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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426354/lentivirus-mediated-expression-of-human-secreted-amyloid-precursor-protein-alpha-prevents-development-of-memory-and-plasticity-deficits-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Valerie T Y Tan, Bruce G Mockett, Shane M Ohline, Karen D Parfitt, Hollie E Wicky, Katie Peppercorn, Lucia Schoderboeck, Mohamad Fairuz Bin Yahaya, Warren P Tate, Stephanie M Hughes, Wickliffe C Abraham
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease driven in large part by accumulated deposits in the brain of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage product amyloid-β peptide (Aβ). However, AD is also characterised by reductions in secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), an alternative cleavage product of APP. In contrast to the neurotoxicity of accumulated Αβ, sAPPα has many neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties. Increasing sAPPα levels has the potential to serve as a therapeutic treatment that mitigates the effects of Aβ and rescue cognitive function...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423117/oxidative-stress-promotes-exit-from-the-stem-cell-state-and-spontaneous-neuronal-differentiation
#2
Qidong Hu, Puja Khanna, Belinda Shu Ee Wong, Zealyn Shi Lin Heng, Charannya Sozheesvari Subhramanyam, Lal Zo Thanga, Sharon Wui Sing Tan, Gyeong Hun Baeg
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in fundamental cellular processes such as proliferation and survival. Here we investigated the effect of oxidative stress on stem cell maintenance and neuronal differentiation in a human embryonic stem cell (hESC) model, Ntera2 (NT2). CM-H2DCFDA and DHE assays confirmed that the oxidizing agent paraquat could induce a high level of ROS in NT2 cells. Quantitative PCR, Western blotting and immunocytochemistry showed that paraquat-induced oxidative stress suppressed the expression of stemness markers, including NANOG, OCT4 and TDGF1, whereas it enhanced the spontaneous expression of neuronal differentiation markers such as PAX6, NEUROD1, HOXA1, NCAM, GFRA1 and TUJ1...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421222/shy-herbivores-forage-more-efficiently-than-bold-ones-regardless-of-information-processing-overload
#3
Ming Kai Tan, Chia-Chen Chang, Hugh T W Tan
The neural constraint hypothesis is central to understanding decision-making by foraging herbivorous insects which make decisions less efficiently when they face multiple choices for numerous resource types and/or at high densities instead of a fewer choices. Previous studies have also shown the relationship between personality type and decision-making style. How personality types correlate with foraging efficiency among herbivores is however largely untested. To answer this question, we used a widespread, polyphagous, floriphilic katydid, Phaneroptera brevis (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) and two naturalised, Asteraceae, food plants, Biden pilosa and Sphagneticola trilobata, as model systems...
February 5, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414473/formulation-and-viscoelasticity-of-mineralised-hydrogels-for-use-in-bone-cartilage-interfacial-reconstruction
#4
Trina Majumdar, Megan E Cooke, Bernard M Lawless, Francis Bellier, Erik A B Hughes, Liam M Grover, Simon W Jones, Sophie C Cox
Articular cartilage is a viscoelastic tissue whose structural integrity is important in maintaining joint health. To restore the functionality of osteoarthritic joints it is vital that regenerative strategies mimic the dynamic loading response of cartilage and bone. Here, a rotating simplex model was employed to optimise the composition of agarose and gellan hydrogel constructs structured with hydroxyapatite (HA) with the aim of obtaining composites mechanically comparable to human cartilage in terms of their ability to dissipate energy...
