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Oral bacteria

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931041/lactobacillus-paracasei-feeding-improves-immune-control-of-influenza-infection-in-mice
#1
Nouria Belkacem, Nicolas Serafini, Richard Wheeler, Muriel Derrien, Lilia Boucinha, Aurélie Couesnon, Nadine Cerf-Bensussan, Ivo Gomperts Boneca, James P Di Santo, Muhamed-Kkeir Taha, Raphaëlle Bourdet-Sicard
Respiratory tract infections such as flu cause severe morbidity and mortality and are among the leading causes of death in children and adults worldwide. Commensal microbiota is critical for orchestrating tissue homeostasis and immunity in the intestine. Probiotics represent an interesting source of immune modulators and several clinical studies have addressed the potential beneficial effects of probiotics against respiratory infections. Therefore, we have investigated the mechanisms of protection conferred by L...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928218/the-serine-protease-homolog-clipa14-modulates-the-intensity-of-the-immune-response-in-the-mosquito-anopheles-gambiae
#2
Johnny Nakhleh, George K Christophides, Mike A Osta
CLIP domain serine protease homologues (cSPHs) are positive and negative regulators of Anopheles gambiae immune responses mediated by the complement-like protein TEP1 against Plasmodium malaria parasites and other microbial infections. We have previously reported that the SPH CLIPA2 is a negative regulator of the TEP1-mediated response by showing that CLIPA2 knockdown (kd) enhances mosquito resistance to infections with fungi, bacteria and Plasmodium parasites. Here, we identify another SPH, CLIPA14, as a novel regulator of mosquito immunity...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925109/red-fluorescence-imaging-for-dental-plaque-detection-and-quantification-pilot-study
#3
Zhao Liu, Juliana Gomez, Soniya Khan, Debbie Peru, Roger Ellwood
The red fluorescence of dental plaque originating from porphyrins in oral bacteria may allow visualization, detection, and scoring of plaque without disclosing agents. Two studies were conducted. The first included 24 healthy participants who abstained from oral hygiene for 24 h. Dental plaque was collected from tooth surfaces, and a 10% solution was prepared. These were scanned by a molecular spectrometer to identify the optimum excitation and emission wavelengths of plaque for developing a red fluorescence imaging system...
September 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924229/variations-in-oral-microbiota-associated-with-oral-cancer
#4
Hongsen Zhao, Min Chu, Zhengwei Huang, Xi Yang, Shujun Ran, Bin Hu, Chenping Zhang, Jingping Liang
Individual bacteria and shifts in microbiome composition are associated with human disease, including cancer. To unravel the connections underlying oral bacterial dysbiosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), cancer lesion samples and anatomically matched normal samples were obtained from the same patients. We then profiled the bacteria within OSCC lesion surface samples at the species level using next-generation sequencing to comprehensively investigate bacterial community composition and functional genes in these samples...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924192/short-chain-fatty-acids-ameliorate-immune-mediated-uveitis-partially-by-altering-migration-of-lymphocytes-from-the-intestine
#5
Yukiko K Nakamura, Cathleen Janowitz, Christina Metea, Mark Asquith, Lisa Karstens, James T Rosenbaum, Phoebe Lin
Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) are metabolites of intestinal bacteria resulting from fermentation of dietary fiber. SCFA are protective in various animal models of inflammatory disease. We investigated the effects of exogenous administration of SFCAs, particularly propionate, on uveitis using an inducible model of experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). Oral SCFA administration attenuated uveitis severity in a mouse strain-dependent manner through regulatory T cell induction among lymphocytes in the intestinal lamina propria (LPL) and cervical lymph nodes (CLN)...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924143/fructooligosaccharide-fos-and-galactooligosaccharide-gos-increase-bifidobacterium-but-reduce-butyrate-producing-bacteria-with-adverse-glycemic-metabolism-in-healthy-young-population
#6
Feitong Liu, Pan Li, Muxuan Chen, Yuemei Luo, M Prabhakar, Huimin Zheng, Yan He, Qi Qi, Haoyu Long, Yi Zhang, Huafang Sheng, Hongwei Zhou
The gut microbiota has been implicated in glucose intolerance and its progression towards type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Relevant randomized clinical trial with prebiotic intervention was inadequate. We sought to evaluate the impact of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS) on glycemia during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intestinal microbiota. A randomized double-blind cross-over study was performed with 35 adults treated with FOS and GOS for 14 days (16 g/day). Faeces sampling, OGTT and anthropometric parameters were performed...
September 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920109/papillon-lef%C3%A3-vre-syndrome-a-series-of-three-cases-in-the-same-family-and-a-literature-review
#7
Jasbir D Upadhyaya, Dustin Pfundheller, Mohammed N Islam, Indraneel Bhattacharyya
Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder that exhibits palmoplantar keratosis and early severe periodontitis. The oral disease affects both the primary and permanent dentitions leading to premature exfoliation of teeth. Various etiologic factors, such as genetic mutations, immunologic alterations, and bacteria have been implicated in PLS. Genetic mutations leading to the loss of function of cathepsin C (CTSC) gene, located on chromosome 11q14, is considered pivotal in this condition...
