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Predictive modeling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471543/current-and-future-potential-risk-of-establishment-of-grapholita-molesta-lepidoptera-tortricidae-in-washington-state
#1
Lisa G Neven, Sunil Kumar, Wee L Yee, Tewodros Wakie
The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a primary pest of stone fruits that cause significant economic damage. Larvae, which enter the host plant through shoot tips, damage shoots, and ripe fruits. Native to Asia, this pest now occurs in many fruit-growing countries, including the United States and Canada. Though the pest was previously reported from many states within the United States, its current distribution and the environmental variables that influence its distribution are not properly identified...
February 17, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471536/variation-across-mitochondrial-gene-trees-provides-evidence-for-systematic-error-how-much-gene-tree-variation-is-biological
#2
Emilie J Richards, Jeremy M Brown, Anthony J Barley, Rebecca A Chong, Robert C Thomson
The use of large genomic datasets in phylogenetics has highlighted extensive topological variation across genes. Much of this discordance is assumed to result from biological processes. However, variation among gene trees can also be a consequence of systematic error driven by poor model fit, and the relative importance of biological versus methodological factors in explaining gene tree variation is a major unresolved question. Using mitochondrial genomes to control for biological causes of gene tree variation, we estimate the extent of gene tree discordance driven by systematic error and employ posterior prediction to highlight the role of model fit in producing this discordance...
February 19, 2018: Systematic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471484/a-study-of-the-knowledge-attitudes-and-practices-of-tibetan-yak-herders-with-respect-to-brucellosis
#3
Jiang Y Zeng, Dor J Ciren, Dun Z Yundan, Qiong Pu, Cai W Gongjue, Dor J Jiumei, Ian D Robertson
Background: Little information is available regarding the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of the owners of yaks in Tibet with respect to brucellosis. Methods: This manuscript reports on the results of a cross-sectional survey using a structured questionnaire investigating the KAP of 317 yak herders from 34 villages in the three main yak-rearing counties of Maizhokunggar, Damxung and Yadong from April to August 2015. Results: Although 60...
February 17, 2018: International Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471431/making-waves-new-developments-in-toxicology-with-the-zebrafish
#4
Katharine A Horzmann, Jennifer L Freeman
The laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio) is now an accepted model in toxicologic research. The zebrafish model fills a niche between in vitro models and mammalian biomedical models. The developmental characteristics of the small fish are strategically being used by scientists to study topics ranging from high-throughput toxicity screens to toxicity in multi- and transgenerational studies. High-throughput technology has increased the utility of zebrafish embryonic toxicity assays in screening of chemicals and drugs for toxicity or effect...
February 19, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471424/predicting-user-adherence-to-behavioral-ehealth-interventions-in-the-real-world-examining-which-aspects-of-intervention-design-matter-most
#5
Amit Baumel, Elad Yom-Tov
Existing frameworks have identified a range of intervention design features that may facilitate adherence to eHealth interventions; however, empirical data are lacking on whether intervention design features can predict user adherence in the real world-where the public access available tools-and whether some design aspects of behavioral eHealth interventions are more important than others in predicting adherence. This study examined whether intervention design qualities predict user adherence to behavioral eHealth interventions in real-world use and which qualities matter the most...
February 17, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471423/predictive-models-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-multiple-sclerosis
#6
Jason A Berard, Andra M Smith, Lisa A S Walker
Objective: Cognitive fatigue (CF) can be defined as decreased performance with sustained cognitive effort. The present study examined the interrelatedness of disease severity, fatigue, depression, and sleep quality in order to evaluate their predictive roles of CF in MS. Four theoretical models examining these variables were assessed. Methods: Fifty-eight individuals with a diagnosis of MS were recruited. CF was measured by examining last third versus first third performance on the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471410/risk-factors-associated-with-sustaining-a-sport-related-concussion-an-initial-synthesis-study-of-12-320-student-athletes
#7
Benjamin L Brett, Andrew W Kuhn, Aaron M Yengo-Kahn, Gary S Solomon, Scott L Zuckerman
Objective: The empirical identification of risk factors associated with sport-related concussion (SRC) may improve the management of student-athletes. The current study attempted to identify and quantify bio-cognitive risk factors associated with sustaining a SRC. Methods: Cross-sectional ambispective study; level of evidence, 3. Neurocognitive testing of 12,320 middle school, high school and collegiate athletes was completed at preseason baseline and post-SRC. Univariate and multivariable logistic regressions were used to determine which pre-injury variables accurately predicted the occurrence of SRC...
