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Liver and critical care

Ewa A Woźnica, Małgorzata Inglot, Ryszard K Woźnica, Lidia Łysenko
Despite continuous progress in medicine, sepsis remains the main cause of deaths in the intensive care unit. Liver failure complicating sepsis/septic shock has a significant impact on mortality in this group of patients. The pathophysiology of sepsis-associated liver dysfunction is very complicated and still not well understood. According to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign (SSC) Guidelines, the diagnosis of liver dysfunction during sepsis is based on the increase in bilirubin concentration >2 mg/dL and the occurrence of coagulation disorders with INR > 1...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
C Ricardo Ramirez, M L Álvarez Gómez, C A Agudelo Vélez, S Zuluaga Penagos, R A Consuegra Peña, K Uribe Hernández, I C Mejía Gil, E M Cano Londoño, M Elorza Parra, J G Franco Vásquez
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, prevalence and factors associated with delirium in critical patients from 5 to 14 years of age. DESIGN: An analytical, cross-sectional observational study was made. Delirium was assessed with the Pediatric-Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (pCAM-ICU) and motor classification was established with the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98. SETTING: A pediatric Intensive Care Unit...
March 9, 2018: Medicina Intensiva
Sandeep T Samuel, Anthony D Martinez, Yang Chen, Marianthi Markatou, Andrew H Talal
AIM: To understand the role of knowledge as a promoter of hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening among primary care physicians (PCP). METHODS: A 45-item online questionnaire assessing knowledge of HCV natural history, risk factors, and treatment was distributed to 163 PCP. Logistic regression, adjusted for survey responses, assessed associations between PCP knowledge of HCV natural history and treatment and birth cohort ( i.e ., birth between 1945 and 1965) screening...
February 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Wolf B Kratzert, Eva K Boyd, Johanna C Schwarzenberger
Survival of adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved significantly over the last 2 decades, leading to an increase in hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions of these patients. Whereas most of the ICU admissions in the past were related to perioperative management, the incidence of medical emergencies from long-term sequelae of palliative or corrective surgical treatment of these patients is rising. Intensivists now are confronted with patients who not only have complex anatomy after congenital cardiac surgery, but also complex pathophysiology due to decades of living with abnormal cardiac anatomy and diseases of advanced age...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Dennis Cheek, Lynnette Howington
Since the successful completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, extensive genomic research has continued to alter pathophysiology at the molecular level. This research includes investigation of the specific receptors and metabolizing enzymes in drug pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics, specifically the cytochrome P450 system located primarily in the liver. In this article, pharmacogenomics and the role of the cytochrome P450 system in metabolism of various drugs are discussed. Specifically, drugs that are used in the critical care setting and are of clinical significance to the bedside critical care nurse are examined...
2018: AACN Advanced Critical Care
Fred Zack, Horst Nizze, Verena Blaas, Anne Port, Andreas Büttner
A 49-year-old female sustained a polytrauma after being hit by a vehicle in a traffic accident. Following the incident, the woman had various surgical interventions and underwent intensive care over a 6-week period. Eight months later, she died after developing secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC). Autopsy revealed liver failure and hepatic encephalopathy due to SSC caused by the polytrauma and the subsequent intensive care. Prior to the accident, there was no evidence of a pre-existing liver or biliary system disease...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Alessandra Pohlmann, Patrick Ryan, Robert Schierwagen, Luis A Chi-Cervera, Christian Jansen, Osvely Mendez-Guerrero, Nayelli C Flores-García, Jennifer Lehmann, Aldo Torre, Ricardo Ulises Macías-Rodríguez, Jonel Trebicka
OBJECTIVE: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) develops in acute decompensation of cirrhosis and shows high mortality. In critically ill patients, early diagnosis of ACLF could be important for therapeutic decisions (e.g. renal replacement, artificial liver support, liver transplantation). This study evaluated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), as a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of ACLF. DESIGN: The study included 154 individuals (112 critically patients and 42 healthy controls) divided into a training and a validation cohort...
