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Federica Piccirilli, Nicoletta Plotegher, Maria Grazia Ortore, Isabella Tessari, Marco Brucale, Francesco Spinozzi, Mariano Beltramini, Paolo Mariani, Valeria Militello, Stefano Lupi, Andrea Perucchi, Luigi Bubacco
The analysis of the α-synuclein (aS) aggregation process, which is involved in Parkinson's disease etiopathogenesis, and of the structural feature of the resulting amyloid fibrils may shed light on the relationship between the structure of aS aggregates and their toxicity. This may be considered a paradigm of the ground work needed to tackle the molecular basis of all the protein-aggregation-related diseases. With this aim, we used chemical and physical dissociation methods to explore the structural organization of wild-type aS fibrils...
October 17, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Luis Estevez, Venkateshkumar Prabhakaran, Adam L Garcia, Yongsoon Shin, Jinhui Tao, Ashleigh M Schwarz, Jens Darsell, Priyanka Bhattacharya, Vaithiyalingam Shutthanandan, Ji-Guang Zhang
Developing hierarchical porous carbon (HPC) materials with competing textural characteristics such as surface area and pore volume in one material is difficult to accomplish-particularly for an atomically ordered graphitic carbon. Herein we describe a synthesis strategy to engineer tunable HPC materials across micro- meso- and macroporous length scales, allowing the fabrication of a graphitic HPC material (HPC-G) with both very high surface area (>2500 m(2)/g) and pore volume (>11 cm(3)/g), the combination of which has not been attained previously...
October 18, 2017: ACS Nano
David M Greenberg, Jonela Kolasi, Camilla P Hegsted, Yoni Berkowitz, Elliot L Jurist
Here we introduce a new assessment of emotion regulation called the Mentalized Affectivity Scale (MAS). A large online adult sample (N = 2,840) completed the 60-item MAS along with a battery of psychological measures. Results revealed a robust three-component structure underlying mentalized affectivity, which we labeled: Identifying emotions (the ability to identify emotions and to reflect on the factors that influence them); Processing emotions (the ability to modulate and distinguish complex emotions); and Expressing emotions (the tendency to express emotions outwardly or inwardly)...
2017: PloS One
Suzanne S Sullivan, Junxin Li, Yow-Wu Bill Wu, Sharon Hewner
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine if the pattern of monthly medical expense can be used to identify individuals at risk of dying, thus supporting providers in proactively engaging in advanced care planning discussions. BACKGROUND: Identifying the right time to discuss end of life can be difficult. Improved predictive capacity has made it possible for nurse leaders to use large data sets to guide clinical decision making. METHODS: We examined the patterns of monthly medical expense of Medicare beneficiaries with life-limiting illness during the last 24 months of life using analysis of variance, t tests, and stepwise hierarchical linear modeling...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
Yan Sun, Tao Wang, Ang Li, Ling Zhang, Qisheng Huo, Zhen-An Qiao
Hierarchical porous polymers with more than one pore size distributions can effectively support noble metal catalysts and circumvent the limitation of the diffusion of the reactants, and thus exhibit both excellent catalytic activity and superior diffusive properties. Herein, we report a simple one-step Friedel-Crafts reaction to knit a series of benzene heterocycle monomers, such as indane, indoline, indole and tetrahydronaphthalene to obtain hierarchical porous polymers with high surface areas and/or abundant N sites...
October 16, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Heng Li, Dabei Wu, Jin Wu, Li-Ying Dong, Ying-Jie Zhu, Xianluo Hu
Separators play a pivotal role in the electrochemical performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The commercial microporous polyolefin-based separators often suffer from inferior electrolyte wettability, low thermal stability, and severe safety concerns. Herein, a novel kind of highly flexible and porous separator based on hydroxyapatite nanowires (HAP NWs) with excellent thermal stability, fire resistance, and superior electrolyte wettability is reported. A hierarchical cross-linked network structure forms between HAP NWs and cellulose fibers (CFs) via hybridization, which endows the separator with high flexibility and robust mechanical strength...
