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Self-regulated learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101790/perspectives-of-people-with-a-chronic-disease-on-participating-in-work-a-focus-group-study
#1
Marloes Vooijs, Monique C J Leensen, Jan L Hoving, Haije Wind, Monique H W Frings-Dresen
Purpose To explore solutions that people with a chronic disease use to overcome difficulties they experience regarding participating in work, and the support they require to identify or implement these solutions. Methods Focus groups were held to explore solutions and support requirements of people with a chronic disease. Participants were recruited through a research institution's patient panel, a patient federation and personal networks. Analysis was conducted by means of open and selective coding, using the MAXQDA software package...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101261/external-and-internal-barriers-to-studying-can-affect-student-success-and-retention-in-a-diverse-classroom
#2
Laurence Clement
Although a majority of under-represented minority (URM) students begin their postsecondary education at community colleges, little is known about barriers to success and retention for transfer-bound science students. This study focuses on some of the barriers that affect these students' ability to study adequately for a community college "gateway" course. It tests whether instructors' expectations of study time were realistic for community college students and whether students reported facing external barriers, such as job and family responsibilities, or internal barriers to studying, such as lack of motivational, cognitive, and metacognitive abilities, all of which have been shown to impact academic success and retention...
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100736/methyl-cpg-binding-protein-mbd1-regulates-neuronal-lineage-commitment-through-maintaining-adult-neural-stem-cell-identity
#3
Emily M Jobe, Yu Gao, Brian E Eisinger, Janessa K Mladucky, Charles C Giuliani, Laurel E Kelnhofer, Xinyu Zhao
: Methyl-CpG-binding domain 1 (MBD1) belongs to a family of methyl-CpG-binding proteins that are epigenetic "readers" linking DNA methylation to transcriptional regulation. MBD1 is expressed in neural stem cells residing in the dentate gyrus of the adult hippocampus (aNSCs) and MBD1 deficiency leads to reduced neuronal differentiation, impaired neurogenesis, learning deficits, and autism-like behaviors in mice; however, the precise function of MBD1 in aNSCs remains unexplored. Here, we show that MBD1 is important for maintaining the integrity and stemness of NSCs, which is critical for their ability to generate neurons...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095003/cocaine-addiction-as-a-homeostatic-reinforcement-learning-disorder
#4
Mehdi Keramati, Audrey Durand, Paul Girardeau, Boris Gutkin, Serge H Ahmed
Drug addiction implicates both reward learning and homeostatic regulation mechanisms of the brain. This has stimulated 2 partially successful theoretical perspectives on addiction. Many important aspects of addiction, however, remain to be explained within a single, unified framework that integrates the 2 mechanisms. Building upon a recently developed homeostatic reinforcement learning theory, the authors focus on a key transition stage of addiction that is well modeled in animals, escalation of drug use, and propose a computational theory of cocaine addiction where cocaine reinforces behavior due to its rapid homeostatic corrective effect, whereas its chronic use induces slow and long-lasting changes in homeostatic setpoint...
January 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089707/understanding-infant-eating-behaviour-lessons-learned-from-observation
#5
REVIEW
Marion M Hetherington
Observations of human infants during feeding presents a rich source of data to identify the ways in which hunger, appetite and satiety are communicated in early life. Infants signal appetite through their interest or disinterest in food using a series of communication cues from rapid and transient facial expressions to subtle or potent gestures and bodily movements through to vocalisations and eventually speech. Even in the first days of life facial expressions in response to basic tastes are clearly demonstrated and shared between human infants, other primates and the rat...
January 12, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074855/mir-218-targets-mecp2-and-inhibits-heroin-seeking-behavior
#6
Biao Yan, Zhaoyang Hu, Wenqing Yao, Qiumin Le, Bo Xu, Xing Liu, Lan Ma
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved, 18-25 nucleotide non-coding sequences that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Recent studies implicated their roles in the regulation of neuronal functions, such as learning, cognition and memory formation. Here we report that miR-218 inhibits heroin-induced behavioral plasticity. First, network propagation-based method was used to predict candidate miRNAs that played potential key roles in regulating drug addiction-related genes. Microarray screening was also carried out to identify miRNAs responding to chronic heroin administration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073821/learning-from-cross-border-reproduction
#7
Emily Jackson, Jenni Millbank, Isabel Karpin, Anita Stuhmcke
Drawing upon the preliminary findings of an Australian empirical project on cross-border reproduction (CBR), this article argues that regulators and policymakers could learn from the experiences of those who travel overseas in order to access fertility treatment and surrogacy. It makes four principal observations. First, the distinction between so-called 'altruistic' and 'commercial' gamete donation and surrogacy is increasingly unsustainable and is not experienced as meaningful by many participants in CBR...
