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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737009/non-additive-stabilization-by-halogenated-amino-acids-reveals-protein-plasticity-on-a-sub-angstrom-scale
#1
Azade S Hosseini, Christopher J Pace, Adam A Esposito, Jianmin Gao
It has been a long-standing goal to understand the structure-stability relationship of proteins, as optimal stability is essential for protein function and highly desirable for protein therapeutics. Halogenation has emerged as a minimally invasive strategy to probe the physical characteristics of proteins in solution, as well as enhance the structural stabilities of proteins for therapeutic applications. Although advances in synthetic chemistry and genetic code expansion have allowed for the rapid synthesis of proteins with diverse chemical sequences, much remains to be learned regarding the impact of these mutations on their structural integrity...
July 24, 2017: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736503/-do-you-see-what-i-mean-staff-collaboration-in-eating-disorder-units-during-mealtimes
#2
Trine Wiig Hage, Øyvind Rø, Anne Moen
BACKGROUND: Eating disorders are psychiatric illnesses with potentially life-threatening consequences. Inpatient treatment is typically required for the most severely ill patients, who are often emaciated or significantly malnourished. A core therapeutic objective is to normalize eating patterns and facilitate weight gain. These goals guide the efforts of milieu therapeutic staff working with this patient group, who support renourishment through the positive manipulation of a structured environment, as well via relational aspects...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736414/community-interactive-research-workshop-series-community-members-engaged-as-team-teachers-to-conduct-research
#3
Connie Kim Nguyen-Truong, Joannie Tang, Chiao-Yun Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Vietnamese women are diagnosed with cervical cancer at twice the rate of non-Hispanic White women and the highest compared to Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Japanese women. ἀ e Vietnamese Women's Health Project, a community-based participatory research partnership, was developed to address this concern. In earlier studies, community members received research training. OBJECTIVES: To describe how we developed an innovative curricular research training framework...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736407/implementing-physical-activity-recommendations-in-a-tri-ethnic-rural-community-through-a-community-university-partnership
#4
Sally M Davis, Theresa H Cruz, Julia Meredith Hess, Richard Kozoll, Janet Page-Reeves
BACKGROUND: A tri-ethnic rural community with limited resources and a university Prevention Research Center (PRC) developed a partnership to promote evidence-based physical activity. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate how a community-university partnership can disseminate and implement ἀe Commu nity Guide's recommendations for increasing physical activity and create a model for other under-resourced communities experiencing high rates of chronic disease...
2017: Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734549/habitual-versus-goal-driven-attention
#5
REVIEW
Yuhong V Jiang
Recent research has expanded the list of factors that control spatial attention. Beside current goals and perceptual salience, statistical learning, reward, motivation and emotion also affect attention. But do these various factors influence spatial attention in the same manner, as suggested by the integrated framework of attention, or do they target different aspects of spatial attention? Here I present evidence that the control of attention may be implemented in two ways. Whereas current goals typically modulate where in space attention is prioritized, search habits affect how one moves attention in space...
July 4, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734195/implementation-of-psychological-clinical-trials-in-epilepsy-review-and-guide
#6
REVIEW
Avani C Modi, Janelle Wagner, Aimee W Smith, Tanja S Kellermann, Rosa Michaelis
The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Neuropsychiatry commission and United States Institute of Medicine report both identified cognitive and psychological comorbidities as a significant issue for individuals with epilepsy, with rates as high as 60%. However, there is a paucity of evidence-based treatments for many psychological conditions (e.g., learning disorders, cognitive disorders, behavioral disorders). Because of inherent challenges in the implementation of psychological therapy trials and specific considerations for the population with epilepsy, the focus of the current review was to provide guidance and recommendations to conduct psychological trials for individuals with epilepsy...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733248/pupil-dilations-induced-by-barely-conscious-reward-goal-priming
#7
Yudai Takarada, Daichi Nozaki
The topic of unconscious influences on behavior has long been explored as a way of understanding human performance and the neurobiological correlates of intention, motivation and action. Previous research using transcranial magnetic stimulation has demonstrated that barely visible priming of an action concept, when combined with reward in the form of a consciously perceived positive stimulus, can alter the state of the motor system and enhance the maximal voluntary force level. One possible explanation is that positive stimulus-induced reward signals are processed by the dopaminergic system in the basal ganglia, motivating individuals to increase the effort they invest in particular behaviors, or to recruit the resources necessary for maintaining those behaviors...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732486/the-development-of-a-collective-quality-system-challenges-and-lessons-learned-a-qualitative-study
#8
EDITORIAL
Nienke Buwalda, Jozé Braspenning, Nynke van Dijk, Mechteld Visser
BACKGROUND: The ongoing professionalization of medical education means that quality systems (QSs) aimed at improving medical education also continuously have to improve. The aim of this paper is to describe the development of a collective QS for eight Dutch General Practitioner (GP) specialty training institutes to provide insights into the considerations that are involved in developing a QS in medical education. METHODS: Experts in the field of GP education and quality assurance developed the QS...
