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Self-regulated learning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909646/the-neural-mechanisms-of-meditative-practices-novel-approaches-for-healthy-aging
#1
REVIEW
Bianca P Acevedo, Sarah Pospos, Helen Lavretsky
OBJECTIVES: Meditation has been shown to have physical, cognitive, and psychological health benefits that can be used to promote healthy aging. However, the common and specific mechanisms of response remain elusive due to the diverse nature of mind-body practices. METHODS: In this review, we aim to compare the neural circuits implicated in focused-attention meditative practices that focus on present-moment awareness to those involved in active-type meditative practices (e...
2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909026/student-buy-in-to-active-learning-in-a-college-science-course
#2
Andrew J Cavanagh, Oriana R Aragón, Xinnian Chen, Brian Couch, Mary Durham, Aiyana Bobrownicki, David I Hanauer, Mark J Graham
The benefits of introducing active learning in college science courses are well established, yet more needs to be understood about student buy-in to active learning and how that process of buy-in might relate to student outcomes. We test the exposure-persuasion-identification-commitment (EPIC) process model of buy-in, here applied to student (n = 245) engagement in an undergraduate science course featuring active learning. Student buy-in to active learning was positively associated with engagement in self-regulated learning and students' course performance...
2016: CBE Life Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895566/allostatic-self-efficacy-a-metacognitive-theory-of-dyshomeostasis-induced-fatigue-and-depression
#3
Klaas E Stephan, Zina M Manjaly, Christoph D Mathys, Lilian A E Weber, Saee Paliwal, Tim Gard, Marc Tittgemeyer, Stephen M Fleming, Helene Haker, Anil K Seth, Frederike H Petzschner
This paper outlines a hierarchical Bayesian framework for interoception, homeostatic/allostatic control, and meta-cognition that connects fatigue and depression to the experience of chronic dyshomeostasis. Specifically, viewing interoception as the inversion of a generative model of viscerosensory inputs allows for a formal definition of dyshomeostasis (as chronically enhanced surprise about bodily signals, or, equivalently, low evidence for the brain's model of bodily states) and allostasis (as a change in prior beliefs or predictions which define setpoints for homeostatic reflex arcs)...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888020/neural-correlates-of-affective-empathy-and-reinforcement-learning-in-boys-with-conduct-problems-fmri-evidence-from-a-gambling-task
#4
Christina Schwenck, Angela Ciaramidaro, Marina Selivanova, Jennifer Tournay, Christine M Freitag, Michael Siniatchkin
BACKGROUND: Conduct problems (CP) comprise abnormal behaviors associated with aberrant aspects of affective empathy as well as learning. However, behavioral measures for affective empathy are challenging, and previous results concerning learning in patients with CP are inconsistent. METHODS: Nineteen boys with CP and 24 typically developing (TD) boys aged 11-17 years (M=14.34, SD=1.93) participated in the study. An ultimatum-game was applied in order to elicit the feeling of like or dislike towards the opponent for a subsequent gambling task, which was played by the opponents (OTHER-condition) and by the participants themselves (SELF-condition)...
November 22, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886972/the-resident-run-minor-surgery-clinic-a-pilot-study-to-safely-increase-operative-autonomy
#5
REVIEW
Brandon M Wojcik, Zhi Ven Fong, Madhukar S Patel, David C Chang, Emil Petrusa, John T Mullen, Roy Phitayakorn
OBJECTIVE: General surgery training has evolved to align with changes in work hour restrictions, supervision regulations, and reimbursement practices. This has culminated in a lack of operative autonomy, leaving residents feeling inadequately prepared to perform surgery independently when beginning fellowship or practice. A resident-run minor surgery clinic increases junior resident autonomy, but its effects on patient outcomes have not been formally established. This pilot study evaluated the safety of implementing a resident-run minor surgery clinic within a university-based general surgery training program...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884319/student-views-on-the-role-of-self-regulated-learning-in-a-surgery-clerkship
#6
Ariel M Lyons-Warren, John P Kirby, Douglas P Larsen
BACKGROUND: Self-regulated learning, including student-generated learning goals and flexibility in the learning structure are increasingly being used to enhance medical education. The role of these practices in surgical education of medical students has not been studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We administered an 18-question electronic survey to all third-year medical students at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine. Of the 126 students invited, 64 responded and 56 were included in the analysis...