January 30, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388148/child-maternal-and-demographic-factors-influencing-caregiver-reported-autistic-trait-symptomatology-in-toddlers
#5
D A Goh, D Gan, J Kung, S Baron-Cohen, C Allison, H Chen, S M Saw, Y S Chong, V S Rajadurai, K H Tan, P C L Shek, F Yap, B F P Broekman, I Magiati
Current research on children's autistic traits in the general population relies predominantly on caregiver-report, yet the extent to which individual, caregiver or demographic characteristics are associated with informants' ratings has not been sufficiently explored. In this study, caregivers of 396 Singaporean two-year-olds from a birth cohort study completed the Quantitative Checklist for Autism in Toddlers. Children's gender, cognitive functioning and birth order, maternal age, and ethnic group membership were not significant predictors of caregiver-reported autistic traits...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29384332/breakfast-consumption-among-malaysian-primary-and-secondary-school-children-and-relationship-with-body-weight-status-findings-from-the-mybreakfast-study
#6
E Siong Tee, Abdul Razak Nurliyana, A Karim Norimah, Hamid Jan B Jan Mohamed, Sue Yee Tan, Mahenderan Appukutty, Sinead Hopkins, Frank Thielecke, Moi Kim Ong, Celia Ning, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relationship between breakfast consumption and body weight status among primary and secondary school children in Malaysia. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This nationwide cross-sectional study involved 5,332 primary school children aged 6 to 12 years and 3,000 secondary school children aged 13 to 17 years. Height and weight were measured and BMI-for-age was determined. Socio-demographic backgrounds, breakfast habits and physical activity levels were assessed using questionnaires...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378790/features-of-gba-associated-parkinson-s-disease-at-presentation-in-the-uk-tracking-parkinson-s-study
#7
Naveed Malek, Rimona S Weil, Catherine Bresner, Michael A Lawton, Katherine A Grosset, Manuela Tan, Nin Bajaj, Roger A Barker, David J Burn, Thomas Foltynie, John Hardy, Nicholas W Wood, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Nigel W Williams, Donald G Grosset, Huw R Morris
OBJECTIVES: To examine the influence of the glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carrier state on age at onset of Parkinson's disease (PD), the motor phenotype and cognitive function at baseline assessment in a large cohort of UK patients. We also analysed the prevalence of mood and behavioural problems that may confound the assessment of cognitive function. METHODS: We prospectively recruited patients with PD in the Tracking Parkinson's study. We fully sequenced the GBA gene in all recently diagnosed patients (≤3...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362249/effect-of-interventions-incorporating-personalised-cancer-risk-information-on-intentions-and-behaviour-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#8
Juliet A Usher-Smith, Barbora Silarova, Stephen J Sharp, Katie Mills, Simon J Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To provide a comprehensive review of the impact on intention to change health-related behaviours and health-related behaviours themselves, including screening uptake, of interventions incorporating information about cancer risk targeted at the general adult population. DESIGN: A systematic review and random-effects meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: An electronic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and PsycINFO from 1 January 2000 to 1 July 2017...
January 23, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356215/appearance-based-interventions-to-reduce-uv-exposure-a-systematic-review
#9
Sofia Persson, Yael Benn, Katie Dhingra, David Clark-Carter, Alison L Owen, Sarah Grogan
PURPOSE: As a majority of skin cancer cases are behaviourally preventable, it is crucial to develop effective strategies to reduce UV exposure. Health-focused interventions have not proved to be sufficiently effective, and it has been suggested that people might be more susceptible to information about the negative effects of the sun on their appearance. METHOD: This systematic review of 30 separate papers, reporting 33 individual studies published between 2005 and 2017, assesses the overall effectiveness of appearance interventions on participants' UV exposure and sun protection behaviour...
January 22, 2018: British Journal of Health Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350729/in-situ-mechanical-resonance-behaviour-of-pristine-and-defective-zinc-blende-gaas-nanowires
#10
Edmund Pickering, Arixin Bo, Haifei Zhan, Xiaozhou Liao, Hark Hoe Tan, YuanTong Gu
The structural versatility of semiconducting gallium arsenide (GaAs) nanowires (NWs) provides an exciting direction for the engineering of their mechanical and dynamic properties. However, the dynamic behaviour of GaAs NWs remains unexplored. In this study, comprehensive in situ mechanical resonance tests were conducted to explore the dynamic behaviour of pristine and defective zinc blende GaAs NWs. The effects of stacking faults (SFs), amorphous shell, NW tapering and end-mass particles were investigated. The quality factors (QFs) of the GaAs NWs were found to be predominately governed by surface effects, which increased linearly with the volume to surface area ratio...