July 21, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732336/using-machine-learning-to-identify-air-pollution-exposure-profiles-associated-with-early-cognitive-skills-among-u-s-children
#9
Jeanette A Stingone, Om P Pandey, Luz Claudio, Gaurav Pandey
Data-driven machine learning methods present an opportunity to simultaneously assess the impact of multiple air pollutants on health outcomes. The goal of this study was to apply a two-stage, data-driven approach to identify associations between air pollutant exposure profiles and children's cognitive skills. Data from 6900 children enrolled in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, a national study of children born in 2001 and followed through kindergarten, were linked to estimated concentrations of 104 ambient air toxics in the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment using ZIP code of residence at age 9 months...
July 18, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731839/cost-benefit-arbitration-between-multiple-reinforcement-learning-systems
#10
Wouter Kool, Samuel J Gershman, Fiery A Cushman
Human behavior is sometimes determined by habit and other times by goal-directed planning. Modern reinforcement-learning theories formalize this distinction as a competition between a computationally cheap but inaccurate model-free system that gives rise to habits and a computationally expensive but accurate model-based system that implements planning. It is unclear, however, how people choose to allocate control between these systems. Here, we propose that arbitration occurs by comparing each system's task-specific costs and benefits...
July 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729647/neural-determinants-of-human-goal-directed-vs-habitual-action-control-and-their-relation-to-trait-motivation
#11
Hamdi Eryilmaz, Anais Rodriguez-Thompson, Alexandra S Tanner, Madeline Giegold, Franklin C Huntington, Joshua L Roffman
Instrumental learning is mediated by goal-directed and habit systems in the brain. While rodent studies implicate distinct prefrontal/striatal regions in goal-directed and habit learning, neural systems underpinning these two processes in humans remain poorly understood. Here, using a validated discrimination learning task that distinguishes goal-directed learning from habit learning in 72 subjects in fMRI, we investigated the corticostriatal correlates of goal-directed learning and tested whether brain activation during learning is associated with trait motivation and behavioral performance in the post-learning test phase...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729162/effect-of-3basic-life-support-training-programs-in-future-primary-school-teachers-a-quasi-experimental-design
#12
R Navarro-Patón, M Freire-Tellado, S Basanta-Camiño, R Barcala-Furelos, V Arufe-Giraldez, J E Rodriguez-Fernández
AIM: To evaluate the learning of basic life support (BLS) measures on the part of laypersons after 3different teaching programs. DESIGN: A quasi-experimental before-after study involving a non-probabilistic sample without a control group was carried out. SCOPE: Primary school teacher students from the University of Santiago (Spain). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 124 students (68.8% women and 31.2% men) aged 20-39 years (M=22...
July 17, 2017: Medicina Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728763/implementation-of-a-school-nurse-led-intervention-for-children-with-severe-obesity-in-new-york-city-schools
#13
Krista Schroeder, Haomiao Jia, Y Claire Wang, Arlene Smaldone
PURPOSE: The Healthy Options and Physical Activity Program (HOP) is a school nurse-led intervention for children with severe obesity. HOP was developed by experts at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and implemented in New York City schools beginning in 2012. The purpose of this study was to evaluate HOP implementation with the goal of informing HOP refinement and potential future HOP dissemination. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study entailed a retrospective analysis of secondary data...