December 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882583/how-clinical-medical-students-perceive-others-to-influence-their-self-regulated-learning
#7
Joris J Berkhout, Esther Helmich, Pim W Teunissen, Cees P M van der Vleuten, A Debbie C Jaarsma
OBJECTIVES: Undergraduate medical students are prone to struggle with learning in clinical environments. One of the reasons may be that they are expected to self-regulate their learning, which often turns out to be difficult. Students' self-regulated learning is an interactive process between person and context, making a supportive context imperative. From a socio-cultural perspective, learning takes place in social practice, and therefore teachers and other hospital staff present are vital for students' self-regulated learning in a given context...
November 23, 2016: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858256/self-regulatory-behaviors-and-approaches-to-learning-of-arts-students-a-comparison-between-professional-training-and-english-learning
#8
Min-Chen Tseng, Chia-Cheng Chen
This study investigated the self-regulatory behaviors of arts students, namely memory strategy, goal-setting, self-evaluation, seeking assistance, environmental structuring, learning responsibility, and planning and organizing. We also explored approaches to learning, including deep approach (DA) and surface approach (SA), in a comparison between students' professional training and English learning. The participants consisted of 344 arts majors. The Academic Self-Regulation Questionnaire and the Revised Learning Process Questionnaire were adopted to examine students' self-regulatory behaviors and their approaches to learning...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Psycholinguistic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836424/executive-function-in-children-born-preterm-risk-factors-and-implications-for-outcome
#9
REVIEW
H Gerry Taylor, Caron A C Clark
Executive function (EF) refers to the set of cognitive processes involved in the self-regulation of emotion and goal-directed behavior. These skills and the brain systems that support them develop throughout childhood and are frequently compromised in preterm children, even in those with broadly average global cognitive ability. Risks for deficits in EF in preterm children and attendant problems in learning and psychosocial functioning are higher in those with more extreme prematurity, neonatal complications, and related brain abnormalities...
November 8, 2016: Seminars in Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829408/examining-the-effects-of-a-mindfulness-based-distance-learning-professional-training-module-on-personal-and-professional-functioning-a-qualitative-study
#10
Simon Whitesman, Robert Mash
BACKGROUND: Training people to deliver mindfulness-based interventions (MBI) is becoming an important activity as mindfulness has been shown to have clinical benefits across a variety of conditions. Training courses must not only address the principles, skills and theory of mindfulness, but the trainers themselves must be able to embody the practice. There is limited research on the ability of teachers-in-training to embody the practice as a result of teacher training programmes. This study explored the extent to which a short course enabled future teachers to embody mindfulness practice...
November 9, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827566/emotion-regulation-choice-in-an-evaluative-context-the-moderating-role-of-self-esteem
#11
Roni Shafir, Tara Guarino, Ihno A Lee, Gal Sheppes
Evaluative contexts can be stressful, but relatively little is known about how different individuals who vary in responses to self-evaluation make emotion regulatory choices to cope in these situations. To address this gap, participants who vary in self-esteem gave an impromptu speech, rated how they perceived they had performed on multiple evaluative dimensions, and subsequently chose between disengaging attention from emotional processing (distraction) and engaging with emotional processing via changing its meaning (reappraisal), while waiting to receive feedback regarding these evaluative dimensions...
November 9, 2016: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825378/buying-and-selling-human-eggs-infertility-providers-ethical-and-other-concerns-regarding-egg-donor-agencies
#12
Robert Klitzman
BACKGROUND: Egg donor agencies are increasingly being used as part of IVF in the US, but are essentially unregulated, posing critical ethical and policy questions concerning how providers view and use them, and what the implications might be. METHODS: Thirty-seven in-depth interviews of approximately 1 h were conducted - with 27 IVF providers and 10 patients. RESULTS: Clinicians vary in their views and interactions concerning egg donor agencies, ranging widely in whether and how often they use agencies...
November 8, 2016: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813672/high-frequency-learning-goals-using-self-regulated-learning-to-influence-day-to-day-practice-in-clinical-education
#13
Douglas P Larsen, Robert T Naismith, Mathew Margolis
PROBLEM: Although self-regulated learning (SRL) is considered a fundamental skill that must be developed in physician training, many programs of SRL utilize learning goals that are generated only at the beginning of learning experiences or are widely spaced apart in time. These goals are often not formally shared with those actually working with the learner in the clinical setting. INTERVENTION: We developed a program of written, student-generated weekly learning goals in which students focused on processes of becoming better doctors for their patients...
