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Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) Spectrum Disorders

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144890/comprehensive-analysis-of-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-nmosd-combined-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-chb-infection-and-seropositive-for-anti-aquaporin-4-antibody
#1
Jia Liu, Li Xu, Zhuo-Lin Chen, Min Li, Huan Yi, Fu-Hua Peng
Previous research indicated the association between hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection/vaccination and the onset of demyelinating diseases. However, most of these studies were single case reports, and comprehensive data are still scarce. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 10 patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) combined with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and seropositive for anti-aquaporin-4 antibody (AQP4-Ab). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, outcome, and follow-up data of the 10 patients were retrospectively analyzed...
November 16, 2017: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141812/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-iran
#2
Sharareh Eskandarieh, Saharnaz Nedjat, Amir Reza Azimi, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi, Mohammad Ali Sahraian
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitys optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare demyelinating disease; as a result, the epidemiological data on this disorder is scarce. In this regard, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, serology, and clinical features of NMOSD in Caucasian population in Tehran, Iran. METHOD: A cross sectional study was performed in Tehran from 2015 to 2016 among patients registered with NMOSD diagnosis, based on consensus criteria published in 2015...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141789/a-case-of-seropositive-neuromyelitis-optica-in-a-paediatric-patient-with-co-existing-acute-nephrotic-syndrome
#3
Thomas Volkman, Cheryl Hemingway
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a rare relapsing autoimmune disease of the central nervous system constituting less than 1% of demyelinating diseases (Jeffery and Buncic, 1996). It preferentially affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, with the brain parenchyma generally spared. Demyelinating lesions are characterised by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and often longitudinally extensive optic neuritis. Following the discovery of a novel pathogenic antibody, Aquaporin 4 in 2004 (Lennon et al...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131884/seizures-and-encephalitis-in-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-igg-disease-vs-aquaporin-4-igg-disease
#4
Shahd H M Hamid, Dan Whittam, Mariyam Saviour, Amal Alorainy, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Maneesh Bhojak, Mark Woodhall, Patrick Waters, Richard Appleton, Martin Duddy, Anu Jacob
Importance: Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG (MOG-IgG) are increasingly detected in patients with non-multiple sclerosis-related demyelination, some of whom manifest a neuromyelitis optica (NMO) phenotype. Cortical involvement, encephalopathy, and seizures are rare in aquaporin 4 antibody (AQP4-IgG)-related NMO in the white European population. However, the authors encountered several patients with seizures associated with MOG-IgG disease. Objective: To compare incidence of seizures and encephalitis-like presentation, or both between AQP4-IgG-positive and MOG-IgG-positive patients...
November 13, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118581/complexity-and-wide-range-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-more-than-typical-manifestations
#5
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Meng-Ge Yang, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO), considered to be mediated by autoantibodies, often cause severely disabling disorders of the central nervous system, and predominantly cause optic nerve damage and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Remarkable progress has been made in deciphering NMO pathogenesis during the past decade. In 2015, the International Panel for NMO Diagnosis proposed the unifying term "NMO spectrum disorders" (NMOSD) and the updated NMOSD criteria reflects a wide range of disease and maintains reasonable specificity...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114368/recurrent-isolated-optic-neuritis-a-study-on-22-patients
#6
Mahsa Arzani, Mohammad Ali Sahraian, Hamed Rezaei, Abdorreza Naser Moghadasi
Background: Isolated relapsing optic neuropathy is a recurrent painful optic nerve inflammation without any sign of other demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) or neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, and the attacks are purely responsive to steroid therapy. Methods: Recurrent isolated optic neuritis (RION) was diagnosed in patients who presented with at least two disseminating episodes of optic neuritis, and negative clinical, para-clinical, and radiological features of the demyelinating, infiltrative and vasculitis disorders involving optic nerve...
July 6, 2017: Iranian Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100047/prevalence-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorder-in-the-multi-ethnic-penang-island-malaysia-and-a-review-of-worldwide-prevalence
#7
Jyh Yung Hor, Thien Thien Lim, Yuen Kang Chia, Yee Ming Ching, Chun Fai Cheah, Kenny Tan, Han Bing Chow, Masita Arip, Gaik Bee Eow, P E Samuel Easaw, M Isabel Leite
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) occurs worldwide in all ethnicities. Recently, population-based studies have shown that NMOSD is more common among non-White populations. There is scarce data about NMOSD prevalence in South East Asian populations. METHODS: (1) A population-based study was undertaken to estimate NMOSD prevalence in the multi-ethnic Penang Island, Malaysia, comprising Chinese, Malays, and Indians. Medical records of NMOSD patients followed up at the Penang General Hospital (the neurology referral centre in Penang Island) were reviewed...
