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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040929/determination-of-geographical-origin-and-icariin-content-of-herba-epimedii-using-near-infrared-spectroscopy-and-chemometrics
#1
Yue Yang, Yongjiang Wu, Weili Li, Xuesong Liu, Jiyu Zheng, Wentao Zhang, Yong Chen
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics was used to discriminate the geographical origin of Herba Epimedii in this work. Four different classification models, namely discriminant analysis (DA), back propagation neural network (BPNN), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), and support vector machine (SVM), were constructed, and their performances in terms of recognition accuracy were compared. The results indicated that the SVM model was superior over the other models in the geographical origin identification of Herba Epimedii...
October 10, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040920/ancestry-prediction-in-singapore-population-samples-using-the-illumina-forenseq-kit
#2
Anantharaman Ramani, Yongxun Wong, Si Zhen Tan, Bing Hong Shue, Christopher Syn
The ability to predict bio-geographic ancestry can be valuable to generate investigative leads towards solving crimes. Ancestry informative marker (AIM) sets include large numbers of SNPs to predict an ancestral population. Massively parallel sequencing has enabled forensic laboratories to genotype a large number of such markers in a single assay. Illumina's ForenSeq DNA Signature Kit includes the ancestry informative SNPs reported by Kidd et al. In this study, the ancestry prediction capabilities of the ForenSeq kit through sequencing on the MiSeq FGx were evaluated in 1030 unrelated Singapore population samples of Chinese, Malay and Indian origin...
August 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040875/biomechanical-regulation-of-drug-sensitivity-in-an-engineered-model-of-human-tumor
#3
A Marturano-Kruik, A Villasante, K Yaeger, S R Ambati, A Chramiec, M T Raimondi, G Vunjak-Novakovic
Predictive testing of anticancer drugs remains a challenge. Bioengineered systems, designed to mimic key aspects of the human tumor microenvironment, are now improving our understanding of cancer biology and facilitating clinical translation. We show that mechanical signals have major effects on cancer drug sensitivity, using a bioengineered model of human bone sarcoma. Ewing sarcoma (ES) cells were studied within a three-dimensional (3D) matrix in a bioreactor providing mechanical loadings. Mimicking bone-like mechanical signals within the 3D model, we rescued the ERK1/2-RUNX2 signaling pathways leading to drug resistance...
October 10, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040825/comparing-the-predictive-validity-of-the-four-factor-and-five-factor-bifactor-measurement-structures-of-the-drinking-motives-questionnaire
#4
Andrew Lac, Candice D Donaldson
INTRODUCTION: The Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ-R) is the most widely administered instrument to assess reasons for consuming alcohol and is conventionally premised on a four-factor structure. Recent research instead reveals that a bifactor measurement model of five motive factors (one general and four specific) represents a superior psychometric embodiment of the scale. The current study evaluated and compared the predictive validity of the four-factor and five-factor models of drinking motives in longitudinally explaining alcohol use and problems...
October 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040720/genome-wide-prediction-of-minor-groove-electrostatic-potential-enables-biophysical-modeling-of-protein-dna-binding
#5
Tsu-Pei Chiu, Satyanarayan Rao, Richard S Mann, Barry Honig, Remo Rohs
Protein-DNA binding is a fundamental component of gene regulatory processes, but it is still not completely understood how proteins recognize their target sites in the genome. Besides hydrogen bonding in the major groove (base readout), proteins recognize minor-groove geometry using positively charged amino acids (shape readout). The underlying mechanism of DNA shape readout involves the correlation between minor-groove width and electrostatic potential (EP). To probe this biophysical effect directly, rather than using minor-groove width as an indirect measure for shape readout, we developed a methodology, DNAphi, for predicting EP in the minor groove and confirmed the direct role of EP in protein-DNA binding using massive sequencing data...
October 11, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040696/the-effect-of-surgical-start-time-on-complications-associated-with-neurological-surgeries
#6
Joseph R Linzey, James F Burke, M Amr Sabbagh, Stephen Sullivan, B Gregory Thompson, Karin M Muraszko, Aditya S Pandey
BACKGROUND: Neurosurgical procedures are necessary at all times of day. Other surgical specialties have examined the effect of surgical start time (SST) on morbidity and mortality; however, a similar study has not been performed for neurosurgical procedures. OBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective cohort study describing the association between SST and operative morbidity. METHODS: We analyzed all patients undergoing neurological surgery between January 1, 2007 and August 1, 2014 at our institution...
