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Resolution inflammation

Gregory Plotnikoff, Melissa Barber
INTRODUCTION: Single-disorder or single-organ-system clinical practice guidelines are often of limited usefulness in guiding effective management of patients with chronic multidimensional signs and symptoms. The presence of multiple long-standing medical problems in a given patient despite intensive medical effort suggests that addressing systemic core imbalances could complement more narrowly focused approaches. CASE PRESENTATION: A 72-year-old man experiencing longstanding depression, fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and chronic pain in the context of additional refractory illnesses was assessed and treated, guided by a system-oriented approach to underlying core imbalances termed functional medicine...
October 14, 2016: Permanente Journal
Hitendra S Chand, Yohannes A Mebratu, Marena Montera, Yohannes Tesfaigzi
BACKGROUND: Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are crucial for mucosal and adaptive immunity but whether these cells respond in a memory-dependent manner is poorly studied. Previously, we have reported that LPS intratracheal instillation in rodents causes extensive neutrophilic inflammation and airway epithelial cell hyperplasia accompanied by mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). And the resolution process required a period of 40 d for the inflammation to subside and the lung epithelia to resemble the non-exposed condition...
October 20, 2016: Respiratory Research
Guiping Guan, Hongbing Wang, Shuai Chen, Gang Liu, Xia Xiong, Bie Tan, Veeramuthu Duraipandiyan, Naif Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Jun Fang
C57BL/6 mice were tested in order to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan (COS) supplements on intestinal microflora and resistance to Citrobacter rodentium infection. The findings reveal that, after consuming a 300 mg/kg COS diet for 14 days, microflora became more diverse as a result of the supplement. Mice receiving COS exhibited an increase in the percentage of Bacteroidetes phylum and a decrease in the percentage of Firmicutes phylum. After Citrobacter rodentium infection, the histopathology scores indicated that COS feeding resulted in less severe colitis...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Shilpi Yadav, Jonathan K Williamson, Maria A Aronova, Andrew A Prince, Irina D Pokrovskaya, Richard D Leapman, Brian Storrie
Platelets are small, anucleate cell fragments that are central to hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammation. They are derived from megakaryocytes from which they inherit their organelles. As platelets can synthesize proteins and contain many of the enzymes of the secretory pathway, one might expect all mature human platelets to contain a stacked Golgi apparatus, the central organelle of the secretory pathway. By thin section electron microscopy, stacked membranes resembling the stacked Golgi compartment in megakaryocytes and other nucleated cells can be detected in both proplatelets and platelets...
October 18, 2016: Platelets
M Asunción Barreda-Manso, Natalia Yanguas-Casás, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro, Lorenzo Romero-Ramírez
Following a central nervous system (CNS) injury, restoration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is essential for recovering homeostasis. When this process is delayed or impeded, blood substances and cells enter the CNS parenchyma, initiating an additional inflammatory process that extends the initial injury and causes so-called secondary neuronal loss. Astrocytes and profibrotic mesenchymal cells react to the injury and migrate to the lesion site, creating a new glia limitans that restores the BBB. This process is beneficial for the resolution of the inflammation, neuronal survival and the initiation of the healing process...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Patrick Mucka, Nicholas Levonyak, Elena Geretti, Bernadette M M Zwaans, Xiaoran Li, Irit Adini, Michael Klagsbrun, Rosalyn M Adam, Diane R Bielenberg
The vasculature influences the progression and resolution of tissue inflammation. Capillaries express vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors, including neuropilins (NRPs), which regulate interstitial fluid flow. NRP2, a receptor of VEGFA and semaphorin (SEMA) 3F ligands, is expressed in the vascular and lymphatic endothelia. Previous studies have demonstrated that blocking VEGF receptor 2 attenuates VEGFA-induced vascular permeability. The inhibition of NRP2 was hypothesized to decrease vascular permeability as well...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Andrea K Murray, Tonia L Moore, Elizabeth Wragg, Holly Ennis, Andy Vail, Graham Dinsdale, Lindsay Muir, Christopher E M Griffiths, Ariane L Herrick
OBJECTIVES: Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related digital ulcers (DU) cause significant pain and disability and are often a primary endpoint in clinical trials. However, their pathophysiology has been little studied. The objectives of this prospective study were to determine whether laser Doppler imaging (LDI) and thermography can identify ischaemic components in both fingertip and extensor surface DU and assess ulcer healing. METHODS: Patients prospectively reported new DU over a year...
