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Hierarchical category code

Anna Dora Manca, Mirko Grimaldi
Speech sound perception is one of the most fascinating tasks performed by the human brain. It involves a mapping from continuous acoustic waveforms onto the discrete phonological units computed to store words in the mental lexicon. In this article, we review the magnetoencephalographic studies that have explored the timing and morphology of the N1m component to investigate how vowels and consonants are computed and represented within the auditory cortex. The neurons that are involved in the N1m act to construct a sensory memory of the stimulus due to spatially and temporally distributed activation patterns within the auditory cortex...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Shona Horter, Beverley Stringer, Jane Greig, Akhmet Amangeldiev, Mirzagaleb N Tillashaikhov, Nargiza Parpieva, Zinaida Tigay, Philipp du Cros
BACKGROUND: Treatment for multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is lengthy, has severe side effects, and raises adherence challenges. In the Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and Ministry of Health (MoH) programme in Karakalpakstan, Uzbekistan, a region with a high burden of MDR-TB, patient loss from treatment (LFT) remains high despite adherence support strategies. While certain factors associated with LFT have been identified, there is limited understanding of why some patients are able to adhere to treatment while others are not...
2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rituparna Bhattacharya, Chan Shen, Amy B Wachholtz, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Usha Sambamoorthi
BACKGROUND: There are many studies in the literature on the association between depression treatment and health expenditures. However, there is a knowledge gap in examining this relationship taking into account coexisting chronic conditions among patients with diabetes. We aim to analyze the association between depression treatment and healthcare expenditures among adults with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and newly-diagnosed depression, with consideration of coexisting chronic physical conditions...
July 19, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Carrie H Colla, Valerie A Lewis, Lee-Sien Kao, A James O'Malley, Chiang-Hua Chang, Elliott S Fisher
IMPORTANCE: Accountable care contracts hold physician groups financially responsible for the quality and cost of health care delivered to patients. Focusing on clinically vulnerable patients, those with serious conditions who are responsible for the greatest proportion of spending, may result in the largest effects on both patient outcomes and financial rewards for participating physician groups. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the effect of Medicare accountable care organization (ACO) contracts on spending and high-cost institutional use for all Medicare beneficiaries and for clinically vulnerable beneficiaries...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
Thamiris Cavazzani Vegro, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi Rocha, Silvia Helena Henriques Camelo, Alessandra Bassalobre Garcia
Objective To assess the values and practices that characterize the organizational culture of a private hospital in the state of São Paulo in the perspective of nursing professionals. Methods Quantitative, descriptive, cross-sectional study. Data collection was conducted between January and March 2013 using the Brazilian Instrument for Assessing Organizational Culture. Twenty-one nurses and sixty-two nursing aides and technicians participated in the study. The responses of the participants were coded into numerical categories, generating an electronic database to be analyzed by means of the software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences...
June 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
James E O'Hara, Pierfilippo Cerretti
The Tachinidae of the Afrotropical Region are catalogued and seven genera and eight species are newly described. There are 237 genera and 1126 species recognized, of which 101 genera and 1043 species are endemic to the region. The catalogue is based on examination of the primary literature comprising about 525 references as well as numerous name-bearing types and other specimens housed in collections. Taxa are arranged hierarchically and alphabetically under the categories of subfamily, tribe, genus, subgenus (where recognized), species, and rarely subspecies...
2016: ZooKeys
Kajsa H Abrahamsson, Jan L Wennström, Tord Berglundh, Ingemar Abrahamsson
AIM: The aim was to explore patients' reactions on being diagnosed with peri-implantitis, their opinions on dental implant therapy and expectations on treatment of the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study subjects were patients referred to a specialist clinic for treatment of peri-implantitis. The method of grounded theory was used in collecting and analyzing data. Audiotaped, thematized open-ended interviews were conducted. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and consecutively analyzed in hierarchical coding processes that continued until saturation was met (n = 15)...
February 25, 2016: Clinical Oral Implants Research
Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To introduce cross-validation and a nonparametric machine learning framework for plan payment risk adjustment and then assess whether they have the potential to improve risk adjustment. DATA SOURCES: 2011-2012 Truven MarketScan database. STUDY DESIGN: We compare the performance of multiple statistical approaches within a broad machine learning framework for estimation of risk adjustment formulas. Total annual expenditure was predicted using age, sex, geography, inpatient diagnoses, and hierarchical condition category variables...
February 19, 2016: Health Services Research
Naveed Akhtar, Faisal Shafait, Ajmal Mian
We propose a Bayesian approach to learn discriminative dictionaries for sparse representation of data. The proposed approach infers probability distributions over the atoms of a discriminative dictionary using a finite approximation of Beta Process. It also computes sets of Bernoulli distributions that associate class labels to the learned dictionary atoms. This association signifies the selection probabilities of the dictionary atoms in the expansion of class-specific data. Furthermore, the non-parametric character of the proposed approach allows it to infer the correct size of the dictionary...
December 2016: IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence
Jeffrey G Klann, Lori C Phillips, Alexander Turchin, Sarah Weiler, Kenneth D Mandl, Shawn N Murphy
BACKGROUND: Interoperable phenotyping algorithms, needed to identify patient cohorts meeting eligibility criteria for observational studies or clinical trials, require medical data in a consistent structured, coded format. Data heterogeneity limits such algorithms' applicability. Existing approaches are often: not widely interoperable; or, have low sensitivity due to reliance on the lowest common denominator (ICD-9 diagnoses). In the Scalable Collaborative Infrastructure for a Learning Healthcare System (SCILHS) we endeavor to use the widely-available Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) procedure codes with ICD-9...
