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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220575/generation-of-storable-retinal-organoids-and-retinal-pigmented-epithelium-from-adherent-human-ips-cells-in-xeno-free-and-feeder-free-conditions
#1
Sacha Reichman, Amélie Slembrouck, Giuliana Gagliardi, Antoine Chaffiol, Angélique Terray, Céline Nanteau, Anais Potey, Morgane Belle, Oriane Rabesandratana, Jens Duebel, Gael Orieux, Emeline F Nandrot, José-Alain Sahel, Olivier Goureau
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are potentially useful in regenerative therapies for retinal disease. For medical applications, therapeutic retinal cells, such as retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells or photoreceptor precursors, must be generated under completely defined conditions. To this purpose, we have developed a two-step xeno-free/feeder-free (XF/FF) culture system to efficiently differentiate hiPSCs into retinal cells. This simple method, relies only on adherent hiPSCs cultured in chemically defined media, bypassing embryoid body formation...
February 20, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220493/dawn-of-the-organoid-era-3d-tissue-and-organ-cultures-revolutionize-the-study-of-development-disease-and-regeneration
#2
Ninouk Akkerman, Libert H K Defize
Novel and updated approaches of culturing cells in 3D are rapidly advancing our understanding of development, health, and disease. As tissues have been found to behave more realistically in 3D than in 2D cultures, organoid technology in combination with recent advances in the isolation and generation of stem cells, has rapidly become a promising concept in developmental and regenerative research. The development of all kinds of tissues can now be studied "in a dish," allowing more detailed observations of stem cell maintenance, morphogens, and differentiation...
February 21, 2017: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219950/nutritional-modulation-of-mouse-and-human-liver-bud-growth-through-a-branched-amino-acid-metabolism
#3
Hiroyuki Koike, Ran-Ran Zhang, Yasuharu Ueno, Keisuke Sekine, Yun-Wen Zheng, Takanori Takebe, Hideki Taniguchi
Liver bud progenitors experience a transient amplification during early organ growth phase, yet the responsible mechanism was not fully understood. Collective evidence highlighted the specific requirements in stem cell metabolism for expanding organ progenitors during organogenesis and regeneration. Here, transcriptome analyses showed progenitors of mouse and human liver bud growth stage specifically expressed branched chain aminotransferase1 gene, a known breakdown enzyme of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) for energy generation...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219945/novel-fixed-z-dimension-fizd-kidney-primordia-and-an-organoid-culture-system-for-time-lapse-confocal-imaging
#4
Ulla Saarela, Saad Ullah Akram, Audrey Desgrange, Aleksandra Rak-Raszewska, Jingdong Shan, Silvia Cereghini, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Janne Heikkilä, Ilya Skovorodkin, Seppo J Vainio
Tissue, organ and organoid cultures provide suitable models for developmental studies, but our understanding of how the organs are assembled at the single cell level still remains unclear. We describe here a novel Fixed Z-Dimension (FiZD) culture setup that permits high-resolution confocal imaging of organoids and embryonic tissues. In a FiZD culture a permeable membrane compresses the tissues onto a glass coverslip and the spacers adjust the thickness, enabling the tissue to grow for up to 12 days. Thus the kidney rudiment and the organoids can adjust to the limited Z-dimensional space and yet advance the process of kidney morphogenesis, enabling long-term time-lapse and high-resolution confocal imaging...