November 4, 2016: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808225/voluntary-control-of-intracortical-oscillations-for-reconfiguration-of-network-activity
#14
Juliana Corlier, Mario Valderrama, Miguel Navarrete, Katia Lehongre, Dominique Hasboun, Claude Adam, Hayat Belaid, Stéphane Clémenceau, Michel Baulac, Stéphane Charpier, Vincent Navarro, Michel Le Van Quyen
Voluntary control of oscillatory activity represents a key target in the self-regulation of brain function. Using a real-time closed-loop paradigm and simultaneous macro- and micro-electrode recordings, we studied the effects of self-induced intracortical oscillatory activity (4-8 Hz) in seven neurosurgical patients. Subjects learned to robustly and specifically induce oscillations in the target frequency, confirmed by increased oscillatory event density. We have found that the session-to-session variability in performance was explained by the functional long-range decoupling of the target area suggesting a training-induced network reorganization...
November 3, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806864/reward-based-spatial-learning-in-teens-with-bulimia-nervosa
#15
Marilyn Cyr, Zhishun Wang, Gregory Z Tau, Guihu Zhao, Eve Friedl, Mihaela Stefan, Kate Terranova, Rachel Marsh
OBJECTIVE: To assess the functioning of mesolimbic and fronto-striatal areas involved in reward-based spatial learning in teenaged girls with bulimia nervosa (BN) that might be involved in the development and maintenance of maladaptive behaviors characteristic of the disorder. METHOD: We compared functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygen level-dependent response in 27 adolescent girls with BN to that of 27 healthy, age-matched control participants during a reward-based learning task that required learning to use extra-maze cues to navigate a virtual 8-arm radial maze to find hidden rewards...
November 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805955/why-does-this-learner-perform-poorly-on-tests-using-self-regulated-learning-theory-to-diagnose-the-problem-and-implement-solutions
#16
Mary A Andrews, William F Kelly, Kent J DeZee
PROBLEM: Learners who underperform on standardized tests are common throughout all levels of medical education and require considerable faculty time and effort to remediate. Current methods for remediating test-taking difficulties are typically not grounded in educational theory or supported by high-quality evidence. APPROACH: A test-taking assessment was developed based on self-regulated learning (SRL) microanalytic assessment and training and used during academic year 2012-2013...
November 1, 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803179/physicians-attentional-performance-following-a-24-hour-observation-period-do-we-need-to-regulate-sleep-prior-to-work
#17
P Smyth, K Maximova, J D Jirsch
BACKGROUND: The tradition of physicians working while sleep deprived is increasingly criticised. Medical regulatory bodies have restricted resident physician duty-hours, not addressing the greater population of physicians. We aimed to assess factors such as sleep duration prior to a 24-hour observation period on physicians' attention. METHODS: We studied 70 physicians (mean age 38 years old (SD 10.8 years)): 36 residents and 34 faculty from call rosters at the University of Alberta...
November 1, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790098/adolescent-maturational-transitions-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-signaling-as-a-risk-factor-for-the-development-of-obesity-and-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-induced-cognitive-deficits
#18
REVIEW
Amy C Reichelt
Adolescence poses as both a transitional period in neurodevelopment and lifestyle practices. In particular, the developmental trajectory of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), a critical region for behavioral control and self-regulation, is enduring, not reaching functional maturity until the early 20 s in humans. Furthermore, the neurotransmitter dopamine is particularly abundant during adolescence, tuning the brain to rapidly learn about rewards and regulating aspects of neuroplasticity. Thus, adolescence is proposed to represent a period of vulnerability towards reward-driven behaviors such as the consumption of palatable high fat and high sugar diets...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785628/self-entrustment-how-trainees-self-regulated-learning-supports-participation-in-the-workplace
#19
Margaretha H Sagasser, Anneke W M Kramer, Cornelia R M G Fluit, Chris van Weel, Cees P M van der Vleuten
Clinical workplaces offer postgraduate trainees a wealth of opportunities to learn from experience. To promote deliberate and meaningful learning self-regulated learning skills are foundational. We explored trainees' learning activities related to patient encounters to better understand what aspects of self-regulated learning contribute to trainees' development, and to explore supervisor's role herein. We conducted a qualitative non-participant observational study in seven general practices. During two days we observed trainee's patient encounters, daily debriefing sessions and educational meetings between trainee and supervisor and interviewed them separately afterwards...
October 26, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779509/the-learning-environment-counts-longitudinal-qualitative-analysis-of-study-strategies-adopted-by-first-year-medical-students-in-a-competency-based-educational-program
#20
S Beth Bierer, Elaine F Dannefer
PURPOSE: The move toward competency-based education will require medical schools and postgraduate training programs to restructure learning environments to motivate trainees to take personal ownership for learning. This qualitative study explores how medical students select and implement study strategies while enrolled in a unique, nontraditional program that emphasizes reflection on performance and competence rather than relying on high-stakes examinations or grades to motivate students to learn and excel...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
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