September 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Inderjeet Verma, Pawan Krishan, Ashit Syngle
OBJECTIVE: Accelerated atherosclerosis associated with an enhanced inflammatory state, which characterizes ankylosing spondylitis (AS), is the leading cause of increased cardiovascular risk. The objective of this study was to assess carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) as a surrogate for subclinical atherosclerosis in AS patients and its possible correlation with disease-related clinical parameters. METHODS: We performed a prospective study of 30 consecutive patients meeting modified New York criteria for AS compared to 25 controls matched for age and sex...
December 2015: Rheumatol Ther
Rugmani Padmanabhan Iyer, Lisandra E de Castro Brás, Nicolle L Patterson, Manishabrata Bhowmick, Elizabeth R Flynn, Majdouline Asher, Presley L Cannon, Kristine Y Deleon-Pennell, Gregg B Fields, Merry L Lindsey
Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is robustly elevated in the first week post-myocardial infarction (MI). Targeted deletion of the MMP-9 gene attenuates cardiac remodeling post-MI by reducing macrophage infiltration and collagen accumulation through increased apoptosis and reduced inflammation. In this study, we used a translational experimental design to determine whether selective MMP-9 inhibition early post-MI would be an effective therapeutic strategy in mice. We enrolled male C57BL/6J mice (3-6months old, n=116) for this study...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
L Benítez-Gutiérrez, C de Mendoza, I Baños, A Duca, A Arias, A Treviño, S Requena, M J Citores, V Cuervas-Mons
New direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have dramatically improved sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients treated for chronic hepatitis C. Although the safety of these agents has been very good in registration trials, unexpected side effects have been reported after much broader use of DAAs on marketing. We retrospectively examined all liver transplant recipients with chronic hepatitis C that received sofosbuvir-based regimens at our clinic. A total of 24 liver transplant recipients with recurrent chronic hepatitis C had received sofosbuvir up to April 2015...
September 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Sally R Wilkes, Hywel C Williams, Anthony D Ormerod, Fiona E Craig, Nicola Greenlaw, John Norrie, Eleanor J Mitchell, James M Mason, Kim S Thomas
BACKGROUND: Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare inflammatory skin condition. Two prospective studies have evaluated treatments for pyoderma gangrenosum using a primary outcome of healing speed at 6 weeks. OBJECTIVE: Using data from both studies we assessed the predictive value of 3 early predictors for healing at 6 months: speed of healing, Investigator Global Assessment (IGA), and resolution of inflammation, recorded at 2 and 6 weeks. METHODS: Logistic regression models were applied and the effectiveness of the 3 measures was assessed through estimating the positive and negative predictive values and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve...
October 11, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Benjamin E Bergstrom, Jean Stiles, Wendy M Townsend
OBJECTIVE: To determine the most common etiologies of panuveitis in a group of dogs, patient response to therapy, and visual outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medical records of 55 dogs diagnosed with panuveitis at the Purdue University Veterinary Teaching Hospital between December 2000 and December 2015 were reviewed. Data collected included signalment, season of diagnosis, descriptions of ocular lesions, diagnostic testing, treatment protocols, etiologic diagnoses (when determined), and visual outcome...