October 13, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040691/differential-growth-rates-of-benign-versus-malignant-thyroid-nodules
#7
Trevor E Angell, Chirag Vyas, Marco Medici, Zhihong Wang, Justine A Barletta, Carol B Benson, Edmund S Cibas, Nancy L Cho, Gerard M Doherty, Peter M Doubilet, Mary C Frates, Atul A Gawande, Howard T Heller, Matthew I Kim, Jeffrey F Krane, Ellen Marqusee, Francis D Moore, Matt A Nehs, Ann Marie Zavacki, P Reed Larsen, Erik K Alexander
Context: Thyroid nodule growth was once considered concerning for malignancy, but data showing that benign nodules grow questioned the utility of this paradigm. To date, however, no studies have adequately evaluated if growth rates differ in malignant versus benign nodules. Objective: To sonographically evaluate growth rates in benign and malignant thyroid nodules ≥1cm. Design: Prospective, cohort study of patients with tissue diagnosis of benign or malignant disease, with repeated ultrasound evaluation six or more months apart...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040628/genetic-relationships-between-spring-emergence-canopy-phenology-and-biomass-yield-increase-the-accuracy-of-genomic-prediction-in-miscanthus
#8
Christopher L Davey, Paul Robson, Sarah Hawkins, Kerrie Farrar, John C Clifton-Brown, Iain S Donnison, Gancho T Slavov
Miscanthus has potential as a bioenergy crop but the rapid development of high-yielding varieties is challenging. Previous studies have suggested that phenology and canopy height are important determinants of biomass yield. Furthermore, while genome-wide prediction was effective for a broad range of traits, the predictive ability for yield was very low. We therefore developed models clarifying the genetic associations between spring emergence, consequent canopy phenology and dry biomass yield. The timing of emergence was a moderately strong predictor of early-season elongation growth (genetic correlation >0...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040590/constructing-the-crystal-ball-how-to-get-reliable-prognostic-information-for-the-management-of-subfertile-couples
#9
R van Eekelen, N van Geloven, M van Wely, D J McLernon, M J Eijkemans, S Repping, E W Steyerberg, B W Mol, S Bhattacharya, F van der Veen
Couples in whom the results of an initial fertility workup fail to identify the presence of any obvious barriers to conception are diagnosed with unexplained subfertility. Couples who have tried to conceive for a relatively short time have a good chance of natural conception and thus may not benefit from immediate access to ART. As fertility decreases over time, the main dilemma that clinicians and couples face is when to abandon an expectant approach in favour of active treatment. Several prognostic or predictive models have been used to try to discriminate between couples with high and low chances of conception but have been unable to compare individualized chances of conception associated with ART relative to chances of natural conception at various time points...
October 12, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040545/ethnicity-and-place-the-geography-of-diabetes-inequalities-under-a-strong-welfare-state
#10
Elias Nosrati, Anne Karen Jenum, Anh Thi Tran, Sir Michael Marmot, Lawrence Peter King
Background: The Nordic 'health paradox' designates the seemingly puzzling empirical reality in which, despite the presence of strong welfare policies targeting structural inequalities, distinct health disparities persist in Scandinavian societies. In Norway, previous research has shown that inequalities in diabetes prevalence are particularly salient, notably between ethnic groups. These have often been attributed to lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, or genetics. No previous research has sought to investigate the sociospatial mediation of diabetes inequities...
October 10, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040513/targeted-metabolomics-reveals-reduced-levels-of-polyunsaturated-choline-plasmalogens-and-a-smaller-dimethylarginine-arginine-ratio-in-the-follicular-fluid-of-patients-with-a-diminished-ovarian-reserve
#11
J M Chao de la Barca, T Boueilh, G Simard, L Boucret, V Ferré-L'Hotellier, L Tessier, C Gadras, P E Bouet, P Descamps, V Procaccio, P Reynier, P May-Panloup
STUDY QUESTION: Does the metabolomic profile of the follicular fluid (FF) of patients with a diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) differ from that of patients with a normal ovarian reserve (NOR)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The metabolomic signature of the FF reveals a significant decrease in polyunsaturated choline plasmalogens and methyl arginine transferase activity in DOR patients compared to NOR patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The composition of the FF reflects the exchanges between the oocyte and its microenvironment during its acquisition of gametic competence...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040503/the-role-of-early-life-growth-development-the-fto-gene-and-exclusive-breastfeeding-on-child-bmi-trajectories
#12
Yan Yan Wu, Stephen Lye, Laurent Briollais
Background: Recent studies have implicated the FTO gene in child and adult obesity. A longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EXBF) has been shown to reduce body mass index (BMI) and the risk of being overweight in the general population and among FTO gene carriers. However, it remains unclear whether the preventive effect of EXBF could be explained by its impact on early life growth development, e.g. ages at adiposity peak (AP) and adiposity rebound (AR) and BMI velocities in the first years of life, which are major determinants of overweight and obesity later in life...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040494/beyond-reward-prediction-errors-human-striatum-updates-rule-values-during-learning
#13
Ian Ballard, Eric M Miller, Steven T Piantadosi, Noah D Goodman, Samuel M McClure
Humans naturally group the world into coherent categories defined by membership rules. Rules can be learned implicitly by building stimulus-response associations using reinforcement learning or by using explicit reasoning. We tested if the striatum, in which activation reliably scales with reward prediction error, would track prediction errors in a task that required explicit rule generation. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during a categorization task, we show that striatal responses to feedback scale with a "surprise" signal derived from a Bayesian rule-learning model and are inconsistent with RL prediction error...
