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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737273/recovery-free-of-heart-failure-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-and-coronary-revascularization
#1
Alec Falkenham, Manu K Saraswat, Chloe Wong, Kareem Gawdat, Tanya Myers, Jahanara Begum, Karen J Buth, Ian Haidl, Jean Marshall, Jean-Francois Légaré
AIMS: Previous studies have examined risk factors for the development of heart failure (HF) subsequent to acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Our study seeks to clarify the clinical variables that best characterize patients who remain free from HF after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery for ACS to determine novel biological factors favouring freedom from HF in prospective translational studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Nova Scotia residents (1995-2012) undergoing CABG within 3 weeks of ACS were included...
July 24, 2017: ESC Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736517/resolution-of-cochlear-inflammation-novel-target-for-preventing-or-ameliorating-drug-noise-and-age-related-hearing-loss
#2
REVIEW
Gilda M Kalinec, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A Urrutia, Federico Kalinec
A significant number of studies support the idea that inflammatory responses are intimately associated with drug-, noise- and age-related hearing loss (DRHL, NRHL and ARHL). Consequently, several clinical strategies aimed at reducing auditory dysfunction by preventing inflammation are currently under intense scrutiny. Inflammation, however, is a normal adaptive response aimed at restoring tissue functionality and homeostasis after infection, tissue injury and even stress under sterile conditions, and suppressing it could have unintended negative consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735764/bmp-2-7-heterodimer-strongly-induces-bone-regeneration-in-the-absence-of-increased-soft-tissue-inflammation
#3
Takashi Kaito, Tokimitsu Morimoto, Yuki Mori, Sadaaki Kanayama, Takahiro Makino, Shota Takenaka, Yusuke Sakai, Satoru Otsuru, Yoshichika Yoshioka, Hideki Yoshikawa
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer is a stronger inducer of bone regeneration than individual homodimers. However, clinical application of its potent bone induction ability may be hampered if its use is accompanied by excessive inflammatory reactions. PURPOSE: We sought to quantitatively evaluate bone induction and inflammatory reactions by BMP heterodimer and corresponding BMP homodimers using ultra-high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and micro-computed tomography...
July 20, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735565/can-pharmacological-manipulation-of-ltp-favor-the-effects-of-motor-rehabilitation-in-multiple-sclerosis
#4
Mario Stampanoni Bassi, Letizia Leocani, Giancarlo Comi, Ennio Iezzi, Diego Centonze
BACKGROUND: Synaptic plasticity, the basic mechanism of clinical recovery after brain lesion, can also remarkably influence the clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Physical rehabilitation represents the main treatment option to promote synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP) and to enhance spontaneous recovery of neurological deficits. OBJECTIVES: To overview the role of pharmacological treatment and physical rehabilitation in modulating LTP and enhancing clinical recovery in MS...
July 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732688/molecular-pathophysiology-of-gout
#5
REVIEW
Jyaysi Desai, Stefanie Steiger, Hans-Joachim Anders
Three contradictory clinical presentations of gout have puzzled clinicians and basic scientists for some time: first, the crescendo of sterile inflammation in acute gouty arthritis; second, its spontaneous resolution, despite monosodium urate (MSU) crystal persistence in the synovium; and third, immune anergy to MSU crystal masses observed in tophaceous or visceral gout. Here, we provide an update on the molecular pathophysiology of these gout manifestations, namely, how MSU crystals can trigger the auto-amplification loop of necroinflammation underlying the crescendo of acute gouty arthritis...
July 18, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732558/resolvins-as-proresolving-inflammatory-mediators-in-cardiovascular-disease
#6
Xavier Capó, Miquel Martorell, Carla Busquets-Cortés, Silvia Tejada, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons, Antoni Sureda
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents a global burden with a prevalence that continues increasing progressively. CVD comprises a group of disorders of the heart and blood vessels including coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease. This group of disorders is associated with an inflammatory process which can participate in the pathophysiology of these diseases. Inflammation resolution is an active process involving the participation of pro-resolving mediators such as lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins...
July 13, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730545/platelet-first-responders-in-wound-response-cancer-and-metastasis
#7
REVIEW
David G Menter, Scott Kopetz, Ernest Hawk, Anil K Sood, Jonathan M Loree, Paolo Gresele, Kenneth V Honn
Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities...
July 20, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730506/hiatus-hernia-as-a-cause-of-dysphagia
#8
REVIEW
Hamish Philpott, Rami Sweis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the putative relationship between hiatus hernia and dysphagia. RECENT FINDINGS: Proposed mechanisms of dysphagia in patients with hiatus hernia are usually difficult to identify, but recent advances in technology (high-resolution manometry with or without concomitant impedance, ambulatory pH with impedance, videofluoroscopy, and the endoluminal functional lumen imaging probe (EndoFLIP)) and methodology (inclusion of swallows of various consistencies and volumes or shifting position during the manometry protocol) can help induce symptoms and identify the underlying disorder...