February 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211365/converging-biofabrication-and-organoid-technologies-the-next-frontier-in-hepatic-and-intestinal-tissue-engineering
#5
Kerstin Schneeberger, Bart Spee, Pedro Costa, Norman Sachs, Hans Clevers, Jos Malda
Adult tissue stem cells can form self-organizing 3D organoids in vitro. Organoids resemble small units of their organ of origin and have great potential for tissue engineering, as well as models of disease. However, current culture technology limits the size, architecture and complexity of organoids. Here, we review the establishment of intestinal and hepatic organoids and discuss how the convergence of organoids and biofabrication technologies can help overcome current limitations, and thereby further advance the translational application of organoids in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
February 17, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205621/cryogel-supported-stem-cell-factory-for-customized-sustained-release-of-bispecific-antibodies-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#6
Roberta Aliperta, Petra B Welzel, Ralf Bergmann, Uwe Freudenberg, Nicole Berndt, Anja Feldmann, Claudia Arndt, Stefanie Koristka, Marcello Stanzione, Marc Cartellieri, Armin Ehninger, Gerhard Ehninger, Carsten Werner, Jens Pietzsch, Jörg Steinbach, Martin Bornhäuser, Michael P Bachmann
Combining stem cells with biomaterial scaffolds provides a promising strategy for the development of drug delivery systems. Here we propose an innovative immunotherapeutic organoid by housing human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), gene-modified for the secretion of an anti-CD33-anti-CD3 bispecific antibody (bsAb), in a small biocompatible star-shaped poly(ethylene glycol)-heparin cryogel scaffold as a transplantable and low invasive therapeutic machinery for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The macroporous biohybrid cryogel platform displays effectiveness in supporting proliferation and survival of bsAb-releasing-MSCs overtime in vitro and in vivo, avoiding cell loss and ensuring a constant release of sustained and detectable levels of bsAb capable of triggering T-cell-mediated anti-tumor responses and a rapid regression of CD33(+) AML blasts...
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202491/organoid-technologies-meet-genome-engineering
#7
REVIEW
Jing Nie, Eri Hashino
Three-dimensional (3D) stem cell differentiation cultures recently emerged as a novel model system for investigating human embryonic development and disease progression in vitro, complementing existing animal and two-dimensional (2D) cell culture models. Organoids, the 3D self-organizing structures derived from pluripotent or somatic stem cells, can recapitulate many aspects of structural organization and functionality of their in vivo organ counterparts, thus holding great promise for biomedical research and translational applications...
February 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28201845/regenerative-medicine-and-the-biliary-tree
#8
Thiago M De Assuncao, Nidhi Jalan-Sakrikar, Robert C Huebert
Despite decades of basic research, biliary diseases remain prevalent, highly morbid, and notoriously difficult to treat. We have, however, dramatically increased our understanding of biliary developmental biology, cholangiocyte pathophysiology, and the endogenous mechanisms of biliary regeneration and repair. All of this complex and rapidly evolving knowledge coincides with an explosion of new technological advances in the area of regenerative medicine. New breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent stem cells and organoid culture are increasingly being applied to the biliary system; it is only a matter of time until new regenerative therapeutics for the cholangiopathies are unveiled...
February 2017: Seminars in Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195397/alcohol-injury-damages-intestinal-stem-cells
#9
Rong Lu, Robin M Voigt, Yongguo Zhang, Ikuko Kato, Yinglin Xia, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian, Jun Sun
BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal injury including intestinal leakiness and the risk of developing progressive gastrointestinal cancer. Alcoholics have disruption of intestinal barrier dysfunction that persists weeks after stopping alcohol intake and this occurs in spite of the fact that intestinal epithelial cells turn over every 3-5 days. The renewal and functional regulation of the intestinal epithelium largely relies on intestinal stem cells (ISCs). Chronic inflammation and tissue damage in the intestine can injure stem cells including accumulation of mutations that may result in ISC dysfunction and transformation...