2017: Quintessence International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918153/linseed-oil-and-dgat1-k232a-polymorphism-effects-on-methane-emission-energy-and-nitrogen-metabolism-lactation-performance-ruminal-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-composition-of-holstein-friesian-cows
#8
S van Gastelen, M H P W Visker, J E Edwards, E C Antunes-Fernandes, K A Hettinga, S J J Alferink, W H Hendriks, H Bovenhuis, H Smidt, J Dijkstra
Complex interactions between rumen microbiota, cow genetics, and diet composition may exist. Therefore, the effect of linseed oil, DGAT1 K232A polymorphism (DGAT1), and the interaction between linseed oil and DGAT1 on CH4 and H2 emission, energy and N metabolism, lactation performance, ruminal fermentation, and rumen bacterial and archaeal composition was investigated. Twenty-four lactating Holstein-Friesian cows (i.e., 12 with DGAT1 KK genotype and 12 with DGAT1 AA genotype) were fed 2 diets in a crossover design: a control diet and a linseed oil diet (LSO) with a difference of 22 g/kg of dry matter (DM) in fat content between the 2 diets...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916324/in%C3%A2-vitro-investigation-of-the-antimicrobial-effect-of-three-bisphosphonates-against-different-bacterial-strains
#9
Michael A Ermer, Simon C Kottmann, Jörg-Elard Otten, Annette Wittmer, Philipp Poxleitner, Klaus Pelz
PURPOSE: Since the first descriptions of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) in 2003, the pathogenesis has remained unanswered. Recent histomorphometric studies have found several microorganisms, including Actinomyces, Bacillus, Fusobacterium, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Selenomonas, Treponema, and Candida albicans in necrotic bone. Polymerase chain reaction studies have recently confirmed the occurrence of 48 genera. Only a few studies have examined the antimicrobial effect of bisphosphonates (BPs)...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916286/toxicology-studies-of-primycin-sulphate-using-a-three-dimensional-3d-in-vitro-human-liver-aggregate-model
#10
Ágota Pénzes, Elhusseiny Mohamed Mahmud Abdelwahab, Judit Rapp, Zsanett A Péteri, Judit Bovári-Biri, Csaba Fekete, György Miskei, Krisztián Kvell, Judit E Pongrácz
Primycin-sulphate is a highly effective compound against Gram (G) positive bacteria. It has a potentially synergistic effect with vancomycin and statins which makes primycin-sulphate a potentially very effective preparation. Primycin-sulphate is currently used exclusively in topical preparations such as in in vitro animal hepatocyte and neuromuscular junction studies (in mice, rats, snakes, frogs) as well as in in vitro human red blood cell experiments. During these studies, the use of primycin-sulphate resulted in reduced cellular membrane integrity and modified ion channel activity...
September 12, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913414/diversity-of-aerobic-bacteria-isolated-from-oral-and-cloacal-cavities-from-free-living-snakes-species-in-costa-rica-rainforest
#11
Allan Artavia-León, Ariel Romero-Guerrero, Carolina Sancho-Blanco, Norman Rojas, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro
Costa Rica has a significant number of snakebites per year and bacterial infections are often complications in these animal bites. Hereby, this study aims to identify, characterize, and report the diversity of the bacterial community in the oral and cloacal cavities of venomous and nonvenomous snakes found in wildlife in Costa Rica. The snakes where captured by casual encounter search between August and November of 2014 in the Quebrada González sector, in Braulio Carrillo National Park. A total of 120 swabs, oral and cloacal, were taken from 16 individuals of the Viperidae and Colubridae families...
2017: International Scholarly Research Notices
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912620/hormonal-contraception-and-the-development-of-autoimmunity-a-review-of-the-literature
#12
William V Williams
Estrogens and progestins are known to have profound effects on the immune system and may modulate the susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. A comprehensive literature search was carried out using PubMed for any of 153 autoimmune disease terms and the terms contraception, contraceptive, or their chemical components with limits of Humans + Title or Abstract. Over 1,800 titles were returned and scanned, 352 papers retrieved and reviewed in depth and an additional 70 papers retrieved from the bibliographies. Based on this review, substantial evidence exists linking the use of combined oral contraceptives to a lower incidence of hyperthyroidism, an increase in multiple sclerosis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, and interstitial cystitis...