October 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
Sarah Bertlein, Gabriella Brown, Khoon S Lim, Tomasz Jungst, Thomas Boeck, Torsten Blunk, Joerg Tessmar, Gary J Hooper, Tim B F Woodfield, Juergen Groll
Bioprinting can be defined as the art of combining materials and cells to fabricate designed, hierarchical 3D hybrid constructs. Suitable materials, so called bioinks, have to comply with challenging rheological processing demands and rapidly form a stable hydrogel postprinting in a cytocompatible manner. Gelatin is often adopted for this purpose, usually modified with (meth-)acryloyl functionalities for postfabrication curing by free radical photopolymerization, resulting in a hydrogel that is cross-linked via nondegradable polymer chains of uncontrolled length...
October 17, 2017: Advanced Materials
Yihao Deng, N Rao Chaganty
Archimedean copulas are commonly used in a wide range of statistical models due to their simplicity, manageable analytical expressions, rich choices of generator functions, and other workable properties. However, the exchangeable dependence structure inherent to Archimedean copulas limits its application to familial data, where the dependence among family members is often different. When response variables are binary, modeling the familial associations becomes more challenging due to the stringent constraints imposed on the dependence parameters...
October 17, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
Anaeze C Offodile, L Daniel Muldoon, Faiz Gani, Joseph K Canner, Lisa K Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Diminished use and worse outcomes after immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) have been documented for Medicaid beneficiaries. However, to the authors' knowledge, the contribution of patient clustering at hospitals with a high percentage of Medicaid patients to these inequalities in IBR delivery is unknown. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of patients undergoing IBR after mastectomy using the 2007 to 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was performed...
October 17, 2017: Cancer
Rashed Al-Rashed, Francisco López Jiménez, Joel Marthelot, Pedro M Reis
We introduce a new experimental system to study the effects of pre-stretch on the buckling patterns that emerge from the biaxial compression of elastomeric bilayer shells. Upon fabrication of the samples, releasing the pre-stretch in the substrate through deflation places the outer film in a state of biaxial compression and yields a variety of buckling patterns. We systematically explore the parameter space by varying the pre-stretch of the substrate and the ratio between the stiffness of the substrate and film...
October 18, 2017: Soft Matter
Deborah A Barkley, Yekaterina Rokhlenko, Jeannette E Marine, Rachelle David, Dipankar Sahoo, Matthew D Watson, Tadanori Koga, Chinedum O Osuji, Jonathan G Rudick
Combining monodisperse building blocks that have distinct folding properties serves as a modular strategy for controlling structural complexity in hierarchically organized materials. We combine an α-helical bundle-forming peptide with selfassembling dendrons to better control the arrangement of functional groups within cylindrical nanostructures. Site-specific grafting of dendrons to amino acid residues on the exterior of the α-helical bundle yields monodisperse macromolecules with programmable folding and self-assembly properties...
October 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Honglin Chen, Afonso de Botelho Ferreira Braga Malheiro, Clemens van Blitterswijk, Carlos Mota, Paul Andrew Wieringa, Lorenzo Moroni
Nanofibrous structures have long been used as scaffolds for tissue engineering (TE) applications, due to their favourable characteristics such as high porosity, flexibility, high cell attachment and enhanced proliferation, and overall resemblance to native extracellular matrix (ECM). Such scaffolds can be easily produced at a low cost via electrospinning (ESP), but generally cannot be fabricated with a regular and/or complex geometry, characterized by macropores and uniform thickness. We present here a novel technique for direct writing (DW) with solution ESP to produce complex three-dimensional (3D) multi-scale and ultrathin (~1 µm) fibrous scaffolds with desirable patterns and geometries...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jinlin Zhang, Woo Ri Ko, Fei Long, Min Hyung Lee, Jae Yong Suh
Gold hollow nanodomes arranged in hexagonal lattices support surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) propagating at air-Au interface. The cross section heights of the continuous and hierarchical hexagonal nanodome arrays can be altered by a simple thermal treatment, and the change in nanodome size leads to a significant linewidth narrowing of plasmon resonance because of reduced scattering loss. Taking the variation in the SPP intensities into account, the surface modulation depth is found to be around 100 nm for achieving a longer propagation length of SPP...
