funding applications...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
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