October 12, 2016: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Rachael D Wright, Patricia R Souza, Magdalena B Flak, Prasheetha Thedchanamoorthy, Lucy V Norling, Dianne Cooper
Galectin-3 has been associated with a plethora of proinflammatory functions because of its ability, among others, to promote neutrophil activation and because of the reduction in neutrophil recruitment in models of infection in Gal-3-null mice. Conversely, it has also been linked to resolution of inflammation through its actions as an opsonin and its ability to promote efferocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils. Using a self-resolving model of peritonitis, we have addressed the modulation and role of Gal-3 in acute inflammation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Eleonora Cianci, Oriana Trubiani, Francesca Diomede, Ilaria Merciaro, Ida Meschini, Pantaleone Bruni, Fausto Croce, Mario Romano
Lipoxin (LX)A4 is a lipoxygenase-formed arachidonic acid metabolite with potent anti-inflammatory, pro-resolution properties. Its therapeutic efficacy has been largely demonstrated in a variety of cellular, preclinical and clinical models. Among these, periodontal disease, where LXA4 promotes tissue repair, also by modulating functions of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). As medicated biomembranes may be particularly useful in clinical settings, where local stimulation of tissue repair is needed, we used electrospinning to embed LXA4 in membranes made of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and poly(d,l-lactide) (PDLLA)...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Yonguk Kim, Seung-Young Yu, Hyung Woo Kwak
PURPOSE: To describe the clinical manifestations and treatment outcomes of ocular syphilis in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. METHODS: A total of 45 eyes from 39 patients with ocular syphilis confirmed by serologic tests were reviewed retrospectively. The included cases were all non-HIV-infected patients presenting with intraocular inflammation from 2002 to 2014 at Kyung Hee University Hospital. Medical records of 45 eyes were analyzed and included best-corrected visual acuity and ophthalmologic examination findings of the anterior and posterior segments to determine the focus of inflammation...
October 2016: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
Luigi Martino, Louise Holland, Evangelos Christodoulou, Simone Kunzelmann, Diego Esposito, Katrin Rittinger
NOD-like receptors represent an important class of germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors that play key roles in the regulation of inflammatory signalling pathways. They function as danger sensors and initiate inflammatory responses and the production of cytokines. Since NLR malfunction results in chronic inflammation and auto-immune diseases, there is a great interest in understanding how they work on a molecular level. To date, a lot of insight into the biological functions of NLRs is available but biophysical and structural studies have been hampered by the difficulty to produce soluble and stable recombinant NLR proteins...
2016: PloS One
Hsi-Hsien Lin, Martin Stacey
As the largest receptor gene family in the human genome, with >800 members, the signal-transducing G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play critical roles in nearly all conceivable physiological processes, ranging from the sensing of photons and odorants to metabolic homeostasis and migration of leukocytes. Unfortunately, an exhaustive review of the several hundred GPCRs expressed by myeloid cells/macrophages (P.J. Groot-Kormelink, L .Fawcett, P.D. Wright, M. Gosling, and T.C. Kent, BMC Immunol 12:57, 2012, doi:10...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Magdalena Pilarczyk-Zurek, Magdalena Strus, Pawel Adamski, Piotr B Heczko
BACKGROUND: This study examines the dual role of Escherichia coli in the course of ulcerative colitis (UC). The intestinal microbiota is considered to play an important role in UC pathogenesis, but how E. coli contributes to inflammation in UC is still unknown. On the one hand, we demonstrated that there was a significant increase in the number of E. coli at the sites of inflammation in patients with UC, which can lead to immune system activation, whilst, on the other hand, E. coli may contribute to the resolution of inflammatory reactions since E...
October 10, 2016: BMC Gastroenterology
B M Belik
AIM: To substantiate pathogenetic expediency and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the drug use serotonin adipate (dinaton) in a complex correction enteral insufficiency syndrome (EIN) in patients with generalized peritonitis (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative analysis of results of treatment of 182 patients with GP, which in principle approach to EIN correction in the postoperative period were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 92 patients who received standard intensive therapy using conventional methods of stimulation of intestinal peristalsis...
2016: Khirurgiia
Sarah J Moore, Omid Rashidipour, Ronald B Moore
This male patient presented with a scrotal abscess and urinary obstruction. The patient's history included a perineal abscess and the development of urethrocutaneous fistulae (watering-can perineum). He underwent multiple debridement procedures without resolution. During the fifth debridement for Fournier's gangrene, a biopsy revealed invasive squamous cell carcinoma. The patient was bedridden because of the large mass, a wide en bloc resection with lymphadenectomy and reconstruction was performed revealing a large (22 cm) squamous cell carcinoma originating from the urethra...
2016: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
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