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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343062/the-material-moral-and-affective-worlds-of-dealing-and-crime-among-young-men-entrenched-in-an-inner-city-drug-scene
#1
Danya Fast, Jean Shoveller, Thomas Kerr
A large body of previous research has elucidated how involvement in drug dealing and crime among marginalized urban youth who use drugs is shaped by the imperatives of addiction and survival in the context of poverty. However, a growing body of research has examined how youth's involvement in these activities is shaped by more expansive desires and moralities. In this paper, we examine the material, moral, and affective worlds of loosely gang affiliated, street level dealing and crime among one group of young men in Vancouver, Canada...
March 23, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339524/chronic-illness-self-management-a-mechanism-behind-the-relationship-between-neighbourhood-social-capital-and-health
#2
Geeke Waverijn, Monique Heijmans, Peter P Groenewegen
: Neighbourhood social capital might provide resources that can benefit chronic illness self-management. Improved self-management is a possible mechanism behind the relationship between neighbourhood social capital and health of people with chronic illness. : To test this mechanism, we collected data on self-management and self-rated health among a sample of 2091 people with chronic illness in 2013. Data on neighbourhood social capital were collected among 69 336 people in 3425 neighbourhoods between May 2011 and September 2012...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338722/dissecting-the-transcriptional-patterns-of-social-dominance-across-teleosts
#3
Suzy C P Renn, Cynthia F O'Rourke, Nadia Aubin-Horth, Eleanor J Fraser, Hans A Hofmann
In many species, under varying ecological conditions, social interactions among individuals result in the formation of dominance hierarchies. Despite general similarities, there are robust differences among dominance hierarchies across species, populations, environments, life stages, sexes, and individuals. Understanding the proximate mechanisms underlying the variation is an important step toward understanding the evolution of social behavior. However, physiological changes associated with dominance, such as gonadal maturation and somatic growth, often complicate efforts to identify the specific underlying mechanisms...
December 16, 2016: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337629/an-innovative-application-of-extended-exergy-analysis-into-an-industrial-park
#4
Yupeng Fan, Qi Qiao, Lin Fang
Exergy is a thermodynamic term used to account all possible useful work theoretically throughout one process when it is brought into equilibrium with its environment. It however cannot directly incorporate non-physical flows, which can be accounted by extensions of the exergy consumption method. Extended exergy, which builds a bridge between thermal and anthropic dimensions, can both measure resource consumption and economic system. In this study, we applied extended exergy analysis to analyze an industrial park, including material consumption, social investment, and environmental influence...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337239/disease-activity-quality-of-life-and-indirect-costs-of-ulcerative-colitis-in-poland
#5
Paweł Kawalec, Ewa Stawowczyk, Małgorzata Mossakowska, Andrzej Pilc
INTRODUCTION: Ulcerative colitis (UC) require expensive, lifelong treatment, which generates huge direct costs and has a significant impact on the quality of life, especially in the active state of the disease. AIM: To assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life, and clinical characteristics of patients with UC in Poland. Additionally, we investigated the association between activity of UC and productivity loss of patients in a Polish setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire survey was conducted using the Patient Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (P-SCCAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the modified Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire to assess productivity loss...
2017: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336374/developments-and-future-clinical-outlook-of-taxane-nanomedicines
#6
REVIEW
Benoit Louage, Olivier De Wever, Wim E Hennink, Bruno G De Geest
Taxanes are highly valuable drugs for cancer treatment. Low water-solubility however puts a major challenge in obtaining formulations that are stable and easy-to-use in clinical practice. Initially, solubilization and lowering toxicity of taxanes has been the main research focus. However, emerging passive and active targeting strategies, especially in the field of nanomedicine, have been capital incentives to further broaden therapeutic index by improving efficacy. This review provides an up-to-date clinical track record of taxane nanomedicines in view of the current state-of-the-art in anti-cancer drug delivery...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335422/association-between-coffee-consumption-and-its-polyphenols-with-cardiovascular-risk-factors-a-population-based-study
#7
Andreia Machado Miranda, Josiane Steluti, Regina Mara Fisberg, Dirce Maria Marchioni
Epidemiological studies have examined the effect of coffee intake on cardiovascular disease, but the benefits and risks for the cardiovascular system remain controversial. Our objective was to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and its polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors. Data came from the "Health Survey of São Paulo (ISA-Capital)" among 557 individuals, in São Paulo, Brazil. Diet was assessed by two 24-h dietary recalls. Coffee consumption was categorized into <1, 1-3, and ≥3 cups/day...