February 24, 2018: Liver Transplantation
Dominique Béchade, Camille Chakiba, Marie Desjardin, Yves Bécouarn, Marianne Fonck
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used for the targeted treatment of solid cancers. TKIs produce a variable incidence of liver adverse events (5-25%) which can progress to severe liver injury in a minority of patients if treatment is maintained despite ongoing injury. This risk requires careful patient management to maintain treatment benefit without harm. This review highlights the various mechanisms of idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity, the formation of reactive metabolites and how this leads to toxicity. These critical events depend of the drug-specific characteristics of each TKI and the patient risk factors, especially genetic characterization...
February 19, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Maria Mantzorou, Eleni Pavlidou, George Vasios, Eftychia Tsagalioti, Constantinos Giaginis
Numerous clinical trials have investigated the potential beneficial effects of curcumin supplementation against several human chronic diseases. Up to now, it has been claimed that curcumin consumption may exert beneficial effects against several chronic diseases by promoting human health and preventing diseases. In this aspect, the present review aims to critically collect and in-depth summarize the most recent, well-designed clinical studies evaluating the potential beneficial effects of curcumin consumption on human health promotion and disease prevention...
February 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Constance M Mobley, Ashish Saharia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Patients with liver failure and liver-related diseases are often critically ill. Here, we review advances in donor organ management, tools for patient selection and highlight ICU management of liver transplant (LT) recipients. A focused discussion on the impact each of these factors have on critical care management of liver failure patients is presented. RECENT FINDINGS: Artificial liver assist devices to increase donor organ utilization are broadening the potential for transplantation of critically ill patients...
February 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
Masaharu Nagae, Moritoki Egi, Kenta Kubota, Shohei Makino, Satoshi Mizobuchi
Background: Hyperbilirubinemia is a common postoperative complication. Elevated direct bilirubin (D-Bil) and indirect bilirubin (I-Bil) levels are related to different pathophysiologies; therefore, their associations with outcomes also differ. However, there have been few comparative studies of such associations in postoperative patients. Methods: This retrospective study compared the associations of postoperative D-Bil and I-Bil with outcomes. We included adult patients requiring postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours between 2008 and 2013, except those undergoing liver operations...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
Christine Englschalk, Daniela Eser, Ralf J Jox, Alexander Gerbes, Lorenz Frey, Derek A Dubay, Martin Angele, Manfred Stangl, Bruno Meiser, Jens Werner, Markus Guba
BACKGROUND: The allocation of any scarce health care resource, especially a lifesaving resource, can create profound ethical and legal challenges. Liver transplant allocation currently is based upon urgency, a sickest-first approach, and does not utilize capacity to benefit. While urgency can be described reasonably well with the MELD system, benefit encompasses multiple dimensions of patients' well-being. Currently, the balance between both principles is ill-defined. METHODS: This survey with 502 participants examines how urgency and benefit are weighted by different stakeholders (medical staff, patients on the liver transplant list or already transplanted, medical students and non-medical university staff and students)...
February 12, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
X Yang, S Y Qian, Y M Zhu, X Xu, C F Liu, F Xu, X X Ren, Y Wang, Y C Zhang, G P Lu
Objective: To investigate the current application status of continuous blood purification (CBP) technology and equipment in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in China. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted to understand the current popularization of CBP technology and equipment, the management of CBP equipment and consumables, and the application of CBP in different diseases. A questionnaire named Application Status of Continuous Blood Purification Technology was applied. Children's hospitals and polyclinic hospitals with the pediatric qualification (pediatric emergency or critical care unit members of Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Medical Doctor Association) were selected...
