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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903517/branched-chain-fatty-acid-composition-of-human-milk-and-the-impact-of-maternal-diet-the-global-exploration-of-human-milk-gehm-study
#1
Kelly A Dingess, Christina J Valentine, Nicholas J Ollberding, Barbara S Davidson, Jessica G Woo, Suzanne Summer, Yongmei M Peng, M Lourdes Guerrero, Guillermo M Ruiz-Palacios, Rinat R Ran-Ressler, Robert J McMahon, J Thomas Brenna, Ardythe L Morrow
BACKGROUND: An understudied component of the diet, branched-chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are distinctive saturated fatty acids that may have an important influence on health. Human-milk fatty acid composition is known to differ worldwide, but comparative data are lacking on BCFAs. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that concentrations of BCFAs in human milk differ between populations and are associated with maternal diet. DESIGN: We surveyed the BCFA composition of samples collected as part of a standardized, prospective study of human-milk composition...
November 30, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899063/a-simple-sample-preparation-for-simultaneous-determination-of-chloramphenicol-and-its-succinate-esters-in-food-products-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-mass-spectrometry
#2
Vasiliy Amelin, Anton Korotkov
A simple method is described for determination of chloramphenicol and its succinate esters in food products. Examination of food products using HPLC/high-resolution mass spectrometry showed the presence of not only chloramphenicol but also its succinate forms. A scheme is proposed for determining chloramphenicol and its succinate esters (calculated as chloramphenicol) in meat (beef, pork, poultry), milk, liver, kidney, eggs, fish and honey. Analytes are extracted from a 1.0 g sample with 5 ml acetonitrile. It was found that using the method of standard addition and diluting the extract with water leads to the elimination of matrix effects and also eliminates errors associated with peak splitting due to the separate elution of the differing forms of the analyte...
November 30, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898970/the-effect-of-branding-on-consumer-palatability-ratings-of-beef-strip-loin-steaks
#3
A K Wilfong, K V McKillip, J M Gonzalez, T A Houser, J A Unruh, E A E Boyle, T G O'Quinn
The objective of this study was to determine the influence of knowing the brand or USDA grade on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks. Strip loins were selected to represent 5 USDA grades and brands, USDA Select, Choice, Prime, Certified Angus Beef (CAB; upper 2/3 Choice), and Select, from carcasses of cattle classified as Angus on the basis of phenotype. After 21 d of aging, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut, consecutively cut steaks were paired for consumer evaluation. Consumer panelists ( = 112) evaluated samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898968/post-artificial-insemination-supplementation-with-calcium-salts-of-soybean-oil-influences-pregnancy-establishment-factors-in-beef-cows
#4
R S Cipriano, R F Cooke, A D Rodrigues, L G T Silva, D W Bohnert, R S Marques, J L M Vasconcelos, A V Pires, R L A Cerri
The objective of this experiment was to compare hormonal, uterine, and conceptus factors associated with pregnancy establishment in beef cows supplemented or not with Ca salts of soybean oil (CSSO) for 21 d beginning after timed AI. One hundred lactating multiparous Nelore cows were allocated to 20 groups of 5 cows/group and timed inseminated on d 0 of the experiment. After AI, groups were randomly assigned to receive (as-fed basis) 100 g of protein-mineral mix + 100 g of ground corn per cow per day, in addition to 1) 100 g/cow daily of CSSO ( = 10) or 2) 100 g/cow daily of kaolin (CON; rumen-inert indigestible substance; = 10)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898967/genomewide-association-analysis-of-growth-traits-in-charolais-beef-cattle
#5
F J Jahuey-Martínez, G M Parra-Bracamonte, A M Sifuentes-Rincón, J C Martínez-González, C Gondro, C A García-Pérez, L A López-Bustamante
The objective of this study was to perform a genomewide association study (GWAS) for growth traits in Charolais beef cattle and to identify SNP markers and genes associated with these traits. Our study included 855 animals genotyped using 76,883 SNP from the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Bovine HD panel. The examined phenotypic data included birth, weaning, and yearling weights as well as pre- and postweaning ADG. After quality control, 68,337 SNP and 823 animals were retained in the analysis. The association analysis was performed using the principal components method via the egscore function of the GenABEL version 1...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898963/justification-for-setting-the-individual-animal-genotype-call-rate-threshold-at-eighty-five-percent
#6
D C Purfield, M McClure, D P Berry
Data quality of SNP arrays impacts the accuracy and precision of downstream data analyses. One such quality control measure often imposed is a threshold on individual animal call rate. Different call rate thresholds have been applied across studies; little is known, however, about the impact of these thresholds on the quality of the genotype data. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of different call rate thresholds on the integrity of the genotypes but also to quantify the contribution of different factors to the variability in animal call rate...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898959/heritabilities-and-genetic-correlations-of-pulmonary-arterial-pressure-and-performance-traits-in-angus-cattle-at-high-altitude