October 21, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055448/a-case-of-mog-antibody-positive-bilateral-optic-neuritis-and-meningoganglionitis-following-a-genital-herpes-simplex-virus-infection
#8
Masataka Nakamura, Yuko Iwasaki, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Kimihiko Kaneko, Ichiro Nakashima, Takenobu Kunieda, Satoshi Kaneko, Hirofumi Kusaka
BACKGROUND: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody-positive optic neuritis (ON) and myelitis are recognized as important differential diagnosis of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody-positive neuromyelitis optica (NMO)/NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Similar to NMO/NMOSD associated with AQP4 antibodies, preceding infections have been reported in patients with MOG antibody-positive ON. This is the first report of bilateral ON following a herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection associated with a positive MOG antibody...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055439/patient-perspectives-on-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-data-from-the-patientslikeme-online-community
#9
Stephanie Eaneff, Victor Wang, Morgan Hanger, Michael Levy, Maureen A Mealy, Alexander U Brandt, Daniel Eek, John N Ratchford, Fredrik Nyberg, Jonathan Goodall, Paul Wicks
BACKGROUND: Few studies have evaluated patient perspectives on neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD). OBJECTIVE: Describe patient-reported clinical and treatment experience in NMOSD and compare disease characteristics of NMOSD with those of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This retrospective, observational study included 522 members with NMO or NMOSD (hereafter collectively referred to as NMOSD) from PatientsLikeMe (PLM), an online patient community...
October 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030418/short-delay-to-initiate-plasma-exchange-is-the-strongest-predictor-of-outcome-in-severe-attacks-of-nmo-spectrum-disorders
#10
Mickael Bonnan, Rudy Valentino, Stéphane Debeugny, Harold Merle, Jean-Louis Fergé, Hossein Mehdaoui, Philippe Cabre
INTRODUCTION: Severe attacks of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMO-SD) are improved by plasma exchange (PLEX) given as an adjunctive therapy. Initial studies failed to demonstrate a delay of PLEX treatment influenced clinical outcome; however PLEX was always used late. We examine the clinical consequences of delay in PLEX initiation on severe optic neuritis and spinal cord attacks in NMO-SD. METHODS: All of our patients who suffered attacks of NMO-SD, treated in our centre by PLEX, were retrospectively considered for inclusion...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025172/-anti-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-antibodies-in-paediatric-patients-with-optic-neuritis
#11
Helmut Tegetmeyer, Andreas Merkenschlager
Background Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is located on the surface of oligodendrocytes and myelin in the central nervous system. MOG-IgG is associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), relapsing and bilateral optic neuritis (NNO), and transverse myelitis (TM) in both paediatric and adult patients. The combination of NNO and TM or other inflammatory brain lesions is a typical feature of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) which are associated with specific pathogenic autoantibodies against the water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG)...
October 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991690/neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-with-antibodies-to-myelin-oligodendrocyte-glycoprotein-or-aquaporin-4-clinical-and-paraclinical-characteristics-in-algerian-patients
#12
Melissa Bouzar, Smail Daoudi, Samira Hattab, Amel A Bouzar, Kumaran Deiva, Brigitte Wildemann, Markus Reindl, Sven Jarius
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. NMO and its abortive forms are referred to as NMO spectrum disorders (NMOSD). NMOSD are mostly associated with antibodies to aquaporin-4 (AQP4-IgG). However, recent studies have demonstrated antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) in a subset of patients. Data on NMOSD in North Africa are sparse. OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG among patients with optic neuritis (ON) and/or myelitis in Algeria as well as the clinical and paraclinical features associated with these antibodies...
October 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987175/inflammatory-demyelinating-diseases-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
Romana Höftberger, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory demyelinating diseases are a heterogeneous group of disorders, which occur against the background of an acute or chronic inflammatory process. The pathologic hallmark of multiple sclerosis (MS) is the presence of focal demyelinated lesions with partial axonal preservation and reactive astrogliosis. Demyelinated plaques are present in the white as well as gray matter, such as the cerebral or cerebellar cortex and brainstem nuclei. Activity of the disease process is reflected by the presence of lesions with ongoing myelin destruction...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986408/prevalence-and-clinical-features-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-in-northern-japan
#14
Hideki Houzen, Kimito Kondo, Masaaki Niino, Kazuhiro Horiuchi, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima, Keiko Tanaka
OBJECTIVE: To clarify the prevalence and clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) in Japan and compare them with those in other ethnic populations. METHODS: Data processing sheets were sent to all related institutions in northern Japan and were collected from April to May 2016. Prevalence was determined on March 31, 2016, using the 2015 International Panel for NMO Diagnosis criteria. RESULTS: The crude prevalence was 4...
