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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636127/nonmediated-label-free-based-detection-of-cardiovascular-biomarker-in-a-biological-sample
#1
JuKyung Lee, SuRyon Shin, Anna Desalvo, Geonhui Lee, Jeong Yoon Lee, Alessandro Polini, Sukyoung Chae, Hobin Jeong, Jonghan Kim, Haksoo Choi, HeaYeon Lee
Direct electrochemical (EC) monitoring in a cell culture medium without electron transporter as called mediator is attractive topic in vitro organoid based on chip with frequently and long-time monitoring since it can avoid to its disadvantage as stability, toxicity. Here, direct monitoring with nonmediator is demonstrated based on impedance spectroscopy under the culture medium in order to overcome the limitation of mediator. The applicability of EC monitoring is shown by detecting alpha-1-anti trypsin (A1AT) which is known as biomarkers for cardiac damage and is widely chosen in organoid cardiac cell-based chip...
June 21, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629429/linked-read-sequencing-resolves-complex-genomic-rearrangements-in-gastric-cancer-metastases
#2
Stephanie U Greer, Lincoln D Nadauld, Billy T Lau, Jiamin Chen, Christina Wood-Bouwens, James M Ford, Calvin J Kuo, Hanlee P Ji
BACKGROUND: Genome rearrangements are critical oncogenic driver events in many malignancies. However, the identification and resolution of the structure of cancer genomic rearrangements remain challenging even with whole genome sequencing. METHODS: To identify oncogenic genomic rearrangements and resolve their structure, we analyzed linked read sequencing. This approach relies on a microfluidic droplet technology to produce libraries derived from single, high molecular weight DNA molecules, 50 kb in size or greater...
June 19, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628120/intestinal-cancer-progression-by-mutant-p53-through-the-acquisition-of-invasiveness-associated-with-complex-glandular-formation
#3
M Nakayama, E Sakai, K Echizen, Y Yamada, H Oshima, T-S Han, R Ohki, S Fujii, A Ochiai, S Robine, D C Voon, T Tanaka, M M Taketo, M Oshima
Tumor suppressor TP53 is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer (CRC), and most mutations are missense type. Although gain-of-functions by mutant p53 have been demonstrated experimentally, the precise mechanism for malignant progression in in vivo tumors remains unsolved. We generated Apc(Δ716) Trp53(LSL•R270H) villin-CreER compound mice, in which mutant p53(R270H) was expressed in the intestinal epithelia upon tamoxifen treatment, and examined the intestinal tumor phenotypes and tumor-derived organoids...
June 19, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628110/colonic-organoids-derived-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-modeling-colorectal-cancer-and-drug-testing
#4
Miguel Crespo, Eduardo Vilar, Su-Yi Tsai, Kyle Chang, Sadaf Amin, Tara Srinivasan, Tuo Zhang, Nina H Pipalia, Huanhuan Joyce Chen, Mavee Witherspoon, Miriam Gordillo, Jenny Zhaoying Xiang, Frederick R Maxfield, Steven Lipkin, Todd Evans, Shuibing Chen
With the goal of modeling human disease of the large intestine, we sought to develop an effective protocol for deriving colonic organoids (COs) from differentiated human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) or induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Extensive gene and immunohistochemical profiling confirmed that the derived COs represent colon rather than small intestine, containing stem cells, transit-amplifying cells, and the expected spectrum of differentiated cells, including goblet and endocrine cells. We applied this strategy to iPSCs derived from patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP-iPSCs) harboring germline mutations in the WNT-signaling-pathway-regulator gene encoding APC, and we generated COs that exhibit enhanced WNT activity and increased epithelial cell proliferation, which we used as a platform for drug testing...
June 19, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624103/from-organoids-to-organs-bioengineering-liver-grafts-from%C3%A2-hepatic-stem-cells-and-matrix
#5
REVIEW
Jorke Willemse, Ruby Lieshout, Luc J W van der Laan, Monique M A Verstegen
Due to the complex function and structure of the liver, resourceful solutions for treating end-stage liver disease are required. Currently, liver transplantation is the only curative therapeutic option. However, due to a worldwide donor shortage, researchers have been looking in other fields for alternative sources of transplantable liver tissue. Recent advances in our understanding of liver physiology, stem cell and matrix biology, have accelerated tissue engineering research. Most notable is the discovery of a culture system to grow liver-like organoids from human hepatic stem cells...