#7
N F Crawford, M G Thomas, T N Holt, S E Speidel, R M Enns
Pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) is an indicator trait for pulmonary hypertension and for the risk of developing high-altitude disease (HAD) in cattle. Pulmonary arterial pressures provide a tool for selection of breeding cattle for tolerance to high altitude in mountainous regions of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate relationships between growth performance traits and yearling PAP (42.4 ± 9.9 mmHg; = 5,776; elevation 2,150 m) using data from 1993 to 2014 in the John E. Rouse Colorado State University Beef Improvement Center (CSU-BIC) Angus herd...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898957/supplementation-of-corn-dried-distillers-grains-plus-solubles-to-gestating-beef-cows-fed-low-quality-forage-ii-impacts-on-uterine-blood-flow-circulating-estradiol-17%C3%AE-and-progesterone-and-hepatic-steroid-metabolizing-enzyme-activity
#8
V C Kennedy, B R Mordhorst, J J Gaspers, M L Bauer, K C Swanson, C O Lemley, K A Vonnahme
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS) during late gestation on uterine blood flow (BF), circulating steroid hormones and hepatic steroid metabolizing enzymes, and calf and placental weights. Multiparous beef cows were randomly divided into a control group (CON; = 15) consuming a diet containing 90% corn stover and 10% corn silage (DM basis) for ad libitum intake and a treatment group (SUP; = 12) consuming the same diet and DDGS (0...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898956/effect-of-timing-of-challenge-following-short-term-natural-exposure-to-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-type-1b-on-animal-performance-and-immune-response-in-beef-steers
#9
L Carlos-Valdez, B K Wilson, L O Burciaga-Robles, D L Step, B P Holland, C J Richards, M A Montelongo, A W Confer, R W Fulton, C R Krehbiel
Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is the most common and economically detrimental disease of beef cattle during the postweaning period, causing the majority of morbidity and mortality in feedlots. The pathogenesis of this disease often includes an initial viral infection, which can predispose cattle to a secondary bacterial infection. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of timing of an intratracheal (MH) challenge relative to 72 h of natural exposure to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) type 1b persistently infected (PI) calves on performance, serum antibody production, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) count, rectal temperature, clinical severity score (CS), and haptoglobin (Hp)...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898955/determination-of-the-effect-of-brand-and-product-identification-on-consumer-palatability-ratings-of-ground-beef-patties
#10
A K Wilfong, K V McKillip, J M Gonzalez, T A Houser, J A Unruh, E A E Boyle, T G O'Quinn
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of brand and product identification on consumer palatability ratings of ground beef patties. Six treatments were used in the study: 90/10 Certified Angus Beef (CAB) ground sirloin, 90/10 ground beef, 80/20 CAB ground chuck, 80/20 ground chuck, 80/20 ground beef, and 73/27 CAB ground beef. Ground beef was processed into 151.2-g patties using a patty former with 2 consecutively formed patties assigned to blind consumer testing and the following 2 assigned to informed testing...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898944/life-cycle-efficiency-of-beef-production-viii-relationship-between-residual-feed-intake-of-heifers-and-subsequent-cow-efficiency-ratios
#11
M E Davis, P A Lancaster, J J Rutledge, L V Cundiff
Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898933/an-evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-freshcase-technology-to-extend-the-storage-life-of-whole-muscle-beef-and-ground-beef
#12
X Yang, D R Woerner, J D Hasty, K R McCullough, I Geornaras, J N Sofos, K E Belk
The objective of this study was to identify the maximum time of refrigerated storage before aerobic psychrotrophic bacteria (APB) grew to a level indicative of spoilage (7 log cfu/g) or other indicators of spoilage were observed for whole muscle beef and ground beef packaged using FreshCase technology. Storage life for beef steaks stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C was 36 d, with ground beef stored in FreshCase packages at 4°C lasting 10 d. Additionally, greater ( < 0.05) a* (redness) values were detected in FreshCase packaged samples of both beef steaks and ground beef over storage time...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898930/effects-of-roughage-inclusion-and-particle-size-on-performance-and-rumination-behavior-of-finishing-beef-steers
#13
W W Gentry, C P Weiss, C M Meredith, F T McCollum, N A Cole, J S Jennings
Roughage is typically mechanically processed to increase digestibility and improve handling and mixing characteristics in beef cattle finishing diets. Roughage is fed to promote ruminal health and decrease digestive upset, but inclusion in finishing diets is limited due to the cost per unit of energy. Rumination behavior may be a means to standardize roughage in beef cattle finishing diets, and increasing particle size of roughage may allow a decrease in roughage inclusion without sacrificing animal performance...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898926/assessment-of-serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-of-beef-cows-and-calves-across-seasons-and-geographical-locations
#14