July 2017: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728577/integrating-data-from-randomized-controlled-trials-and-observational-studies-to-predict-the-response-to-pregabalin-in-patients-with-painful-diabetic-peripheral-neuropathy
#14
Joe Alexander, Roger A Edwards, Alberto Savoldelli, Luigi Manca, Roberto Grugni, Birol Emir, Ed Whalen, Stephen Watt, Marina Brodsky, Bruce Parsons
BACKGROUND: More patient-specific medical care is expected as more is learned about variations in patient responses to medical treatments. Analytical tools enable insights by linking treatment responses from different types of studies, such as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies. Given the importance of evidence from both types of studies, our goal was to integrate these types of data into a single predictive platform to help predict response to pregabalin in individual patients with painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy (pDPN)...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728049/application-of-forensic-image-analysis-in-accident-investigations
#15
REVIEW
Ellen Verolme, Arjan Mieremet
Forensic investigations are primarily meant to obtain objective answers that can be used for criminal prosecution. Accident analyses are usually performed to learn from incidents and to prevent similar events from occurring in the future. Although the primary goal may be different, the steps in which information is gathered, interpreted and weighed are similar in both types of investigations, implying that forensic techniques can be of use in accident investigations as well. The use in accident investigations usually means that more information can be obtained from the available information than when used in criminal investigations, since the latter require a higher evidence level...
July 8, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727625/decreasing-stress-and-burnout-in-nurses-efficacy-of-blended-learning-with-stress-management-and-resilience-training-program
#16
Donna L Magtibay, Sherry S Chesak, Kevin Coughlin, Amit Sood
OBJECTIVE: The study's purpose was to assess efficacy of blended learning to decrease stress and burnout among nurses through use of the Stress Management and Resiliency Training (SMART) program. BACKGROUND: Job-related stress in nurses leads to high rates of burnout, compromises patient care, and costs US healthcare organizations billions of dollars annually. Many mindfulness and resiliency programs are taught in a format that limits nurses' attendance. METHODS: Consistent with blended learning, participants chose the format that met their learning styles and goals; Web-based, independent reading, facilitated discussions...
July 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726762/user-interaction-modeling-and-profile-extraction-in-interactive-systems-a-groupware-application-case-study
#17
Cristina Tîrnăucă, Rafael Duque, José L Montaña
A relevant goal in human-computer interaction is to produce applications that are easy to use and well-adjusted to their users' needs. To address this problem it is important to know how users interact with the system. This work constitutes a methodological contribution capable of identifying the context of use in which users perform interactions with a groupware application (synchronous or asynchronous) and provides, using machine learning techniques, generative models of how users behave. Additionally, these models are transformed into a text that describes in natural language the main characteristics of the interaction of the users with the system...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726532/local-to-global-working-together-to-meet-the-needs-of-vulnerable-communities
#18
Anne Dressel, Lucy Mkandawire-Valhmu, Ann Dietrich, Ellen Chirwa, Florence Mgawadere, Sylvia Kambalametore, Peninnah Kako
Since 2012, the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) faculty from nursing and physical therapy (PT) have been working together towards a common goal: to meet the healthcare needs of vulnerable populations in Malawi and Milwaukee. Sharing valuable knowledge and understanding one another's professions have allowed us to develop interprofessional education (IPE) learning experiences for students to help identify how quality of life could be improved or enhanced for children and their families across two different geographic spaces, one in rural Malawi and the other in urban Milwaukee...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726340/factors-influencing-property-selection-for-conservation-revolving-funds
#19
Mathew J Hardy, James A Fitzsimons, Sarah A Bekessy, Ascelin Gordon
Finding sustainable ways to increase the amount of private land protected for biodiversity is a challenge for many conservation organizations. In a number of countries, organizations use 'revolving fund' programs, whereby land is purchased, and then on-sold to conservation-minded owners with a condition to enter into a conservation covenant or easement. The proceeds from sale are then used to purchase, protect and on-sell additional properties, incrementally increasing the amount of protected private land. As the effectiveness of this approach relies upon selecting the right properties, we sought to explore the factors currently considered by practitioners and how these are integrated into decision-making...
July 20, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725282/addiction-and-the-brain-development-not-disease
#20
Marc Lewis
I review the brain disease model of addiction promoted by medical, scientific, and clinical authorities in the US and elsewhere. I then show that the disease model is flawed because brain changes in addiction are similar to those generally observed when recurrent, highly motivated goal seeking results in the development of deep habits, Pavlovian learning, and prefrontal disengagement. This analysis relies on concepts of self-organization, neuroplasticity, personality development, and delay discounting. It also highlights neural and behavioral parallels between substance addictions, behavioral addictions, normative compulsive behaviors, and falling in love...
2017: Neuroethics
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