January 10, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069663/cybercycling-effects-on-classroom-behavior-in-children-with-behavioral-health-disorders-an-rct
#8
April Bowling, James Slavet, Daniel P Miller, Sebastien Haneuse, William Beardslee, Kirsten Davison
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Exercise is linked with improved cognition and behavior in children in clinical and experimental settings. This translational study examined if an aerobic cybercycling intervention integrated into physical education (PE) resulted in improvements in behavioral self-regulation and classroom functioning among children with mental health disabilities attending a therapeutic day school. METHODS: Using a 14-week crossover design, students (N = 103) were randomly assigned by classroom (k = 14) to receive the 7-week aerobic cybercycling PE curriculum during fall 2014 or spring 2015...
January 9, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28044415/modulation-of-alloimmune-response-by-commensal-gut-microbiota-and-potential-new-avenues-to-influence-the-outcome-of-allogeneic-transplantation-by-modification-of-the-gut-culture
#9
REVIEW
S Kanangat
Host defence response against microbial infections was the foundation for the Science of Immunology. Now, we know the mechanisms of such host defence which include innate immune responses that is generally nonspecific but effective in many cases and lead to more specific responses called adaptive immune response. The gene loci of class I, II and III of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play a major role in directing the adaptive immune responses by presenting processed antigens to T and B cells to induce appropriate antigen-specific cellular and or humoral immune responses...
January 3, 2017: International Journal of Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035054/the-relationship-between-autonomous-motivation-and-autonomy-support-in-medical-students-academic-achievement
#10
Rose Feri, Diantha Soemantri, Anwar Jusuf
Objectives: This study applied self-determination theory (SDT) to investigate the relationship between students' autonomous motivation and tutors' autonomy support in medical students' academic achievement. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Out of 204 students in a fundamental medical science course, 199 participated in the study. Data was collected using two questionnaires: the Learning Self-Regulation and Learning Climate Questionnaires. The score of the course assessment was the measure of academic achievement...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031600/medical-curriculum-and-pharmacology-an-appraisal
#11
P S R K Haranath
Pharmacology was introduced with Western Medical Education in India in 1900s. RN Chopra was the first Professor of Pharmacology along with patient care in School of Tropical Medicine Calcutta. Now Pharmacologists do not have clinical care nor give laboratory services to hospitals. Medical Education advanced in the West in 1960s with more emphasis on Integrated Teaching and Student Self-study and less on didactic lectures. System Based Learning and Problem Based Learning reduced importance of individual subjects...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031068/what-defines-mindfulness-based-programs-the-warp-and-the-weft
#12
R S Crane, J Brewer, C Feldman, J Kabat-Zinn, S Santorelli, J M G Williams, W Kuyken
There has been an explosion of interest in mindfulness-based programs (MBPs) such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. This is demonstrated in increased research, implementation of MBPs in healthcare, educational, criminal justice and workplace settings, and in mainstream interest. For the sustainable development of the field there is a need to articulate a definition of what an MBP is and what it is not. This paper provides a framework to define the essential characteristics of the family of MBPs originating from the parent program MBSR, and the processes which inform adaptations of MBPs for different populations or contexts...
December 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027056/the-self-assessment-practices-of-hong-kong-secondary-students-findings-with-a-new-instrument
#13
Zi Yan
Self-assessment is a core skill that enables students to engage in self-regulated learning. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Self-assessment Practice Scale and to depict the characteristics of self-assessment practices of Hong Kong secondary students using this newly developed instrument. A total of 6,125 students from 10 Hong Kong secondary schools completed the survey. Both Rasch and factor analyses revealed a two-dimension scale structure (i.e., Self-directed Feedback Seeking and Self-reflection)...
2016: Journal of Applied Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024432/students-generate-items-for-an-online-formative-assessment-is-it-motivating
#14
Rianne Poot, Renske A M de Kleijn, Harold V M van Rijen, Jan van Tartwijk
BACKGROUND: A reported problem with e-learning is sustaining students' motivation. We propose a framework explaining to what extent an e-learning task is motivating. This framework includes students' perceived Value of the task, Competence in executing the task, Autonomy over how to carry out the task, and Relatedness. METHODS: To test this framework, students generated items in an online environment and answered questions developed by their fellow students. Motivation was measured by analyzing engagement with the task, with an open-ended questionnaire about engagement, and with the motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MSLQ)...
