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Hierarchical category code

Ann L Horgas, Urszula Snigurska, Michelle Z Farland, Michael Marsiske
Objectives: Analyzing medication data for research purposes is complex, and methods are rarely described in the literature. Our objective was to describe methods of quantifying opioid and nonopioid analgesics and to compare the utility of five different analgesic coding methods when analyzing relationships between pain, analgesic use, and clinical outcomes. In this study, we used physical function as the outcome variable for its clinical relevance and its relationship to pain in older adults...
February 2, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Sophie Bouton, Valérian Chambon, Rémi Tyrand, Adrian G Guggisberg, Margitta Seeck, Sami Karkar, Dimitri van de Ville, Anne-Lise Giraud
Percepts and words can be decoded from distributed neural activity measures. However, the existence of widespread representations might conflict with the more classical notions of hierarchical processing and efficient coding, which are especially relevant in speech processing. Using fMRI and magnetoencephalography during syllable identification, we show that sensory and decisional activity colocalize to a restricted part of the posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG). Next, using intracortical recordings, we demonstrate that early and focal neural activity in this region distinguishes correct from incorrect decisions and can be machine-decoded to classify syllables...
January 23, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jonathan K Noel, Ziming Xuan, Thomas F Babor
BACKGROUND: Individuals who are particularly vulnerable to the influence of alcohol advertising, such as youth, need special protections, yet little research has been done to determine if other vulnerable groups exist. Secondary data analysis was conducted to determine if perceptions of alcohol advertising differ between groups based on their alcohol use and whether the definition of "vulnerable" should be expanded beyond demographic categories. METHODS: Students (n = 326) from 2 U...
January 3, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Pietro Boccaletto, Marcin Magnus, Catarina Almeida, Adriana Zyla, Astha Astha, Radoslaw Pluta, Blazej Baginski, Elzbieta Jankowska, Stanislaw Dunin-Horkawicz, Tomasz K Wirecki, Michal J Boniecki, Filip Stefaniak, Janusz M Bujnicki
RNArchitecture is a database that provides a comprehensive description of relationships between known families of structured non-coding RNAs, with a focus on structural similarities. The classification is hierarchical and similar to the system used in the SCOP and CATH databases of protein structures. Its central level is Family, which builds on the Rfam catalog and gathers closely related RNAs. Consensus structures of Families are described with a reduced secondary structure representation. Evolutionarily related Families are grouped into Superfamilies...
October 23, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
F Facchin, G Barbara, D Dridi, D Alberico, L Buggio, E Somigliana, E Saita, P Vercellini
STUDY QUESTION: What factors affect the mental health of women with endometriosis? SUMMARY ANSWER: Not only pelvic pain, but also individual characteristics (i.e. self-esteem, body esteem and emotional self-efficacy), time from diagnosis and intimate relationship status influence the psychological health of endometriosis patients. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The negative impact of endometriosis on mental health has been widely demonstrated by the research literature, along with the fact that presence and severity of pelvic pain are associated with anxiety and depression...
September 1, 2017: Human Reproduction
Noa Rappaport, Simon Fishilevich, Ron Nudel, Michal Twik, Frida Belinky, Inbar Plaschkes, Tsippi Iny Stein, Dana Cohen, Danit Oz-Levi, Marilyn Safran, Doron Lancet
BACKGROUND: A key challenge in the realm of human disease research is next generation sequencing (NGS) interpretation, whereby identified filtered variant-harboring genes are associated with a patient's disease phenotypes. This necessitates bioinformatics tools linked to comprehensive knowledgebases. The GeneCards suite databases, which include GeneCards (human genes), MalaCards (human diseases) and PathCards (human pathways) together with additional tools, are presented with the focus on MalaCards utility for NGS interpretation as well as for large scale bioinformatic analyses...
August 18, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
Roberto Baiocco, Paola Castelli Gattinara, Giorgia Cioccetti, Salvatore Ioverno
BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent inherited form of muscular dystrophy during childhood. DMD is a severe and progressive disease. Children initially have no symptoms, but the diagnosis is often delayed until the child is about 5 years old. PURPOSE: Although few studies have addressed parent reactions to DMD, parental reactions to other serious childhood conditions have been documented. This study aims to understand the resolution styles that parents use in the context of their children with DMD...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Haruo Hosoya, Aapo Hyvärinen
Experimental studies have revealed evidence of both parts-based and holistic representations of objects and faces in the primate visual system. However, it is still a mystery how such seemingly contradictory types of processing can coexist within a single system. Here, we propose a novel theory called mixture of sparse coding models, inspired by the formation of category-specific subregions in the inferotemporal (IT) cortex. We developed a hierarchical network that constructed a mixture of two sparse coding submodels on top of a simple Gabor analysis...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
Yajuan Wang, Vijay Iyengar, Jianying Hu, David Kho, Erin Falconer, John P Docherty, Gigi Y Yuen
BACKGROUND: The burden of serious and persistent mental illness such as schizophrenia is substantial and requires health-care organizations to have adequate risk adjustment models to effectively allocate their resources to managing patients who are at the greatest risk. Currently available models underestimate health-care costs for those with mental or behavioral health conditions. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to develop and evaluate predictive models for identification of future high-cost schizophrenia patients using advanced supervised machine learning methods...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Jordan B Strom, Daniel B Kramer, Yun Wang, Changyu Shen, Jason H Wasfy, Bruce E Landon, Elissa H Wilker, Robert W Yeh
Few studies have examined rates and causes of short-term readmissions among adults across age and insurance types. We compared rates, characteristics, and costs of 30-day readmission after all-cause hospitalizations across insurance types in the US. We retrospectively evaluated alive patients ≥18 years old, discharged for any cause, 1/1/13-11/31/13, 2006 non-federal hospitals in 21 states in the Nationwide Readmissions Database. The primary stratification variable of interest was primary insurance. Comorbid conditions were assessed based on Elixhauser comorbidities, as defined by administrative billing codes...