February 17, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471406/multiobjective-multifactor-dimensionality-reduction-to-detect-snp-snp-interactions
#8
Cheng-Hong Yang, Li-Yeh Chuang, Yu-Da Lin
Motivation: Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interactions (SSIs) are popular markers for understanding disease susceptibility. Multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) can successfully detect considerable SSIs. Currently, MDR-based methods mainly adopt a single-objective function (a single measure based on contingency tables) to detect SSIs. However, generally, a single-measure function might not yield favorable results due to potential model preferences and disease complexities...
February 19, 2018: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471369/genome-wide-association-study-of-stayability-and-heifer-pregnancy-in-red-angus-cattle
#9
S E Speidel, B A Buckley, R J Boldt, R M Enns, J Lee, M L Spangler, M G Thomas
Reproductive performance is the most important component of cattle production from the standpoint of economic sustainability of commercial beef enterprises. Heifer Pregnancy (HPG) and Stayability (STAY) genetic predictions are two selection tools published by the Red Angus Association of America (RAAA) to assist with improvements in reproductive performance. Given the importance of HPG and STAY to the profitability of commercial beef enterprises, the objective of this study was to identify QTL associated with both HPG and STAY in Red Angus cattle...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471360/adverse-consequences-of-unmet-needs-for-care-in-high-need-high-cost-older-adults
#10
Scott R Beach, Richard Schulz, Esther M Friedman, Juleen Rodakowski, Grant Martsolf, Alton Everette James
Objectives: We explore adverse consequences of unmet needs for care among high-need/high-cost (HNHC) older adults. Method: Interviews with 4,024 community-dwelling older adults with ADL/IADL/mobility disabilities from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS). Reports of socio-demographics, disability compensatory strategies, and adverse consequences of unmet needs in the past month were obtained from older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC), probable dementia (DEM), and/or near end-of-life (EOL) and compared older adults not meeting these criteria...
February 17, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471329/effects-of-varenicline-depressive-symptoms-and-region-of-enrollment-on-smoking-cessation-in-depressed-smokers
#11
Neal Doran, Sarah Dubrava, Robert M Anthenelli
Introduction: Despite effective treatments, relapse to smoking remains a vexing global health problem. One predictor of relapse is depressive symptoms. Medications such as varenicline reduce withdrawal-related symptoms of depression, reducing relapse. This study examined whether varenicline moderated the effect of depressive symptoms on relapse, and whether this varied by region of enrollment. Methods: Adult smokers (n=525; 37% male) with past or current, stable major depressive disorder recruited from US (n=255), and European (n=270) sites participated in a randomized, double-blind cessation treatment trial including 12 weeks of varenicline or placebo, with 40-week non-treatment follow-up...
February 17, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471263/predictive-models-for-tyrosinase-inhibitors-challenges-from-heterogeneous-activity-data-determined-by-different-experimental-protocols
#12
Haifeng Tang, Fengchao Cui, Lunyang Liu, Yunqi Li
Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) models of tyrosinase inhibitors were built using Random Forest (RF) algorithm and evaluated by the out-of-bag estimation (R2 OOB ) and 10-fold cross validation (Q2 CV ). We found that the performances of QSAR models were closely correlated with the systematic errors of inhibitory activities of tyrosinase inhibitors arising from the different measuring protocols. By defining ERRsys , outliers with larger errors can be efficiently identified and removed from heterogeneous activity data...
February 13, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471238/prediction-of-soil-urea-conversion-and-quantification-of-the-importance-degrees-of-influencing-factors-through-a-new-combinatorial-model-based-on-cluster-method-and-artificial-neural-network
#13
Tao Lei, Xianghong Guo, Xihuan Sun, Juanjuan Ma, Shaowen Zhang, Yong Zhang
Quantitative prediction of soil urea conversion is crucial in determining the mechanism of nitrogen transformation and understanding the dynamics of soil nutrients. This study aimed to establish a combinatorial prediction model (MCA-F-ANN) for soil urea conversion and quantify the relative importance degrees (RIDs) of influencing factors with the MCA-F-ANN method. Data samples were obtained from laboratory culture experiments, and soil nitrogen content and physicochemical properties were measured every other day...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471232/changes-in-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-levels-and-late-life-depression-a-two-year-population-based-longitudinal-study
#14
Jae-Min Kim, Robert Stewart, Ju-Wan Kim, Hee-Ju Kang, Kyung-Yeol Bae, Sung-Wan Kim, Il-Seon Shin, Jin-Sang Yoon
Longitudinal associations of cytokine levels with depression are unclear. This study aimed to investigate cross-sectional and prospective associations between five serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and late-life depression. 732 Korean people aged 65+ were evaluated at baseline. Of 631 without depression (Geriatric Mental State schedule) at baseline, 521 (83%) were followed over a 2 year period and incident depression was ascertained. Serum tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels were assayed at both baseline and follow-up...