December 26, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019061/students-perceptions-of-a-blended-learning-experience-in-dental-education
#15
S Varthis, O R Anderson
INTRODUCTION: "Flipped" instructional sequencing is a new instructional method where online instruction precedes the group meeting, allowing for more sophisticated learning through discussion and critical thinking during the in-person class session; a novel approach studied in this research. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to document dental students' perceptions of flipped-based blended learning and to apply a new method of displaying their perceptions based on Likert-scale data analysis using a network diagramming method known as an item correlation network diagram (ICND)...
December 25, 2016: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003656/closed-loop-brain-training-the-science-of-neurofeedback
#16
Ranganatha Sitaram, Tomas Ros, Luke Stoeckel, Sven Haller, Frank Scharnowski, Jarrod Lewis-Peacock, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Maria Laura Blefari, Mohit Rana, Ethan Oblak, Niels Birbaumer, James Sulzer
Neurofeedback is a psychophysiological procedure in which online feedback of neural activation is provided to the participant for the purpose of self-regulation. Learning control over specific neural substrates has been shown to change specific behaviours. As a progenitor of brain-machine interfaces, neurofeedback has provided a novel way to investigate brain function and neuroplasticity. In this Review, we examine the mechanisms underlying neurofeedback, which have started to be uncovered. We also discuss how neurofeedback is being used in novel experimental and clinical paradigms from a multidisciplinary perspective, encompassing neuroscientific, neuroengineering and learning-science viewpoints...
December 22, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000031/paradoxical-antidepressant-effects-of-alcohol-are-related-to-acid-sphingomyelinase-and-its-control-of-sphingolipid-homeostasis
#17
Christian P Müller, Liubov S Kalinichenko, Jens Tiesel, Matthias Witt, Thomas Stöckl, Eva Sprenger, Jens Fuchser, Janine Beckmann, Marc Praetner, Sabine E Huber, Davide Amato, Christiane Mühle, Christian Büttner, Arif B Ekici, Irena Smaga, Lucyna Pomierny-Chamiolo, Bartosz Pomierny, Malgorzata Filip, Volker Eulenburg, Erich Gulbins, Anbarasu Lourdusamy, Martin Reichel, Johannes Kornhuber
Alcohol is a widely consumed drug that can lead to addiction and severe brain damage. However, alcohol is also used as self-medication for psychiatric problems, such as depression, frequently resulting in depression-alcoholism comorbidity. Here, we identify the first molecular mechanism for alcohol use with the goal to self-medicate and ameliorate the behavioral symptoms of a genetically induced innate depression. An induced over-expression of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), as was observed in depressed patients, enhanced the consumption of alcohol in a mouse model of depression...
December 20, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993164/fostering-effective-early-learning-feel-through-a-professional-development-programme-for-early-childhood-educators-to-improve-professional-practice-and-child-outcomes-in-the-year-before-formal-schooling-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Edward Melhuish, Steven J Howard, Iram Siraj, Cathrine Neilsen-Hewett, Denise Kingston, Marc de Rosnay, Elisabeth Duursma, Betty Luu
BACKGROUND: A substantial research base documents the benefits of attendance at high-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) for positive behavioural and learning outcomes. Research has also found that the quality of many young children's experiences and opportunities in ECEC depends on the skills, dispositions and understandings of the early childhood adult educators. Increasingly, research has shown that the quality of children's interactions with educators and their peers, more than any other programme feature, influence what children learn and how they feel about learning...
December 19, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982778/state-of-the-art-pediatric-hypnosis-training-remodeling-curriculum-and-refining-faculty-development
#19
Daniel P Kohen, Pamela Kaiser, Karen Olness
Training in pediatric hypnosis has been part of clinical hypnosis education in the United States since 1976. Workshops expanded over time and are now taught by highly experienced pediatric clinicians across the globe. In 1987, a small vanguard of North American faculty, academic pediatricians, and pediatric psychologists taught a 3-day pediatric hypnosis workshop at the national meeting of the Society for Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics (SDBP). This model of annual tri-level concurrent workshops (introductory, intermediate, and advanced) was sponsored by the SDBP for 24 years...
January 2017: American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982419/relations-among-cultural-learning-beliefs-self-regulated-learning-and-academic-achievement-for-low-income-chinese-american-adolescents
#20
Janine Bempechat, Jin Li, Samuel Ronfard
This mixed-methods study of urban low-income, English-proficient Chinese American, second-generation 15-year-olds (conducted in 2004; N = 32) examined the relation among the virtue model of learning communicated by parents and adolescents' learning beliefs, self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviors, and academic achievement. Analysis of in-depth individual interviews revealed that for these adolescents, perceptions of family educational socialization predicted students' endorsement of their culture's virtue-oriented learning beliefs and that adolescents' endorsement of these learning beliefs predicted their academic achievement...
December 16, 2016: Child Development
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