February 14, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194309/trace-elements-during-primordial-plexiform-network-formation-in-human-cerebral-organoids
#10
Rafaela C Sartore, Simone C Cardoso, Yury V M Lages, Julia M Paraguassu, Mariana P Stelling, Rodrigo F Madeiro da Costa, Marilia Z Guimaraes, Carlos A Pérez, Stevens K Rehen
Systematic studies of micronutrients during brain formation are hindered by restrictions to animal models and adult post-mortem tissues. Recently, advances in stem cell biology have enabled recapitulation of the early stages of human telencephalon development in vitro. In the present work, we analyzed cerebral organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence in order to measure biologically valuable micronutrients incorporated and distributed into the exogenously developing brain...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191783/concise-review-the-potential-use-of-intestinal-stem-cells-to-treat-patients-with-intestinal-failure
#11
Sung Noh Hong, James C Y Dunn, Matthias Stelzner, Martín G Martín
Intestinal failure is a rare life-threatening condition that results in the inability to maintain normal growth and hydration status by enteral nutrition alone. Although parenteral nutrition and whole organ allogeneic transplantation have improved the survival of these patients, current therapies are associated with a high risk for morbidity and mortality. Development of methods to propagate adult human intestinal stem cells (ISCs) and pluripotent stem cells raises the possibility of using stem cell-based therapy for patients with monogenic and polygenic forms of intestinal failure...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191779/development-of-a-three-dimensional-bioengineering-technology-to-generate-lung-tissue-for-personalized-disease-modeling
#12
Dan C Wilkinson, Jackelyn A Alva-Ornelas, Jennifer M S Sucre, Preethi Vijayaraj, Abdo Durra, Wade Richardson, Steven J Jonas, Manash K Paul, Saravanan Karumbayaram, Bruce Dunn, Brigitte N Gomperts
Stem cell technologies, especially patient-specific, induced stem cell pluripotency and directed differentiation, hold great promise for changing the landscape of medical therapies. Proper exploitation of these methods may lead to personalized organ transplants, but to regenerate organs, it is necessary to develop methods for assembling differentiated cells into functional, organ-level tissues. The generation of three-dimensional human tissue models also holds potential for medical advances in disease modeling, as full organ functionality may not be necessary to recapitulate disease pathophysiology...
February 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191386/using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-investigate-complex-genetic-psychiatric-disorders
#13
Stephanie J Temme, Brady J Maher, Kimberly M Christian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can be generated from human patient tissue samples, differentiated into any somatic cell type, and studied under controlled culture conditions. We review how iPSCs are used to investigate genetic factors and biological mechanisms underlying psychiatric disorders, and considerations for synthesizing data across studies. RECENT FINDINGS: Results from patient specific-iPSC studies often reveal cellular phenotypes consistent with postmortem and brain imaging studies...
December 2016: Current Behavioral Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188103/kidney-organoids-a-translational-journey
#14
REVIEW
Ryuji Morizane, Joseph V Bonventre
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are attractive sources for regenerative medicine and disease modeling in vitro. Directed hPSC differentiation approaches have derived from knowledge of cell development in vivo rather than from stochastic cell differentiation. Moreover, there has been great success in the generation of 3D organ-buds termed 'organoids' from hPSCs; these consist of a variety of cell types in vitro that mimic organs in vivo. The organoid bears great potential in the study of human diseases in vitro, especially when combined with CRISPR/Cas9-based genome-editing...
February 7, 2017: Trends in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186126/molecular-dissection-of-colorectal-cancer-in-pre-clinical-models-identifies-biomarkers-predicting-sensitivity-to-egfr-inhibitors
#15
Moritz Schütte, Thomas Risch, Nilofar Abdavi-Azar, Karsten Boehnke, Dirk Schumacher, Marlen Keil, Reha Yildiriman, Christine Jandrasits, Tatiana Borodina, Vyacheslav Amstislavskiy, Catherine L Worth, Caroline Schweiger, Sandra Liebs, Martin Lange, Hans-Jörg Warnatz, Lee M Butcher, James E Barrett, Marc Sultan, Christoph Wierling, Nicole Golob-Schwarzl, Sigurd Lax, Stefan Uranitsch, Michael Becker, Yvonne Welte, Joseph Lewis Regan, Maxine Silvestrov, Inge Kehler, Alberto Fusi, Thomas Kessler, Ralf Herwig, Ulf Landegren, Dirk Wienke, Mats Nilsson, Juan A Velasco, Pilar Garin-Chesa, Christoph Reinhard, Stephan Beck, Reinhold Schäfer, Christian R A Regenbrecht, David Henderson, Bodo Lange, Johannes Haybaeck, Ulrich Keilholz, Jens Hoffmann, Hans Lehrach, Marie-Laure Yaspo
Colorectal carcinoma represents a heterogeneous entity, with only a fraction of the tumours responding to available therapies, requiring a better molecular understanding of the disease in precision oncology. To address this challenge, the OncoTrack consortium recruited 106 CRC patients (stages I-IV) and developed a pre-clinical platform generating a compendium of drug sensitivity data totalling >4,000 assays testing 16 clinical drugs on patient-derived in vivo and in vitro models. This large biobank of 106 tumours, 35 organoids and 59 xenografts, with extensive omics data comparing donor tumours and derived models provides a resource for advancing our understanding of CRC...