February 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Fahrettin Haczeyni, Matthew M Yeh, George N Ioannou, Isabelle A Leclercq, Robert Goldin, Yock Young Dan, Jun Yu, Narcissus C Teoh, Geoffrey C Farrell
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is strongly associated with overnutrition, insulin resistance, and predisposition to type 2 diabetes. To critically analyze the translational significance of currently-used animal models of NASH, we reviewed articles published during the last three years that studied NASH pathogenesis using mouse models. Among 146 articles, 34 (23%) used models in which overnutrition was reported, and 36 (25%) demonstrated insulin resistance, with or without glucose intolerance. Half the articles contained no information on whether mice exhibited overnutrition or insulin resistance...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Philip J Peyton, Monique Kozub
Technologies for minimally-invasive cardiac output measurement in patients during surgery remain little used in routine practice. We tested a redeveloped system based on CO 2 elimination (VCO 2 ) by the lungs for use in ventilated patients, which can be seamlessly integrated into a modern anesthesia/monitoring platform, and provides automated, continuous breath-by-breath cardiac output monitoring. A prototype measurement system was constructed to measure VCO 2 and end-tidal CO 2 concentration with each breath...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Cheryl W McGinnis, Stacia M Hays
Liver transplant is the standard of care for treatment of many liver diseases. Patients with acute liver failure or end-stage liver disease may require intensive care management. Nurses play a vital role in the care of these patients before and immediately after transplant. Optimal patient outcomes depend on intensive care nurses being able to understand the process of liver failure and the necessary patient management during the pretransplant and early posttransplant periods. This article provides critical care nurses with an overview of liver disease and transplant for adult patients with a diagnosis of liver failure...
March 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
Stefano Romagnoli, Angela Amigoni, Ilaria Blangetti, Giampaolo Casella, Cosimo Chelazzi, Francesco Forfori, Cristiana Garisto, Maria C Mondardini, Marco Moltrasio, Daniela Pasero, Tiziana Principi, Zaccaria Ricci, Fabio Tarantino, Giorgio Conti
Light sedation, corresponding to a Richmond AgitationSedation Scale between 0 and 1 is a priority of modern critical care practice. Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective, central, 2adrenoceptor agonist, is increasingly administered in the intensive care units (ICUs) as an effective drug to induce light sedation, analgesia and a quasiphysiological sleep in critically ill patients. Although in general dexmedetomidine is well tolerated, side effects as bradycardia, hypertension, and hypotension may occur. Although a general dosing range is suggested, different ICU patients may require different and highly precise titration that may significantly vary due to neurological status, cardiorespiratory function, baseline blood pressure, heart rate, liver efficiency, age and coadministration of other sedatives...
February 5, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Xiao-Dong Zhou, Qin-Fen Chen, Dan-Qin Sun, Chen-Fei Zheng, Dong-Jie Liang, Jian Zhou, Song-Jie Wang, Wen-Yue Liu, Sven Van Poucke, Xiao-Dong Wang, Ke-Qing Shi, Wei-Jian Huang, Ming-Hua Zheng
Serum creatinine measurement demonstrates a poor specificity and sensitivity for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with cirrhosis. The existing model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score reveals multiple pitfalls in critically ill patients with cirrhosis and acute kidney injury (CAKI). The aim of this study was to re-evaluate the role of creatinine values in the existing MELD score and to develop a novel score for CAKI, named the "acute kidney injury-model for end-stage liver disease score" (AKI-MELD score)...
October 2017: Hepatology communications
Rebekah M Martin, Michael A Bachman
Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen that has a large accessory genome of plasmids and chromosomal gene loci. This accessory genome divides K. pneumoniae strains into opportunistic, hypervirulent, and multidrug-resistant groups and separates K. pneumoniae from two closely related species, Klebsiella variicola and Klebsiella quasipneumoniae. Some strains of K. pneumoniae act as opportunistic pathogens, infecting critically ill and immunocompromised patients. These K. pneumoniae are a common cause of health-care associated infections including pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and bloodstream infections...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Jeron Zerillo, Natalie K Smith, Tetsuro Sakai
In 2017, we identified more than 400 peer reviewed publications on the topic of pancreas transplantation, more than 500 on intestinal transplantation, more than 4000 on renal transplantation, and more than 4700 on liver transplantation. This annual review highlights the most pertinent literature for anesthesiologists and critical care physicians caring for patients undergoing abdominal organ transplantation. We explore a wide range of topics, including risk for and prediction of perioperative complications, recommendations on perioperative management, economic analyses, and education of the trainees in abdominal transplantation anesthesia and critical care...
March 2018: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
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