March 14, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334680/assessing-driving-forces-of-land-use-and-land-cover-change-by-a-mixed-method-approach-in-north-eastern-ghana-west-africa
#8
Janina Kleemann, Gülendam Baysal, Henry N N Bulley, Christine Fürst
Land use and land cover change (LULCC) is the result of complex human-environmental interactions. The high interdependencies in social-ecological systems make it difficult to identify the main drivers. However, knowledge of key drivers of LULCC, including indirect (underlying) drivers which cannot be easily determined by spatial or economic analyses, is essential for land use planning and especially important in developing countries. We used a mixed-method approach in order to detect drivers of LULCC in the Upper East Region of northern Ghana by different qualitative and quantitative methods which were compared in a confidence level analysis...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334547/origin-of-cam-morphology-in-femoroacetabular-impingement
#9
William Z Morris, Ryan T Li, Raymond W Liu, Michael J Salata, James T Voos
Cam morphology of the proximal femur is an abnormal contour of the femoral head-neck junction present in approximately 15% to 25% of the asymptomatic population, predominantly in males. Alpha angle and femoral head-neck offset ratio are 2 objective measurement tools that define cam morphology. Both primary (idiopathic) and secondary cam deformity develops through distinct mechanisms. The cause of primary (idiopathic) cam morphology remains incompletely understood. Mounting evidence suggests that idiopathic cam morphology develops during adolescence through alterations in the capital femoral epiphysis in response to participation in vigorous sporting activity...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334487/growing-up-with-perinatal-human-immunodeficiency-virus-a-life-not-expected
#10
Elaine Fay Williams
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the lived experience of young adults with perinatally acquired HIV (PaHIV). BACKGROUND: The advancement of the highly active antiretroviral treatment, PaHIV-infection has transformed into a chronic lifelong illness that is faced by young adults who grew up with HIV. The known challenges that are associated with HIV are poverty, stigma and social and emotional isolation. DESIGN: This was a qualitative single interview study of a convenience sample of PaHIV-infected young adults receiving care at a large metropolitan pediatric hospital...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333529/the-long-arm-of-childhood-preschool-associations-with-adolescent-health
#11
Terri J Sabol, Lindsay Till Hoyt
The current study examines the extent to which participation in preschool at age 4 is associated with blood pressure, body mass index, and awakening cortisol at age 15. We capitalize on data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to examine differences in adolescent health among children who attended preschool, parental care, or home-based care at age 4 (n = 742). Using quasi-experimental methods, we found that preschool participation was associated with multiple positive health outcomes in adolescence...
April 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333300/comparison-of-global-gene-expression-profiles-of-microdissected-human-foetal-leydig-cells-with-their-normal-and-hyperplastic-adult-equivalents
#12
Grete Lottrup, Kirstine Belling, Henrik Leffers, John E Nielsen, Marlene D Dalgaard, Anders Juul, Niels E Skakkebæk, Søren Brunak, Ewa Rajpert-De Meyts
STUDY QUESTION: Do human adult Leydig cells (ALCs) within hyperplastic micronodules display characteristics of foetal LCs (FLCs)? SUMMARY ANSWER: The gene expression profiles of FLCs and all ALC subgroups were clearly different, but there were no significant differences in expressed genes between the normally clustered and hyperplastic ALCs. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: LCs are the primary androgen producing cells in males throughout development and appear in chronologically distinct populations; FLCs, neonatal LCs and ALCs...
March 17, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332203/margins-of-freedom-a-field-theoretic-approach-to-class-based-health-dispositions-and-practices
#13
Patrick John Burnett, Gerry Veenstra
Pierre Bourdieu's theory of practice situates social practices in the relational interplay between experiential mental phenomena (habitus), resources (capitals) and objective social structures (fields). When applied to class-based practices in particular, the overarching field of power within which social classes are potentially made manifest is the primary field of interest. Applying relational statistical techniques to original survey data from Toronto and Vancouver, Canada, we investigated whether smoking, engaging in physical activity and consuming fruit and vegetables are dispersed in a three-dimensional field of power shaped by economic and cultural capitals and cultural dispositions and practices...