January 19, 2018: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321033/environmental-enrichment-intervention-for-rett-syndrome-an-individually-randomised-stepped-wedge-trial
#11
Jenny Downs, Jenny Rodger, Chen Li, Xuesong Tan, Nan Hu, Kingsley Wong, Nicholas de Klerk, Helen Leonard
BACKGROUND: Rett syndrome is caused by a pathogenic mutation in the MECP2 gene with major consequences for motor and cognitive development. One of the effects of impaired MECP2 function is reduced production of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), a protein required for normal neuronal development. When housed in an enriched environment, MECP2 null mice improved motor abilities and increased levels of BDNF in the brain. We investigated the effects of environmental enrichment on gross motor skills and blood BDNF levels in girls with Rett syndrome...
January 10, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316389/naphthalocyanine-as-a-new-photothermal-actuator-for-lipid-based-drug-delivery-systems
#12
Joanne D Du, Linda Hong, Angel Tan, Ben J Boyd
One approach to address the substantial global burden of ocular diseases such as aged related macular degeneration is using light-activated drug delivery to obviate the need for highly invasive and frequent need for costly intravitreal injections. To enable such systems, new light responsive materials are required. This communication reports the use of silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis(trihexylsilyloxide) (SiNC), a small molecule photosensitizer as a new actuator for triggering light responsive lipid-based drug delivery systems...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217599/ers-statement-on-obstructive-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-1-to-23-month-old-children
#13
Athanasios G Kaditis, Maria Luz Alonso Alvarez, An Boudewyns, Francois Abel, Emmanouel I Alexopoulos, Refika Ersu, Koen Joosten, Helena Larramona, Silvia Miano, Indra Narang, Hui-Leng Tan, Ha Trang, Marina Tsaoussoglou, Nele Vandenbussche, Maria Pia Villa, Dick Van Waardenburg, Silke Weber, Stijn Verhulst
The present statement was produced by a European Respiratory Society Task Force to summarise the evidence and current practice on the diagnosis and management of obstructive sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in children aged 1-23 months. A systematic literature search was completed and 159 articles were summarised to answer clinically relevant questions. SDB is suspected when symptoms or abnormalities related to upper airway obstruction are identified. Morbidity (pulmonary hypertension, growth delay, behavioural problems) and coexisting conditions (feeding difficulties, recurrent otitis media) may be present...
December 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208234/vitamin-d-attenuates-sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-mediated-inhibition-of-extravillous-trophoblast-migration
#14
Melissa Westwood, Khiria Al-Saghir, Sarah Finn-Sell, Cherlyn Tan, Elizabeth Cowley, Stéphane Berneau, Daman Adlam, Edward D Johnstone
INTRODUCTION: Failure of trophoblast invasion and remodelling of maternal blood vessels leads to the pregnancy complication pre-eclampsia (PE). In other systems, the sphingolipid, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), controls cell migration therefore this study determined its effect on extravillous trophoblast (EVT) function. METHODS: A transwell migration system was used to assess the behaviour of three trophoblast cell lines, Swan-71, SGHPL-4, and JEG3, and primary human trophoblasts in the presence or absence of S1P, S1P pathway inhibitors and 1,25(OH)2D3...
December 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197112/invasion-in-breast-lesions-the-role-of-the-epithelial-stroma-barrier
#15
REVIEW
Emad A Rakha, Islam Miligy, Kylie L Gorringe, Michael S Toss, Andrew R Green, Stephen B Fox, Fernando C Schmitt, Puay-Hoon Tan, Gary M Tse, Sunil Badve, Thomas Decker, Anne Vincent-Salomon, David J Dabbs, Maria P Foschini, Filipa Moreno, Yang Wentao, Felipe C Geyer, Jorge S Reis-Filho, Sarah E Pinder, Sunil R Lakhani, Ian O Ellis
Despite the significant biological, behavioural and management differences between ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive carcinoma of the breast, they share many morphological and molecular similarities. Differentiation of these two different lesions in breast pathological diagnosis is typically based on the presence of an intact barrier between the malignant epithelial cells and stroma, namely the myoepithelial cell (MEC) layer and surrounding basement membrane (BM). Despite being robust diagnostic criteria, the identification of MECs and BM to differentiate in situ from invasive carcinoma is not always straightforward...