October 13, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040471/endometriosis-fertility-index-predicts-live-births-following-surgical-resection-of-moderate-and-severe-endometriosis
#14
S Maheux-Lacroix, E Nesbitt-Hawes, R Deans, H Won, A Budden, D Adamson, J A Abbott
STUDY QUESTION: Can live birth be accurately predicted following surgical resection of moderate-severe (Stage III-IV) endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Live births can accurately be predicted with the endometriosis fertility index (EFI), with adnexal function being the most important factor to predict non-assisted reproductive technology (non-ART) fertility or the requirement for ART (www.endometriosisefi.com). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Fertility prognosis is important to many women with severe endometriosis...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040399/toward-completion-of-the-earth-s-proteome-an-update-a-decade-later
#15
Pablo Mier, Miguel A Andrade-Navarro
Protein databases are steadily growing driven by the spread of new more efficient sequencing techniques. This growth is dominated by an increase in redundancy (homologous proteins with various degrees of sequence similarity) and by the incapability to process and curate sequence entries as fast as they are created. To understand these trends and aid bioinformatic resources that might be compromised by the increasing size of the protein sequence databases, we have created a less-redundant protein data set. In parallel, we analyzed the evolution of protein sequence databases in terms of size and redundancy...
October 12, 2017: Briefings in Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040336/characteristics-of-private-partners-in-chiranjeevi-yojana-a-public-private-partnership-to-promote-institutional-births-in-gujarat-india-lessons-for-universal-health-coverage
#16
Veena Iyer, Kristi Sidney, Rajesh Mehta, Dileep Mavalankar, Ayesha De Costa
BACKGROUND: The Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) is a Public-Private-Partnership between the state and private obstetricians in Gujarat, India, since 2007. The state pays for institutional births of the most vulnerable households (below-poverty-line and tribal) in private hospitals. An innovative remuneration package has been designed to disincentivise unnecessary cesareans. This study examines characteristics of private facilities which participated in the program. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all facilities which had conducted any births between June 2012 and April 2013 in three districts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040314/structure-of-311-service-requests-as-a-signature-of-urban-location
#17
Lingjing Wang, Cheng Qian, Philipp Kats, Constantine Kontokosta, Stanislav Sobolevsky
While urban systems demonstrate high spatial heterogeneity, many urban planning, economic and political decisions heavily rely on a deep understanding of local neighborhood contexts. We show that the structure of 311 Service Requests enables one possible way of building a unique signature of the local urban context, thus being able to serve as a low-cost decision support tool for urban stakeholders. Considering examples of New York City, Boston and Chicago, we demonstrate how 311 Service Requests recorded and categorized by type in each neighborhood can be utilized to generate a meaningful classification of locations across the city, based on distinctive socioeconomic profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040300/risk-factors-for-nodular-hyperplasia-of-parathyroid-glands-in-shpt-patients
#18
Mark D Jäger, Michaela Serttas, Jan Beneke, Jörg A Müller, Harald Schrem, Alexander Kaltenborn, Wolf Ramackers, Bastian P Ringe, Jill Gwiasda, Wolfgang Tränkenschuh, Jürgen Klempnauer, Georg F W Scheumann
INTRODUCTION: Nodular hyperplasia of parathyroid glands (PG) is the most probable cause of medical treatment failure in secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). This prospective cohort study is located at the interface of medical and surgical consideration of sHPT treatment options and identifies risk-factors for nodular hyperplasia of PG. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One-hundred-eight resected PG of 27 patients with a broad spectrum of sHPT severity were classified according to the degree of hyperplasia by histopathology...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040294/towards-social-autonomous-vehicles-efficient-collision-avoidance-scheme-using-richardson-s-arms-race-model
#19
Faisal Riaz, Muaz A Niazi
This paper presents the concept of a social autonomous agent to conceptualize such Autonomous Vehicles (AVs), which interacts with other AVs using social manners similar to human behavior. The presented AVs also have the capability of predicting intentions, i.e. mentalizing and copying the actions of each other, i.e. mirroring. Exploratory Agent Based Modeling (EABM) level of the Cognitive Agent Based Computing (CABC) framework has been utilized to design the proposed social agent. Furthermore, to emulate the functionality of mentalizing and mirroring modules of proposed social agent, a tailored mathematical model of the Richardson's arms race model has also been presented...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040268/benefit-and-harm-of-intensive-blood-pressure-treatment-derivation-and-validation-of-risk-models-using-data-from-the-sprint-and-accord-trials
#20
Sanjay Basu, Jeremy B Sussman, Joseph Rigdon, Lauren Steimle, Brian T Denton, Rodney A Hayward
BACKGROUND: Intensive blood pressure (BP) treatment can avert cardiovascular disease (CVD) events but can cause some serious adverse events. We sought to develop and validate risk models for predicting absolute risk difference (increased risk or decreased risk) for CVD events and serious adverse events from intensive BP therapy. A secondary aim was to test if the statistical method of elastic net regularization would improve the estimation of risk models for predicting absolute risk difference, as compared to a traditional backwards variable selection approach...
October 2017: PLoS Medicine
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