C D Nelson, J L Powell, D M Price, M J Hersom, J V Yelich, M E Drewnoski, S L Bird, G Allen Bridges
Vitamin D is critical for the growth and development of calves and positively contributes to immune function of cattle. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations above 20 ng/mL have traditionally been considered adequate for growth and development of cattle, but recent evidence has indicated that concentrations below 30 ng/mL are insufficient for immunity. Because little information is available regarding vitamin D status of beef cattle, the objective of this study was to evaluate vitamin D status of beef cow-calf herds on pasture as affected by season and location...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898922/influence-of-pork-and-pork-by-products-on-macronutrient-and-energy-digestibility-and-palatability-in-large-exotic-felids
#15
C J Iske, C L Morris, K L Kappen
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate digestibility and palatability of a new commercial pork-based raw diet for zoo-managed felids. Currently 2 protein sources (beef or horse) comprise the majority of commercial raw meat diet formulations for exotic carnivores in zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been widely utilized and thus nutrient digestibility of pork has not been adequately evaluated in exotic carnivores. The objectives of this study were 1) to determine if a pork-based diet had similar apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility and fecal scores as standard zoo carnivore diets formulated with either horse or beef, in large exotic felids and 2) evaluate palatability of pork for use in zoos...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898921/using-estrus-detection-patches-to-optimally-time-insemination-improved-pregnancy-risk-in-suckled-beef-cows-enrolled-in-a-fixed-time-artificial-insemination-program
#16
S L Hill, D M Grieger, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, C R Dahlen, G A Bridges, F Dantas, J E Larson, A M Muth-Spurlock, J K Ahola, M C Fischer, G A Perry, E L Larimore, T L Steckler, W D Whittier, J F Currin, J S Stevenson
A multilocation study examined pregnancy risk (PR) after delaying AI in suckled beef cows from 60 to 75 h when estrus had not been detected by 60 h in response to a 7-d CO-Synch + progesterone insert (CIDR) timed AI (TAI) program (d -7: CIDR insert concurrent with an injection of GnRH; d 0: PGF injection and removal of CIDR insert; and GnRH injection at TAI [60 or 75 h after CIDR removal]). A total of 1,611 suckled beef cows at 15 locations in 9 states (CO, IL, KS, MN, MS, MT, ND, SD, and VA) were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898916/effects-of-aging-on-the-fundamental-color-chemistry-of-dark-cutting-beef
#17
A R English, K M Wills, B N Harsh, G G Mafi, D L VanOverbeke, R Ramanathan
The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of aging on myoglobin chemistry of dark-cutting beef. Ten USDA Choice (mean pH = 5.6; normal pH beef) and 10 no-roll dark cutter (mean pH = 6.4) strip loins were obtained from a commercial packing plant within 3 d of harvest. Loins were cut into 4 sections, vacuum packaged, randomly assigned to 0-, 21-, 42-, and 62-d aging at 2°C in the dark. Following aging, loin sections were cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks and were used to determine bloom development, oxygen consumption (OC), metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), and lipid oxidation...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898910/feeding-microalgae-meal-all-g-rich-ccap-4067-2-to-beef-heifers-ii-effects-on-ground-beef-color-and-palatability
#18
K J Phelps, J S Drouillard, T G O'Quinn, D D Burnett, T L Blackmon, J E Axman, C L Van Bibber-Krueger, J M Gonzalez
The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898908/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-increased-pregnancy-risk-in-suckled-beef-cows-not-detected-in-estrus-and-subjected-to-a-split-time-artificial-insemination-program
#19
S L Hill, D M Grieger, K C Olson, J R Jaeger, C R Dahlen, M R Crosswhite, N Negrin Pereira, S R Underdahl, B W Neville, J Ahola, M C Fischer, G E Seidel, J S Stevenson
We hypothesized that GnRH would increase pregnancy risk (PR) in a split-time AI program for cows in which estrus was not detected. A total of 1,236 suckled beef cows at 12 locations in 3 states (Colorado, Kansas, and North Dakota) were enrolled. Before applying the fixed-time AI program, BCS was assessed. Cows were treated on d -7 with a progesterone insert concurrent with 100 μg GnRH and on d 0 with 25 mg PGF plus removal of the insert. Estrus-detection patches were affixed to cows at insert removal. Estrus was defined to have occurred when an estrus-detection patch was >50% colored (activated)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898906/sexual-dimorphism-in-livestock-species-selected-for-economically-important-traits
#20
E M M van der Heide, D A L Lourenco, C Y Chen, W O Herring, R L Sapp, D W Moser, S Tsuruta, Y Masuda, B J Ducro, I Misztal
Most breeding companies evaluate economically important traits in males and females as a single trait, assuming genetic correlation of 1 between phenotypes measured in both sexes. This assumption may not be true because genes may be differently expressed in males and females. We estimated genetic correlations between males and females for growth and efficiency traits in broiler chickens, growth traits in American Angus beef cattle, and birth weight and preweaning mortality in purebred pigs; therefore, each trait was treated differently in males and females...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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