2015: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Burcu Urgen, Ayse Saygin
Over the last two decades neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have identified a network of brain regions in occipito-temporal, parietal, and frontal cortex that are involved in visual processing of actions. What remains unclear are the neural computations and representational properties in each area. In this study, we investigated the representational content of human brain areas in the action observation network using fMRI and representational similarity analysis. Observers were shown video clips of 8 different actions performed by 3 different agents (actors) during fMRI scanning...
2015: Journal of Vision
Giacomo Handjaras, Giulio Bernardi, Francesca Benuzzi, Paolo F Nichelli, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
How the human brain represents distinct motor features into a unique finalized action still remains undefined. Previous models proposed the distinct features of a motor act to be hierarchically organized in separated, but functionally interconnected, cortical areas. Here, we hypothesized that distinct patterns across a wide expanse of cortex may actually subserve a topographically organized coding of different categories of actions that represents, at a higher cognitive level and independently from the distinct motor features, the action and its final aim as a whole...
October 2015: Human Brain Mapping
Laurent U Perrinet, James A Bednar
Making a judgment about the semantic category of a visual scene, such as whether it contains an animal, is typically assumed to involve high-level associative brain areas. Previous explanations require progressively analyzing the scene hierarchically at increasing levels of abstraction, from edge extraction to mid-level object recognition and then object categorization. Here we show that the statistics of edge co-occurrences alone are sufficient to perform a rough yet robust (translation, scale, and rotation invariant) scene categorization...
2015: Scientific Reports
Li Shen, Gang Sun, Qingming Huang, Shuhui Wang, Zhouchen Lin, Enhua Wu
The sparse coding technique has shown flexibility and capability in image representation and analysis. It is a powerful tool in many visual applications. Some recent work has shown that incorporating the properties of task (such as discrimination for classification task) into dictionary learning is effective for improving the accuracy. However, the traditional supervised dictionary learning methods suffer from high computation complexity when dealing with large number of categories, making them less satisfactory in large scale applications...
October 2015: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Michael Bedford, Christopher Kt Farmer, Jean Irving, Paul E Stevens
BACKGROUND: Use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade has become increasingly widespread driven by evidence-based guidance. There is concern about the role of these agents in the genesis of avoidable acute kidney injury (AKI). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between AKI and use of RAS blockade. DESIGN: Multilevel hierarchical analysis of a large cohort of patients registered with UK general practitioners. SETTING: Primary care practices in East and West Kent, United Kingdom...
2015: Canadian Journal of Kidney Health and Disease
Douglas W Allan, Stefan Thor
The broad range of tissue and cellular diversity of animals is generated to a large extent by the hierarchical deployment of sequence-specific transcription factors and co-factors (collectively referred to as TF's herein) during development. Our understanding of these developmental processes has been facilitated by the recognition that the activities of many TF's can be meaningfully described by a few functional categories that usefully convey a sense for how the TF's function, and also provides a sense for the regulatory organization of the developmental processes in which they participate...
September 2015: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
James Sorace, Michael Rogers, Michael Millman, Daniel Rogers, Kyle Price, Susan Queen, Chris Worrall, Jeffrey Kelman
To quantify heredity's effects on the burden of illness in the Medicare population, this study linked information between participants in a research twin registry to a comprehensive set of Medicare claims. To calculate disease categories, the authors used the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Conditions Categories (HCC) model that was developed to risk adjust Medicare's capitation payments to private health care plans based on the health expenditure risk of their enrollees. Using the Medicare database, 2 sets of unrelated but demographically matched control pairs (MCPs) were generated, one specific for the monozygotic twin population and the second specific for the dizygotic twin population...
October 2015: Population Health Management
Gavin M Bidelman, Claude Alain
Musicianship in early life is associated with pervasive changes in brain function and enhanced speech-language skills. Whether these neuroplastic benefits extend to older individuals more susceptible to cognitive decline, and for whom plasticity is weaker, has yet to be established. Here, we show that musical training offsets declines in auditory brain processing that accompanying normal aging in humans, preserving robust speech recognition late into life. We recorded both brainstem and cortical neuroelectric responses in older adults with and without modest musical training as they classified speech sounds along an acoustic-phonetic continuum...
January 21, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Xianguo Zhang, Yonghong Tian, Tiejun Huang, Siwei Dong, Wen Gao
For the real-time and low-delay video surveillance and teleconferencing applications, the newly video coding standard HEVC can achieve much higher coding efficiency over H.264/AVC. However, we still argue that the hierarchical prediction structure in the HEVC low-delay encoder still does not fully utilize the special characteristics of surveillance and conference videos that are usually captured by stationary cameras. In this case, the background picture (G-picture), which is modeled from the original input frames, can be used to further improve the HEVC low-delay coding efficiency meanwhile reducing the complexity...
October 2014: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Richard Kronick, W Pete Welch
BACKGROUND: In 2004, Medicare implemented a system of paying Medicare Advantage (MA) plans that gave them greater incentive than fee-for-service (FFS) providers to report diagnoses. DATA: Risk scores for all Medicare beneficiaries 2004-2013 and Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) data, 2006-2011. MEASURES: Change in average risk score for all enrollees and for stayers (beneficiaries who were in either FFS or MA for two consecutive years)...
2014: Medicare & Medicaid Research Review
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