August 2017: Linacre Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912533/oral-fibroblasts-modulate-the-macrophage-response-to-bacterial-challenge
#13
Rinat Tzach-Nahman, Rizan Nashef, Omer Fleissig, Aharon Palmon, Lior Shapira, Asaf Wilensky, Gabriel Nussbaum
Tissue damage in chronic periodontal disease is driven by the host response to a dysbiotic microbiota, and not by bacteria directly. Among chronic inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity, inflammation and tissue damage around dental implants (peri-implantitis) is emerging as a major clinical challenge, since it is more severe and less responsive to treatment compared to inflammation around natural teeth. We tested whether oral fibroblasts from the periodontal ligament (PDLF), which are present around natural teeth but not around dental implants, actively regulate inflammatory responses to bacterial stimulation...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912020/intestinal-dysbiosis-featuring-abundance-of-ruminococcus-gnavus-associates-with-allergic-diseases-in-infants
#14
Huey-Huey Chua, Hung-Chieh Chou, Ya-Ling Tung, Bor-Luen Chiang, Chien-Chia Liao, Hong-Hsing Liu, Yen-Hsuan Ni
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with development of allergies in infants. However, it is not clear what microbes might contribute to this process. We investigated what microbe(s) might be involved in analyses of infant twins and mice. METHODS: We studied fecal specimens prospectively in a twin cohort (n=30) and age-matched singletons (n=14) born at National Taiwan University Children's Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, from April 2011 to March 2013...
September 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910633/host-genetic-control-of-the-oral-microbiome-in-health-and-disease
#15
Andres Gomez, Josh L Espinoza, Derek M Harkins, Pamela Leong, Richard Saffery, Michelle Bockmann, Manolito Torralba, Claire Kuelbs, Rohith Kodukula, Jason Inman, Toby Hughes, Jeffrey M Craig, Sarah K Highlander, Marcus B Jones, Chris L Dupont, Karen E Nelson
Host-associated microbial communities are influenced by both host genetics and environmental factors. However, factors controlling the human oral microbiome and their impact on disease remain to be investigated. To determine the combined and relative effects of host genotype and environment on oral microbiome composition and caries phenotypes, we profiled the supragingival plaque microbiome of 485 dizygotic and monozygotic twins aged 5-11. Oral microbiome similarity always increased with shared host genotype, regardless of caries state...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910628/tooth-be-told-genetics-influences-oral-microbiome
#16
Emily R Davenport
The mix of bacteria that coat our teeth impact oral health, but it remains unclear what factors govern their composition. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Gomez et al. (2017) examine the relationship between host genetics and the oral microbiome in the context of health and disease.
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904972/evaluation-of-the-bacterial-diversity-in-the-human-tongue-coating-based-on-genus-specific-primers-for-16s-rrna-sequencing
#17
Beili Sun, Dongrui Zhou, Jing Tu, Zuhong Lu
The characteristics of tongue coating are very important symbols for disease diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory. As a habitat of oral microbiota, bacteria on the tongue dorsum have been proved to be the cause of many oral diseases. The high-throughput next-generation sequencing (NGS) platforms have been widely applied in the analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene. We developed a methodology based on genus-specific multiprimer amplification and ligation-based sequencing for microbiota analysis...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904323/effects-of-bittern-water-on-cariogenic-bacteria-and-saliva-secretion
#18
Mariko Ohtsu, Muneaki Tamura, Hideto Sasaki, Shuichi Sato, Masatake Asano
The effects of bittern water (BW), obtained from the ocean floor, on cariogenic bacteria and saliva secretion were examined. Streptococcus mutans was mixed with BW for 1, 3, 5, 10, and 20 min to explore the bactericidal effects of BW against cariogenic bacteria. Bacterial viability was calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units on Brain Heart Infusion agar plates. The results indicated a bacterial viability of more than 35% even after 20 min of incubation. Subsequently, the effects of BW on saliva secretion and the salivary concentration of secretory IgA (sIgA) were examined...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904315/microbiological-assessment-of-effects-of-clinical-mouth-rinses-on-common-oral-microbes
#19
Taiji Ogawa, Mariko Honda-Ogawa, Kazunori Ikebe, Shigetada Kawabata, Yoshinobu Maeda
Dry mouth occurs frequently in aged individuals, as well as in patients who are hospitalized, receiving multiple drugs, undergoing radiation treatment to the head and neck, or wearing a removable denture prosthesis, use of mouth rinse being often an option for relief. In the present study, we performed microbiological assessments of subjects given three different commercially available mouth rinses commonly employed in clinical practice (Peptisal, Biotène, ConCool) to determine their effects. For bacterial clearance in vitro, Peptisal showed the highest level of suppression of oral indigenous bacteria found in both planktonic formations and biofilm...
2017: Journal of Oral Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901793/intravenous-fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-serious-infections
#20
Andrew F Shorr, Jason M Pogue, John F Mohr
With the worldwide increase in the rates of antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action are needed to fill a void in the antimicrobial armamentarium. Areas Covered: Intravenous fosfomycin has been studied extensively in a wide variety of infections including cUTI, lower respiratory tract infection, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and bacteremia outside of the United States. This paper reviews the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical experience of intravenous fosfomycin in hospitalized patients with serious infections...
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
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