August 2017: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725920/pre-papillary-vitreous-opacities-associated-with-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-a-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Lindsay A Grotting, Samaneh Davoudi, Eduardo Uchiyama, Ann-Marie Lobo, George N Papaliodis, Lucia Sobrin
PURPOSE: To present pre-papillary vitreous opacity as an uncommon manifestation of inflammation in Behçet's disease that may be specific to this uveitic entity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 67 patients with Behçet's disease examined at our clinic between 2005 and 2016. Behçet's disease was diagnosed based on established clinical criteria of inflammation involving the eyes, mucocutaneous junctions, and skin. Patients with Behçet's disease who presented with papillitis and a pre-papillary vitreous opacity were identified...
July 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725174/altered-functional-connectivity-following-an-inflammatory-white-matter-injury-in-the-newborn-rat-a-high-spatial-and-temporal-resolution-intrinsic-optical-imaging-study
#10
Edgar Guevara, Wyston C Pierre, Camille Tessier, Luis Akakpo, Irène Londono, Frédéric Lesage, Gregory A Lodygensky
Very preterm newborns have an increased risk of developing an inflammatory cerebral white matter injury that may lead to severe neuro-cognitive impairment. In this study we performed functional connectivity (fc) analysis using resting-state optical imaging of intrinsic signals (rs-OIS) to assess the impact of inflammation on resting-state networks (RSN) in a pre-clinical model of perinatal inflammatory brain injury. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or saline injections were administered in postnatal day (P3) rat pups and optical imaging of intrinsic signals were obtained 3 weeks later...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724795/alx-receptor-ligands-define-a-biochemical-endotype-for-severe-asthma
#11
Isabell Ricklefs, Ioanna Barkas, Melody G Duvall, Manuela Cernadas, Nicole L Grossman, Elliot Israel, Eugene R Bleecker, Mario Castro, Serpil C Erzurum, John V Fahy, Benjamin M Gaston, Loren C Denlinger, David T Mauger, Sally E Wenzel, Suzy A Comhair, Andrea M Coverstone, Merritt L Fajt, Annette T Hastie, Mats W Johansson, Michael C Peters, Brenda R Phillips, Bruce D Levy
BACKGROUND: In health, inflammation resolution is an active process governed by specialized proresolving mediators and receptors. ALX/FPR2 receptors (ALX) are targeted by both proresolving and proinflammatory ligands for opposing signaling events, suggesting pivotal roles for ALX in the fate of inflammatory responses. Here, we determined if ALX expression and ligands were linked to severe asthma (SA). METHODS: ALX expression and levels of proresolving ligands (lipoxin A4 [LXA4], 15-epi-LXA4, and annexin A1 [ANXA1]), and a proinflammatory ligand (serum amyloid A [SAA]) were measured in bronchoscopy samples collected in Severe Asthma Research Program-3 (SA [n = 69], non-SA [NSA, n = 51] or healthy donors [HDs, n = 47])...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724396/pathogenic-roles-of-cxcl10-signaling-through-cxcr3-and-tlr4-in-macrophages-and-t-cells-relevance-for-arthritis
#12
Jong-Ho Lee, Bongjun Kim, Won Jong Jin, Hong-Hee Kim, Hyunil Ha, Zang Hee Lee
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by uncontrolled joint inflammation and destruction of bone and cartilage. We previously reported that C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10; also called IP-10) has important roles in joint inflammation and bone destruction in arthritis. However, the specific mechanisms by which CXCL10 regulates the recruitment of inflammatory cells and the production of osteoclastogenic cytokines in RA progression are not fully understood...
July 19, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723556/peroxisome-mediated-metabolism-is-required-for-immune-response-to-microbial-infection
#13
Francesca Di Cara, Avinash Sheshachalam, Nancy E Braverman, Richard A Rachubinski, Andrew J Simmonds
The innate immune response is critical for animal homeostasis and is conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. This response depends on specialized cells that recognize, internalize, and destroy microbial invaders through phagocytosis. This is coupled to autonomous or non-autonomous cellular signaling via reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cytokine production. Lipids are known signaling factors in this process, as the acute phase response of macrophages is accompanied by systemic lipid changes that help resolve inflammation...
July 18, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722597/occult-amoebic-liver-abscess-as-cause-of-extensive-inferior-vena-cava-and-hepatic-vein-thrombosis
#14
Leslie Martin, Nishigandha Burute, Ehsan Haider, Pablo E Serrano, Timothy O'Shea, Deborah Siegal
The most common extraintestinal complication of Entamoeba histolytica is amoebic liver abscess (ALA). Hepatic vein and inferior vena cava (IVC) thrombosis are rare but well-documented complications of ALA, typically attributed to mechanical compression and inflammation associated with a large abscess. We present a case of a previously healthy 43-year-old Canadian man presenting with constitutional symptoms and right upper quadrant abdominal pain. He was found to have thrombophlebitis of the IVC, accessory right hepatic vein, and bilateral iliac veins...