March 23, 2017: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331910/traditional-practices-adopted-by-jordanian-mothers-when-caring-for-their-infants-in-rural-areas
#14
Ahmad Yahya Al-Sagarat, Amani Al-Kharabsheh
BACKGROUND: Traditional practices are commonly present within the Jordanian society, especailly those concerned with infant's care. Some of these practices might be harmful and thus health professioanls are required to substitute these practices with safe and healthy ones. The goal of this study is to determine the traditional practices adopted by Jordanian mothers when caring for their infants in rural areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive study design using qualitative method was utilized in this study...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330973/neurokinin-b-regulates-reproduction-via-inhibition-of-kisspeptin-in-a-teleost-the-striped-bass
#15
Nilli Zmora, Ten Tsao Wong, John David Stubblefield, Berta Levavi-Sivan, Yonathan Zohar
Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are neuropeptides co-expressed in the mammalian hypothalamus and coordinately control GnRH signaling. We have found that Nkb and kisspeptin neurons are distinct in the teleost, striped bass (stb), and capitalized on this phenomenon to study the mode of action of Nkb and its related neuropeptide-F (Nkf), both of which are encoded by the tac3 gene. In vitro brain slices and in vivo administration studies revealed that Nkb/f consistently down-regulated kiss2, while antagonist (AntD) administration restored this effect...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330803/relationship-between-religion-and-school-students-road-behavior-in-southern-iran
#16
Reza Tabrizi, Maryam Akbari, Kamran B Lankarani, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Alireza Masoudi, Amir Hossein Shams, Armin Akbarzadeh, Saba Moalemi, Maryam Mahmoodi Mehr, Ahmad Kalateh Sadati, Payam Peymani
PURPOSE: Unsafe behaviors are an important cause of accidents in adolescent age groups. This study was designed to examine the behaviors of adolescent pedestrians in southern Iran. METHODS: This is a descriptive analytical cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of high school students in Shiraz, capital city of Fars Province, Iran. Five hundred and sixteen students were selected by multi-stage sampling. Data were collected by the use of three questionnaires, which included Persian copies of adolescent road user behavior questionnaire (ARBQ), Duke University Religious Index (DUREL), as well as the context and independent variables questionnaire...
February 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329791/contributions-of-the-individual-differences-approach-to-cognitive-aging
#17
Timothy A Salthouse
Objective: To review selected research in cognitive aging incorporating an individual differences approach. Method: Three contributions of the individual differences perspective in cognitive aging are illustrated with data from the Virginia Cognitive Aging Project. Results: Research capitalizing on the variability among individuals has been used to: (a) improve sensitivity and validity of measurement of cognitive functioning, and evaluate possible age differences in the meaning of the measures; (b) investigate relations between age and individual cognitive measures in the context of other types of cognitive measures; and (c) examine the degree to which age-related influences on target measures are statistically independent of age-related influences on other cognitive measures...
July 2, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329000/trajectory-formation-principles-are-the-same-after-mild-or-moderate-stroke
#18
Denis Mottet, Liesjet Elisabeth Henriette van Dokkum, Jérôme Froger, Abdelkader Gouaïch, Isabelle Laffont
When we make rapid reaching movements, we have to trade speed for accuracy. To do so, the trajectory of our hand is the result of an optimal balance between feed-forward and feed-back control in the face of signal-dependant noise in the sensorimotor system. How far do these principles of trajectory formation still apply after a stroke, for persons with mild to moderate sensorimotor deficits who recovered some reaching ability? Here, we examine the accuracy of fast hand reaching movements with a focus on the information capacity of the sensorimotor system and its relation to trajectory formation in young adults, in persons who had a stroke and in age-matched control participants...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328562/treatment-of-unstable-versus-stable-slipped-capital-femoral-epiphysis-using-the-modified-dunn-procedure
#19
Richard L Davis, Walter P Samora, Freddie Persinger, Kevin E Klingele
BACKGROUND: The modified Dunn procedure (open subcapital realignment via a surgical dislocation approach) has been shown to be a safe and effective way of treating acute, unstable slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE). There is a paucity of literature comparing the modified Dunn procedure in stable SCFE. The purpose of this study was to compare acute, unstable versus chronic, stable SCFE managed with the modified Dunn procedure. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed on 44 skeletally immature patients who underwent the modified Dunn procedure for SCFE...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327789/prevalence-of-hepatitis-c-virus-and-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-a-group-of-patients-newly-diagnosed-with-active-tuberculosis-in-porto-alegre-southern-brazil
#20
Cintia Costi, Tarciana Grandi, Maria Laura Halon, Márcia Susana Nunes Silva, Cláudia Maria Dornelles da Silva, Tatiana Schäffer Gregianini, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Carla Adriane Jarczewski, Christian Niel, Maria Lucia Rosa Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Porto Alegre is the Brazilian state capital with second highest incidence of tuberculosis (TB) and the highest proportion of people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among patients with TB. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection increases the risk of anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity, which may result in discontinuation of the therapy. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was (i) to estimate prevalence of HCV and HIV in a group of patients newly diagnosed with active TB in a public reference hospital in Porto Alegre and (ii) to compare demographic, behavioural, and clinical characteristics of patients in relation to their HCV infection status...
April 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
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