2017: PloS One
Haihong Guo, Xu Na, Li Hou, Jiao Li
BACKGROUND: In question answering (QA) system development, question classification is crucial for identifying information needs and improving the accuracy of returned answers. Although the questions are domain-specific, they are asked by non-professionals, making the question classification task more challenging. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to classify health care-related questions posted by the general public (Chinese speakers) on the Internet. METHODS: A topic-based classification schema for health-related questions was built by manually annotating randomly selected questions...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Lee Ellington, Kristin G Cloyes, Jiayun Xu, Lanell Bellury, Patricia H Berry, Maija Reblin, Margaret F Clayton
OBJECTIVE: Our intention was to describe and compare the perspectives of national hospice thought leaders, hospice nurses, and former family caregivers on factors that promote or threaten family caregiver perceptions of support. METHOD: Nationally recognized hospice thought leaders (n = 11), hospice nurses (n = 13), and former family caregivers (n = 14) participated. Interviews and focus groups were audiotaped and transcribed. Data were coded inductively, and codes were hierarchically grouped by topic...
May 3, 2017: Palliative & Supportive Care
M W Spratling
Predictive coding has been proposed as a model of the hierarchical perceptual inference process performed in the cortex. However, results demonstrating that predictive coding is capable of performing the complex inference required to recognise objects in natural images have not previously been presented. This article proposes a hierarchical neural network based on predictive coding for performing visual object recognition. This network is applied to the tasks of categorising hand-written digits, identifying faces, and locating cars in images of street scenes...
2017: Cognitive Computation
Scott Martin Vouri, Margaret A Olsen, Daniel Theodoro, Seth A Strope
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and difference in likely indications of urinary catheterization (UC) in treated-and-released emergency department (ED) visits between men and women are currently unknown. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis using the 2013 National Emergency Department Sample for all treated-and-released visits in persons aged ≥18 years. The prevalence of conditions associated with UC visits in men and women were identified. A hierarchical ranking was used to categorize diagnosis codes identified during ED visits into clinically meaningful categories to assess conditions for UC...
August 1, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Lusine Yaghjyan, Robert Arao, Cole Brokamp, Ellen S O'Meara, Brian L Sprague, Gabriela Ghita, Patrick Ryan
BACKGROUND: Mammographic breast density is a well-established strong risk factor for breast cancer. The environmental contributors to geographic variation in breast density in urban and rural areas are poorly understood. We examined the association between breast density and exposure to ambient air pollutants (particulate matter <2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 )) in a large population-based screening registry. METHODS: Participants included women undergoing mammography screening at imaging facilities within the Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium (2001-2009)...
April 6, 2017: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
João Lucas Campos de Oliveira, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Hosanna Pattrig Fertonani, Laura Misue Matsuda
Objective: to analyze managers and professionals' perceptions on the changes in hospital management deriving from accreditation. Method: descriptive study with qualitative approach. The participants were five hospital quality managers and 91 other professionals from a wide range of professional categories, hierarchical levels and activity areas at four hospitals in the South of Brazil certified at different levels in the Brazilian accreditation system. They answered the question "Tell me about the management of this hospital before and after the Accreditation"...
March 2, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
Heeyoung Choo, Jack L Nasar, Bardia Nikrahei, Dirk B Walther
Images of iconic buildings, such as the CN Tower, instantly transport us to specific places, such as Toronto. Despite the substantial impact of architectural design on people's visual experience of built environments, we know little about its neural representation in the human brain. In the present study, we have found patterns of neural activity associated with specific architectural styles in several high-level visual brain regions, but not in primary visual cortex (V1). This finding suggests that the neural correlates of the visual perception of architectural styles stem from style-specific complex visual structure beyond the simple features computed in V1...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
Hyung-Joo Chang, Young-Mee Lee, Young-Hee Lee, Hyo-Jin Kwon
BACKGROUND: The residency is a critical period for doctors to establish their professional identity and ethical standards, and yet during this time, residents are susceptible to engage in a diverse range of unprofessional behaviors. To prevent the misconduct of residents, it is critical to have a thorough understanding of the contributing factors or circumstances. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study on 20 residents at one Korean university-affiliated tertiary hospital...
March 2017: Medical Teacher
Sara De Matteis, Deborah Jarvis, Heather Young, Alan Young, Naomi Allen, James Potts, Andrew Darnton, Lesley Rushton, Paul Cullinan
Objectives The standard approach to the assessment of occupational exposures is through the manual collection and coding of job histories. This method is time-consuming and costly and makes it potentially unfeasible to perform high quality analyses on occupational exposures in large population-based studies. Our aim was to develop a novel, efficient web-based tool to collect and code lifetime job histories in the UK Biobank, a population-based cohort of over 500 000 participants. Methods We developed OSCAR (occupations self-coding automatic recording) based on the hierarchical structure of the UK Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) 2000, which allows individuals to collect and automatically code their lifetime job histories via a simple decision-tree model...
March 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
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