October 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
F A Zeiler, J Donnelly, D Cardim, D K Menon, P Smielewski, M Czosnyka
BACKGROUND: To explore the relationship between various autoregulatory indices in order to determine which approximate small vessel/microvascular (MV) autoregulatory capacity most accurately. METHODS: Utilizing a retrospective cohort of traumatic brain injury patients (N = 41) with: transcranial Doppler (TCD), intracranial pressure (ICP) and cortical laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), we calculated various continuous indices of autoregulation and cerebrovascular responsiveness: A...
October 17, 2017: Neurocritical Care
Zhengqing Zhang, Man Yeong Ha, Joonkyung Jang
The (de)wetting transitions of hierarchical grooves periodically engraved on a hydrophobic surface were investigated using a fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulation. The (meta) stable and transition states with sagging or depinning liquid surfaces were identified by calculating the free energy profiles of the (de)wetting transitions. The dewetting transitions for wide and narrow minor grooves have large and small activation free energies, respectively, exhibiting contrasting water adhesion forces as found for rose petals and lotus leaves...
October 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Meimei Liang, Xin Chen, Yang Xu, Lei Zhu, Xiangyu Jin, Chen Huang
This study reports a facile method for fabricating double-grooved fibrous surfaces. The primary grooves of the surface are formed by aligned fibres, while the secondary grooves are achieved by oriented nanogrooves on the fibre surface. Investigation into the formation mechanism reveals that the nanogrooves can be readily tailored through adjusting the solvent ratio and relative humidity. With this understanding, a variety of polymers have been successfully electrospun into fibres having the same nanogrooved feature...
October 18, 2017: Nanoscale
Yanbin Jiang, Yangjian Zhang, Yupeng Wu, Ronggui Hu, Juntao Zhu, Jian Tao, Tao Zhang
The relationships between cover and AGB for the dominant and widely distributed alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau is still not fully examined. The objectives of this study are to answer the following question: (1) How does aboveground biomass (AGB) of alpine grassland relate to plant cover at different spatial scales? (2) What are the major biotic and abiotic factors influencing on AGB-cover relationship? A community survey (species, cover, height, and abundance) was conducted within 1 m × 1 m plots in 70 sites along a precipitation gradient of 50-600 m...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Ladd Irvine, Daniel M Palacios, Jorge Urbán, Bruce Mate
Here, we describe the diving behavior of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using the Advanced Dive Behavior (ADB) tag, which records depth data at 1-Hz resolution and GPS-quality locations for over 1 month, before releasing from the whale for recovery. A total of 27 ADB tags were deployed on sperm whales in the central Gulf of California, Mexico, during spring 2007 and 2008, of which 10 were recovered for data download. Tracking durations of all tags ranged from 0 to 34.5 days (median = 2.3 days), and 0...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Kun Song, Yichong Cui, Xijin Zhang, Yingji Pan, Junli Xu, Kaiqin Xu, Liangjun Da
Water eutrophication creates unfavorable environmental conditions for submerged macrophytes. In these situations, biotic interactions may be particularly important for explaining and predicting the submerged macrophytes occurrence. Here, we evaluate the roles of biotic interactions in predicting spatial occurrence of submerged macrophytes in 1959 and 2009 for Dianshan Lake in eastern China, which became eutrophic since the 1980s. For the four common species occurred in 1959 and 2009, null species distribution models based on abiotic variables and full models based on both abiotic and biotic variables were developed using generalized linear model (GLM) and boosted regression trees (BRT) to determine whether the biotic variables improved the model performance...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Da-Young Lee, Eun-Kyung Won, Jung-Won Choi, Hye Ji Min, Jayoun Kim, Kyooseob Ha, Yunglyul Lee, Jae Seung Chang, Yeni Kim
OBJECTIVE: This study explores the feasibility and psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale (BDRS) in adolescents with Early-onset bipolar disorders. METHODS: Fifty-three participants (aged 13-18) with early-onset bipolar disorders (40 depressed and 18 euthymic, 5 patients were assessed at depressed state and reassessed after remission) were recruited. All participants were assessed using the BDRS, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Montgomery-Asperg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Modified Overt Aggression scale (MOAS)...
September 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
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