February 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471214/joint-associations-of-%C3%AE-amyloidosis-and-cortical-thickness-with-cognition
#15
David S Knopman, Emily S Lundt, Terry M Therneau, Prashanthi Vemuri, Val J Lowe, Kejal Kantarci, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Michelle M Mielke, Mary M Machulda, Rosebud O Roberts, Bradley F Boeve, David T Jones, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
In 1164 cognitively unimpaired persons, aged 50-95 years, from the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, we examined the relationships of baseline cognition and cognitive changes across the full range of cortical thickness of an Alzheimer signature region of interest and global β-amyloid levels measured by Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (PIB PET) standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR). In machine-learning models accounting for both biomarkers simultaneously, worsening biomarker values were additive and associated with lower baseline global cognition and greater subsequent decline in global cognition...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471188/developing-cross-validating-and-applying-regression-models-to-predict-the-concentrations-of-faecal-indicator-organisms-in-coastal-waters-under-different-environmental-scenarios
#16
Robson V de Souza, Carlos J A Campos, Luis H P Garbossa, Walter Q Seiffert
This study developed, cross-validated and applied a regression-based model to predict concentrations of faecal indicator organisms (FIOs) under different environmental conditions in the North and South bays of Santa Catarina, South of Brazil. The model was developed using a database of FIO concentrations in seawater sampled at 50 sites and the validation was performed using a different database by comparing 288 pairs of measured and modelled results for 15 sites. The index of agreement between the model outputs and the FIO concentrations measured during the validation period was 66%; the mean average error was 0...
February 19, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471100/dynamic-fmri-networks-predict-success-in-a-behavioral-weight-loss-program-among-older-adults
#17
Fatemeh Mokhtari, W Jack Rejeski, Yingying Zhu, Guorong Wu, Sean L Simpson, Jonathan H Burdette, Paul J Laurienti
More than one-third of adults in the United States are obese, with a higher prevalence among older adults. Obesity among older adults is a major cause of physical dysfunction, hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart diseases. Many people who engage in lifestyle weight loss interventions fail to reach targeted goals for weight loss, and most will regain what was lost within 1-2 years following cessation of treatment. This variability in treatment efficacy suggests that there are important phenotypes predictive of success with intentional weight loss that could lead to tailored treatment regimen, an idea that is consistent with the concept of precision-based medicine...
February 19, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471016/sensitivity-to-psychosocial-chronic-stressors-and-adolescents-externalizing-problems-combined-moderator-effects-of-resting-heart-rate-and-parental-psychiatric-history
#18
Anna Roos E Zandstra, Johan Ormel, Andrea Dietrich, Edwin R van den Heuvel, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman
From the literature it is not clear whether low resting heart rate (HR) reflects low or high sensitivity to the detrimental effects of adverse environments on externalizing problems. We studied parental psychiatric history (PH), reflecting general vulnerability, as possible moderator explaining these inconsistencies. Using Linear Mixed Models, we analyzed data from 1914 subjects, obtained in three measurement waves (mean age 11, 13.5, and 16 years) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey population-based cohort and the parallel clinic-referred cohort...
February 19, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470998/evaluation-of-a-new-design-of-antireflux-biodegradable-ureteral-stent-in-animal-model
#19
Federico Soria, Esther Morcillo, Alvaro Serrano, Alberto Budia, Inmaculada Fernández, Tomás Fernández-Aparicio, Francisco M Sanchez-Margallo
OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to determine the effects in urinary tract of a new antireflux biodegradable ureteral stent. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty six ureters belonging to 24 pigs were used. The study began with an endoscopic, nephrosonographic and fluoroscopic assessment. Three study groups of n=12 ureters were then specified. In Group I, a biodegradable antireflux stent (BDG-ARS) was inserted in the right ureter of 12 pigs. Group II was comprised by the left ureter of the same animals, in which a double pigtail stent was placed for 6 weeks...
February 19, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470991/modeling-factors-that-regulate-cell-cooperativity-in-the-zebrafish-posterior-lateral-line-primordium
#20
Leif Zinn-Björkman, Frederick R Adler
Collective cell migration is an integral part of organismal development. We consider migration of the zebrafish primordium during development of the posterior lateral line, a sensory system that detects water movement patterns. Experiments have shown that the chemokine ligand CXCL12a and its receptors CXCR4b and CXCR7b are key players for driving migration of the primordium, while FGF signaling helps maintain cohesion. In this work, we formulate a mathematical model of a laser ablated primordium separated into two smaller cell collectives: a leading collective that responds to local CXCL12a levels and a trailing collective that migrates up a local FGF gradient...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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