April 2017: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615312/stem-cells-in-repair-of-gastrointestinal-epithelia
#6
REVIEW
Amanda Andersson-Rolf, Matthias Zilbauer, Bon-Kyoung Koo, Hans Clevers
Among the endodermal tissues of adult mammals, the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium exhibits the highest turnover rate. As the ingested food moves along the GI tract, gastric acid, digestive enzymes, and gut resident microbes aid digestion as well as nutrient and mineral absorption. Due to the harsh luminal environment, replenishment of new epithelial cells is essential to maintain organ structure and function during routine turnover and injury repair. Tissue-specific adult stem cells in the GI tract serve as a continuous source for this immense regenerative activity...
July 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614706/enhanced-rate-of-acquisition-of-point-mutations-in-mouse-intestinal-adenomas-compared-to-normal-tissue
#7
Natalia Lugli, Vasilis S Dionellis, Paloma Ordóñez-Morán, Irene Kamileri, Sotirios K Sotiriou, Joerg Huelsken, Thanos D Halazonetis
The most prevalent single-nucleotide substitution (SNS) found in cancers is a C-to-T substitution in the CpG motif. It has been proposed that many of these SNSs arise during organismal aging, prior to transformation of a normal cell into a precancerous/cancer cell. Here, we isolated single intestinal crypts derived from normal tissue or from adenomas of Apc(min/+) mice, expanded them minimally in vitro as organoids, and performed exome sequencing to identify point mutations that had been acquired in vivo at the single-cell level...
June 13, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614372/intestinal-organoids-model-human-responses-to-infection-by-commensal-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#8
Sayali S Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V Ward, Alison A Weiss
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614297/multilineage-communication-regulates-human-liver-bud-development-from-pluripotency
#9
J Gray Camp, Keisuke Sekine, Tobias Gerber, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Hans Binder, Malgorzata Gac, Sabina Kanton, Jorge Kageyama, Georg Damm, Daniel Seehofer, Lenka Belicova, Marc Bickle, Rico Barsacchi, Ryo Okuda, Emi Yoshizawa, Masaki Kimura, Hiroaki Ayabe, Hideki Taniguchi, Takanori Takebe, Barbara Treutlein
Conventional two-dimensional differentiation from pluripotency fails to recapitulate cell interactions occurring during organogenesis. Three-dimensional organoids generate complex organ-like tissues; however, it is unclear how heterotypic interactions affect lineage identity. Here we use single-cell RNA sequencing to reconstruct hepatocyte-like lineage progression from pluripotency in two-dimensional culture. We then derive three-dimensional liver bud organoids by reconstituting hepatic, stromal, and endothelial interactions, and deconstruct heterogeneity during liver bud development...
June 14, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607910/exploiting-induced-senescence-in-intestinal-organoids-to-drive-enteroendocrine-cell-expansion
#10
EDITORIAL
Robert G Ramsay, Helen E Abud
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604658/in-vitro-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-into-ovarian-follicle-like-cells
#11
Dajung Jung, Jie Xiong, Min Ye, Xunsi Qin, Lin Li, Shunfeng Cheng, Mengyuan Luo, Jia Peng, Ji Dong, Fuchou Tang, Wei Shen, Martin M Matzuk, Kehkooi Kee
Understanding the unique mechanisms of human oogenesis necessitates the development of an in vitro system of stem cell differentiation into oocytes. Specialized cell types and organoids have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro, but generating a human ovarian follicle remains a challenge. Here we report that human embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into ovarian follicle-like cells (FLCs) in vitro. First, we find that two RNA-binding proteins specifically expressed in germ cells, DAZL and BOULE, regulate the exit from pluripotency and entry into meiosis...
June 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600348/loss-of-the-wnt-receptor-frizzled7-in-the-gastric-epithelium-is-deleterious-and-triggers-rapid-repopulation-in-vivo
#12
Dustin J Flanagan, Nicholas Barker, Cameron Nowell, Hans Clevers, Matthias Ernst, Toby J Phesse, Elizabeth Vincan
The gastric epithelium consists of tubular glandular units each containing several differentiated cells types, and populations of stem cells, which enable the stomach to secrete the acid, mucus and various digestive enzymes required for its function. Cell signalling provides cues to regulate development and homeostasis of adult tissues, however very little is known about which cell signalling pathways are required for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. Many diseases, such as cancer, arise as a result of deregulation to signalling pathways that regulate homeostasis of the diseased organ...