July 3, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722019/sustained-accumulation-of-antigen-presenting-cells-after-infection-promotes-local-t-cell-immunity
#15
Nicholas Collins, Katharina Hochheiser, Francis R Carbone, Thomas Gebhardt
Antigen-presenting cells (APC) such as dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages are critical for T cell-mediated immunity. While it is established that memory T cells accumulate and persist in peripheral tissues after the resolution of infection, whether this is also the case for APC remains unclear. Here, we report that CCR2-dependent cells infiltrate skin during acute infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and subsequently give rise to localized populations of dendritic cells and macrophages. These APC are found at elevated numbers at sites of resolved infection or inflammation compared to unaffected regions of skin...
July 19, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716266/sativex%C3%A2-effects-on-promoter-methylation-and-on-cnr1-cnr2-expression-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-of-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#16
Massimo Santoro, Massimiliano Mirabella, Chiara De Fino, Assunta Bianco, Matteo Lucchini, Francesco Losavio, Andrea Sabino, Viviana Nociti
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating central nervous system (CNS) disease that involve oligodendrocyte loss and failure to remyelinate damaged brain areas causing a progressive neurological disability. Studies in MS mouse model suggest that cannabinoids ameliorate symptoms as spasticity, tremor and pain reducing inflammation via cannabinoid-mediated system. The aim of our study is to investigate the changes in cannabinoid type 1 (CNR1) and 2 (CNR2) receptors mRNA expression levels and promoter methylation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of MS secondary progressive (MSS-SP) patients treated with Sativex®...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714991/resolution-of-inflammation-by-interleukin-9-producing-type-2-innate-lymphoid-cells
#17
Simon Rauber, Markus Luber, Stefanie Weber, Lisa Maul, Alina Soare, Thomas Wohlfahrt, Neng-Yu Lin, Katharina Dietel, Aline Bozec, Martin Herrmann, Mark H Kaplan, Benno Weigmann, Mario M Zaiss, Ursula Fearon, Douglas J Veale, Juan D Cañete, Oliver Distler, Felice Rivellese, Costantino Pitzalis, Markus F Neurath, Andrew N J McKenzie, Stefan Wirtz, Georg Schett, Jörg H W Distler, Andreas Ramming
Inflammatory diseases such as arthritis are chronic conditions that fail to resolve spontaneously. While the cytokine and cellular pathways triggering arthritis are well defined, those responsible for the resolution of inflammation are incompletely characterized. Here we identified interleukin (IL)-9-producing type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) as the mediators of a molecular and cellular pathway that orchestrates the resolution of chronic inflammation. In mice, the absence of IL-9 impaired ILC2 proliferation and activation of regulatory T (Treg) cells, and resulted in chronic arthritis with excessive cartilage destruction and bone loss...
July 17, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714776/tissue-localization-of-glycosphingolipid-accumulation-in-a-gaucher-disease-mouse-brain-by-lc-esi-ms-ms-and-high-resolution-maldi-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#18
E Ellen Jones, Wujuan Zhang, Xueheng Zhao, Cristine Quiason, Stephanie Dale, Sheerin Shahidi-Latham, Gregory A Grabowski, Kenneth D R Setchell, Richard R Drake, Ying Sun
To better understand regional brain glycosphingolipid (GSL) accumulation in Gaucher disease (GD) and its relationship to neuropathology, a feasibility study using mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry was conducted using brains derived from a GD mouse model (4L/PS/NA) homozygous for a mutant GCase (V394L [4L]) and expressing a prosaposin hypomorphic (PS-NA) transgene. Whole brains from GD and control animals were collected using one hemisphere for MALDI FTICR IMS analysis and the other for quantitation by LC-ESI-MS/MS...
July 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713774/epic-immune-battles-of-history-neutrophils-vs-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
REVIEW
Fermin E Guerra, Timothy R Borgogna, Delisha M Patel, Eli W Sward, Jovanka M Voyich
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes in human blood and the first line of defense after bacteria have breached the epithelial barriers. After migration to a site of infection, neutrophils engage and expose invading microorganisms to antimicrobial peptides and proteins, as well as reactive oxygen species, as part of their bactericidal arsenal. Ideally, neutrophils ingest bacteria to prevent damage to surrounding cells and tissues, kill invading microorganisms with antimicrobial mechanisms, undergo programmed cell death to minimize inflammation, and are cleared away by macrophages...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713772/harnessing-neutrophil-survival-mechanisms-during-chronic-infection-by-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-novel-therapeutic-targets-to-dampen-inflammation-in-cystic-fibrosis
#20
REVIEW
Benoît S Marteyn, Pierre-Régis Burgel, Laurent Meijer, Véronique Witko-Sarsat
More than two decades after cloning the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) gene, the defective gene in cystic fibrosis (CF), we still do not understand how dysfunction of this ion channel causes lung disease and the tremendous neutrophil burden which persists within the airways; nor why chronic colonization by Pseudomonas aeruginosa develops in CF patients who are thought to be immunocompetent. It appears that the microenvironment within the lung of CF patients provides favorable conditions for both P...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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