December 2, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185525/primate-archaeology-evolves
#16
REVIEW
Michael Haslam, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Tomos Proffitt, Adrian Arroyo, Tiago Falótico, Dorothy Fragaszy, Michael Gumert, John W K Harris, Michael A Huffman, Ammie K Kalan, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, William McGrew, Eduardo B Ottoni, Alejandra Pascual-Garrido, Alex Piel, Jill Pruetz, Caroline Schuppli, Fiona Stewart, Amanda Tan, Elisabetta Visalberghi, Lydia V Luncz
Since its inception, archaeology has traditionally focused exclusively on humans and our direct ancestors. However, recent years have seen archaeological techniques applied to material evidence left behind by non-human animals. Here, we review advances made by the most prominent field investigating past non-human tool use: primate archaeology. This field combines survey of wild primate activity areas with ethological observations, excavations and analyses that allow the reconstruction of past primate behaviour...
October 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181092/efficacy-of-multisystemic-therapy-in-youths-aged-10-17-with-severe-antisocial-behaviour-and-emotional-disorders-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Jia Xuan Tan, Maria Lourdes Restrepo Fajardo
Background: Antisocial behaviour and conduct disorders are the most common behavioural and mental health problems in children and young people globally. An efficacious intervention is needed to manage these antisocial behaviours that have costly consequences. Multisystemic Therapy (MST), an intensive home-based intervention for youths with psychosocial and behavioural problems, is recommended under National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for conduct disorder. However, reviews on the efficacy of MST are mixed...
November 2017: London Journal of Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180538/prevalence-and-sociodemographic-correlates-of-cervicovaginal-human-papillomavirus-hpv-carriage-in-a-cross-sectional-multiethnic-community-based-female-asian-population
#18
Su Pei Khoo, Nirmala Bhoo-Pathy, Siew Hwei Yap, Mohd Khairul Anwar Shafii, Nazrilla Hairizan Nasir, Jerome Belinson, ShriDevi Subramaniam, Pik Pin Goh, Ming Zeng, Hong Dong Tan, Patti Gravitt, Yin Ling Woo
OBJECTIVES: Cervical cancer is a largely preventable disease, and the strategic implementation of a cervical cancer prevention programme is partly dependent on the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection interpreted within the context of the country's sociodemographic attributes. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of cervicovaginal HPV infection among a healthy, community-based, multiethnic Malaysian population. The HPV prevalence was subsequently correlated to the individual's sociodemographics and sexual/reproductive history...
November 27, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167844/recellularization-of-decellularized-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-role-of-the-cell-secreted-extracellular-matrix-in-cellular-differentiation
#19
V Guneta, Z Zhou, N S Tan, S Sugii, M T C Wong, C Choong
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are found in a location within the adipose tissue known as the stem cell niche. The ASCs in the niche are maintained in the quiescent state, and upon exposure to various microenvironmental triggers are prompted to undergo proliferation or differentiation. These microenvironmental triggers also modulate the extracellular matrix (ECM), which interacts with the cells through the cytoskeleton and induces downstream events inside the cells that bring about a change in cell behaviour...
November 23, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154496/research-highlights
#20
(no author information available yet)
In this issue, we highlight a study by Eng-King Tan and colleagues highlighting a role for ROS in mitophagy after Parkin translocation, a paper by Fawcett and colleagues linking the small GTPase ARF6 to integrin trafficking and axon regeneration, and a report by Lee and Mace describing the migratory behaviour of differentiating hematopoietic stem cells at single-cell resolution.
November 2017: FEBS Journal
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