February 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179500/ninein-is-essential-for-apico-basal-microtubule-formation-and-clip-170-facilitates-its-redeployment-to-non-centrosomal-microtubule-organizing-centres
#16
Deborah A Goldspink, Chris Rookyard, Benjamin J Tyrrell, Jonathan Gadsby, James Perkins, Elizabeth K Lund, Niels Galjart, Paul Thomas, Tom Wileman, Mette M Mogensen
Differentiation of columnar epithelial cells involves a dramatic reorganization of the microtubules (MTs) and centrosomal components into an apico-basal array no longer anchored at the centrosome. Instead, the minus-ends of the MTs become anchored at apical non-centrosomal microtubule organizing centres (n-MTOCs). Formation of n-MTOCs is critical as they determine the spatial organization of MTs, which in turn influences cell shape and function. However, how they are formed is poorly understood. We have previously shown that the centrosomal anchoring protein ninein is released from the centrosome, moves in a microtubule-dependent manner and accumulates at n-MTOCs during epithelial differentiation...
February 2017: Open Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174963/p002-inhibition-of-axl-signaling-by-bgb324-reduces-fibrogenesis-in-human-intestinal-cells-and-human-intestinal-organoids
#17
C Steiner, E Rodansky, L A Johnson, S Huang, J Spence, P D Higgins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174752/a-perfect-match-explant-and-organoid-systems-help-study-cytokines-in-sickness-and-health
#18
EDITORIAL
Luciana H Osaki, Jason C Mills
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174251/a-process-engineering-approach-to-increase-organoid-yield
#19
Natasha Arora, Jasmin Imran Alsous, Jacob W Guggenheim, Michael Mak, Jorge Munera, James M Wells, Roger D Kamm, H Harry Asada, Stanislav Y Shvartsman, Linda G Griffith
Temporal manipulation of the in vitro environment and growth factors can direct differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into organoids, aggregates with multiple tissue-specific cell types and three-dimensional structure mimicking native organs. A mechanistic understanding of early organoid formation is essential for improving the robustness of these methods, which is necessary prior to use in drug development and regenerative medicine. We investigated intestinal organoid emergence, focusing on measurable parameters of hindgut spheroids, the intermediate step between definitive endoderm and mature organoids...
February 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174247/self-organisation-after-embryonic-kidney-dissociation-is-driven-via-selective-adhesion-of-ureteric-epithelial-cells
#20
J G Lefevre, H S Chiu, A N Combes, J M Vanslambrouck, A Ju, N A Hamilton, M H Little
Human pluripotent stem cells, after directed differentiation in vitro, can spontaneously generate complex tissues via self-organisation of the component cells. Self-organisation can also reform embryonic organ structure after tissue disruption. It has previously been demonstrated that dissociated embryonic kidneys can recreate component epithelial and mesenchymal relationships sufficient to allow continued kidney morphogenesis. Here we investigate the timing and underlying mechanisms driving self-organisation after dissociation of the embryonic kidney using time-lapse imaging, high-resolution confocal analyses and mathematical modelling...
February 7, 2017: Development
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