November 7, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910968/efficiency-of-antibody-therapy-in-demyelinating-diseases
#15
Tetsuya Akaishi, Ichiro Nakashima
Monoclonal antibody therapy is a new treatment strategy for many types of diseases including cancers and autoimmune diseases, realizing a high efficacy and tolerability. In multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorders, several monoclonal antibodies have been suggested to decrease the incidence of clinical relapse and the disease activity. In MS, anti-α4 integrin (natalizumab), anti-CD52 (alemtuzumab), anti-CD25 (daclizumab) and anti-CD20 (ocrelizumab) have been shown to effectively reduce the relapses in randomized controlled trials and have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration...
July 1, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904454/rituximab-in-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-our-experience
#16
Jui Dilip Jade, Srishti Bansi, Bhim Singhal
BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disease, with recurrent attacks of severe bilateral optic neuritis and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Aggressive immunosuppression is essential to prevent clinical relapses and permanent disability. Rituximab, a monoclonal antibody to CD20, has been found effective in several reports and small uncontrolled studies. There is a paucity of data regarding its use in Indian patients...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840314/what-proportion-of-aqp4-igg-negative-nmo-spectrum-disorder-patients-are-mog-igg-positive-a-cross-sectional-study-of-132-patients
#17
Shahd H M Hamid, Daniel Whittam, Kerry Mutch, Samantha Linaker, Tom Solomon, Kumar Das, Maneesh Bhojak, Anu Jacob
Antibodies to myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG-IgG) have been described in patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) without aquaporin-4 antibodies (AQP4-IgG). We aimed to identify the proportion of AQP4-IgG-negative NMOSD patients who are seropositive for MOG-IgG. In a cross sectional study, we reviewed all patients seen in the National NMO clinic over the last 4 years (after the availability of MOG-IgG testing), including clinical information, MRI, and antibody tests. 261 unique patients were identified...
October 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780848/-clinical-characteristics-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-associated-with-syringomyelia
#18
Y G Wang, Y Q Wang, W Qiu, X Q Hu, Z Z Lu
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) associated with syringomyelia (SML). Methods: The clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters and imaging findings of 7 patients with NMOSD associated with SML during June 2008 to August 2016 from The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Six patients were female and 1 was male, with ages ranging from 27-67 years, the course of the disease was 3-12 years, recurrence was 2-7 times, all the patients were cerebrospinal fluid oligoclonal bands (CSF OCB) negative, 5 patients were positive for aquaporin-4-antibody/NMO-IgG...
August 1, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750658/complement-regulator-cd59-prevents-peripheral-organ-injury-in-rats-made-seropositive-for-neuromyelitis-optica-immunoglobulin-g
#19
Xiaoming Yao, Alan S Verkman
Pathogenesis in aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) seropositive neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (herein called NMO) involves complement-dependent cytotoxicity initiated by AQP4-IgG binding to astrocyte AQP4. We recently reported that rats lacking complement inhibitor protein CD59 were highly susceptible to development of NMO pathology in brain and spinal cord following direct AQP4-IgG administration (Yao and Verkman, Acta Neuropath Commun 2017, 5:15). Here, we report evidence that CD59 is responsible for protection of peripheral, AQP4-expressing tissues in seropositive NMO...
July 27, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748851/insights-into-initial-demyelinating-episodes-of-central-nervous-system-during-puerperium
#20
Qian Wu, Bo Chen, Na Liu, Yang Hu, Chao Pan, Ping Zhang, Zhou-Ping Tang, Bi-Tao Bu
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory demyelinating disease of central nervous system (CNS) is an inflammatory disease characterized by a high childbearing female predominance. Labor-related alterations for postpartum demyelinating attacks are not entirely clear. This study aimed to summarize clinical features of female patients of reproductive age with initial CNS inflammatory demyelinating attacks during puerperium. METHODS: Fourteen female patients with initial demyelinating events during puerperium between January 2013 and December 2016 were retrospectively studied...
August 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
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