June 9, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599598/uniform-neural-tissue-models-produced-on-synthetic-hydrogels-using-standard-culture-techniques
#13
Christopher Barry, Matthew T Schmitz, Nicholas E Propson, Zhonggang Hou, Jue Zhang, Bao K Nguyen, Jennifer M Bolin, Peng Jiang, Brian E McIntosh, Mitchell D Probasco, Scott Swanson, Ron Stewart, James A Thomson, Michael P Schwartz, William L Murphy
The aim of the present study was to test sample reproducibility for model neural tissues formed on synthetic hydrogels. Human embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived precursor cells were cultured on synthetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels to promote differentiation and self-organization into model neural tissue constructs. Neural progenitor, vascular, and microglial precursor cells were combined on PEG hydrogels to mimic developmental timing, which produced multicomponent neural constructs with 3D neuronal and glial organization, organized vascular networks, and microglia with ramified morphologies...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596937/harnessing-the-potential-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-and-gene-editing-for-the-treatment-of-retinal-degeneration
#14
REVIEW
Patrick Ovando-Roche, Anastasios Georgiadis, Alexander J Smith, Rachael A Pearson, Robin R Ali
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A major cause of visual disorders is dysfunction and/or loss of the light-sensitive cells of the retina, the photoreceptors. To develop better treatments for patients, we need to understand how inherited retinal disease mutations result in the dysfunction of photoreceptors. New advances in the field of stem cell and gene editing research offer novel ways to model retinal dystrophies in vitro and present opportunities to translate basic biological insights into therapies...
2017: Current Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596933/lung-organoids-and-their-use-to-study-cell-cell-interaction
#15
REVIEW
Marko Z Nikolić, Emma L Rawlins
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The lung research field has pioneered the use of organoids for the study of cell-cell interactions. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of organoids for airway basal cells is routine. However, the development of organoids for the other regions of the lung is still in its infancy. Such cultures usually rely on cell-cell interactions between the stem cells and a putative niche cell for their growth and differentiation. SUMMARY: The use of co-culture organoid systems has facilitated the in vitro cultivation of previously inaccessible stem cell populations, providing a novel method for dissecting the molecular requirements of these cell-cell interactions...
2017: Current Pathobiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593182/the-circadian-clock-gene-bmal1-coordinates-intestinal%C3%A2-regeneration
#16
Kyle Stokes, Abrial Cooke, Hanna Chang, David R Weaver, David T Breault, Phillip Karpowicz
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gastrointestinal syndrome is an illness of the intestine caused by high levels of radiation. It is characterized by extensive loss of epithelial tissue integrity, which initiates a regenerative response by intestinal stem and precursor cells. The intestine has 24-hour rhythms in many physiological functions that are believed to be outputs of the circadian clock: a molecular system that produces 24-hour rhythms in transcription/translation. Certain gastrointestinal illnesses are worsened when the circadian rhythms are disrupted, but the role of the circadian clock in gastrointestinal regeneration has not been studied...
July 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591123/building-the-human-inner-ear-in-an-organoid
#17
Vidhya Munnamalai, Donna M Fekete
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 7, 2017: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589925/mesenchymal-stem-cells-support-growth-and-organization-of-host-liver-colorectal-tumor-organoids-and-possibly-resistance-to-chemotherapy
#18
Mahesh Devarasetty, Edina Wang, Shay Soker, Aleksander Skardal
Despite having yielded extensive breakthroughs in cancer research, traditional 2D cell cultures have limitations in studying cancer progression and metastasis and screening therapeutic candidates. 3D systems can allow cells to grow, migrate, and interact with each other and the surrounding matrix, resulting in more realistic constructs. Furthermore, interactions between host tissue and developing tumors influence the susceptibility of tumors to drug treatments. Host-liver colorectal-tumor spheroids composed of primary human hepatocytes, mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were created in simulated microgravity rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors...
June 7, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588148/functional-optical-imaging-of-primary-human-tumor-organoids-for-personalized-drug-screens
#19
Alex J Walsh, Rebecca S Cook, Melissa C Skala
Primary tumor organoids are a robust model of individual human cancers and present a unique platform for patient-specific drug testing. Optical imaging is uniquely suited to assess organoid function and behavior due to its subcellular resolution, penetration depth through the entire organoid, and functional endpoints. Specifically, optical metabolic imaging (OMI) is highly sensitive to drug response in organoids, and OMI in tumor organoids correlates with primary tumor drug response. Therefore, an OMI-organoid drug screen could enable accurate testing of drug response for individualized cancer treatment...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578487/gambogic-acid-induces-cell-apoptosis-and-inhibits-mapk-pathway-in-pten-p53-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro-and-ex-vivo
#20
Hong Pan, Li-Yuan Lu, Xue-Qian Wang, Bin-Xue Li, Kathleen Kelly, Hong-Sheng Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of gambogic acid (GA) on the growth and cell death of castrate resistant prostate cancer (PC) with phosphate and tension homology (PTEN) and p53 genes deleted in vitro and ex vivo, and elucidate the underlying possible molecular mechanisms. METHODS: PTEN(-/-)/p53(-/-) PC cells and Los Angeles prostate cancer-4 (LAPC-4) cells were treated with GA for 24 h and 48 h, then cell viability was determined by cell proliferation assay...
June 3, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
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