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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903651/t-cells-encountering-myeloid-cells-programmed-for-amino-acid-dependent-immunosuppression-use-rictor-mtorc2-for-proliferative-checkpoint-decisions
#1
Lee-Ann Van de Velde, Chitra Subramanian, Amber M Smith, Luke Barron, Joseph E Qualls, Geoffrey Neale, Adolfo Alfonso-Pecchio, Suzanne Jackowski, Charles O Rock, Thomas A Wynn, Peter J Murray
Modulation of T cell proliferation and function by immunoregulatory myeloid cells is an essential means of preventing self-reactivity and restoring tissue homeostasis. Consumption of amino acids such as arginine and tryptophan by immunoregulatory macrophages is one pathway that suppresses local T cell proliferation. Using a reduced complexity in vitro macrophage: T cell co-culture system, we show that macrophage Arginase-1 (Arg1) is the only factor required by M2 macrophages to block T cells in G1, and this effect is mediated by L-arginine elimination rather than metabolite generation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899535/a-tomato-universal-stress-protein-involved-in-oxidative-stress-is-a-cipk6-phosphorylation-target
#2
Emilio Gutierrez-Beltran, José María Personat, Fernando N de la Torre, Olga Del Pozo
Calcineurin B-like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) decode calcium signals upon interaction with the calcium sensors calcineurin B like proteins (CBLs) into phosphorylation events that result into adaptation to environmental stresses. Few phosphorylation targets of CIPKs are known and therefore the molecular mechanisms underlying their downstream output responses are not fully understood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cipk6 regulates immune and susceptible Programmed cell death (PCD) in immunity transforming Ca2+ signals into Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) signaling...
November 29, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871658/rehabilitation-principles-of-the-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstructed-knee-twelve-steps-for-successful-progression-and-return-to-play
#3
REVIEW
Kevin E Wilk, Christopher A Arrigo
The rehabilitation process begins immediately after injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The goal of preoperative rehabilitation is to prepare the patient for surgery. Current rehabilitation programs focus on strengthening exercises and proprioceptive and neuromuscular control drills to provide a neurologic stimulus. It is also important to address preexisting factors, especially for the female athlete, that may predispose to future injury, such as hip and hamstring weakness. Our goal in the rehabilitation program is to restore full, unrestricted function and to assist the patient to return to 100% of the preinjury level while achieving excellent long-term outcomes...
January 2017: Clinics in Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866794/treatment-of-symptomatic-acromioclavicular-joint-instability-by-a-docking-technique-clinical-indications-surgical-technique-and-outcomes
#4
W Ben Kibler, Aaron D Sciascia, Brent J Morris, David C Dome
PURPOSE: To report functional and objective outcomes resulting from surgical treatment of patients with symptomatic type III through V acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury by use of a modification of the anatomic AC joint reconstruction developed by Carofino and Mazzocca. METHODS: The study included all patients treated in 2009-2014 who presented with a history of direct trauma to the shoulder; deformity of the AC joint on clinical examination; radiographic findings that would classify the injury as a Rockwood type III, IV, or V injury; AC joint instability on clinical examination; and self-reported deficits of arm function on initial presentation, in whom a comprehensive and directed nonoperative program failed...
November 17, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856429/knock-down-of-ptrf-ameliorates-adipocyte-differentiation-and-functionality-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Sergio Perez-Diaz, Beatriz Garcia-Rodriguez, Yolanda Gonzalez-Irazabal, Monica Valero, Javier Lagos, J M Arbones-Mainar
Healthy expansion of human adipose tissue requires mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) able to proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes. Characterization of those factors that coordinate hMSC-to-adipocyte transition is hence of paramount importance to modulate the adipose tissue expansion. It has been previously reported that the adipogenic program of hMSC can be disrupted by up-regulating caveolar proteins and Polymerase I and Transcript Release Factor (PTRF) is an integral component of caveolae highly expressed in adipose tissue...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846817/micrornas-regulate-gene-plasticity-during-cold-shock-in-zebrafish-larvae
#6
I-Chen Hung, Yu-Chuan Hsiao, H Sunny Sun, Tsung-Ming Chen, Shyh-Jye Lee
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators responding to acute environmental stresses in both plants and animals. By modulating gene expression, miRNAs either restore or reconstitute a new expression program to enhance cell tolerance to stresses. Cold shock is one of the stresses that can induce acute physiological responses and transcriptional changes in aquatic creatures. Previous genomic studies have revealed many cold-affected genes in fish larvae and adults, however, the role of miRNAs in acute cold response is still ambiguous...
November 15, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846724/-the-role-of-pd-1-pd-l1-signaling-pathway-in-antitumor-immune-response
#7
P Zatloukalová, M Pjechová, S Babčanová, T R Hupp, B Vojtěšek
BACKGROUND: Correct function of the immune system depends on close cooperation between stimulation and inhibition signals, which protect an organism from outside microorganisms and other agents, but also protects healthy tissues against possible self-destructing attacks of the immune system. However, the inhibitory mechanisms can be abused by cancer cells that evade immune responses and, in fact, they help develop cancer. Therefore, one of the characteristics of cancer cells is the ability to evade immune recognition...
2016: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834413/can-degradation-of-adhesive-interfaces-due-to-water-storage-affect-stress-distributions-a-finite-element-stress-analysis-study
#8
Sema Belli, Oğuz Eraslan, Gürcan Eskitaşcıoğlu
PURPOSE: The aim of this finite-element stress analysis (FEA) was to determine the effect of degradation due to water storage on stress distributions in root-filled premolar models restored with composite using either a self-etch (SE) or an etch-and-rinse (E&R) adhesive. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four premolar FEA models including root filling, MOD cavity, and composite restorations were created. The cavities were assumed to be treated by SE or E&R adhesives and stored in water for 18 months...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Adhesive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818982/total-hip-arthroplasty-complications-in-patients-with-or-without-controlled-diabetes-mellitus-during-hospitalization
#9
Fernanda Rezende Campos Falcão, Bruno Anderson Gomes Dias, Liz Araujo Wolfovitch, David Sadigursky
INTRODUCTION: Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a procedure that aims to restore the function of the hip joint. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most prevalent comorbidities among patients undergoing THA. DM involves various immunological and metabolic aspects, which lead to limitations and surgical complications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between THA complications and controlled DM during hospitalization period. METHODS: Cross-sectional research through the analysis of retrospective records of a private hospital in Salvador, Bahia...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797587/the-current-status-and-future-directions-of-hepatitis-b-antiviral-drug-discovery
#10
Liudi Tang, Qiong Zhao, Shuo Wu, Junjun Cheng, Jinhong Chang, Ju-Tao Guo
The current standard care of chronic hepatitis B fails to induce a durable off-drug control of hepatitis B virus (HBV) replication in the majority of treated patients. The primary reasons are its inability to eliminate the covalently closed circular (ccc) DNA, the nuclear form of HBV genome, and restoration of the dysfunctional host antiviral immune response against the virus. Accordingly, discovery and development of therapeutics to completely stop HBV replication, eliminate or functionally inactivate cccDNA as well as activate a functional antiviral immune response against HBV are the primary efforts for finding a cure for chronic hepatitis B...
November 11, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797464/bioresorbable-vascular-scaffolds-for-the-treatment-of-coronary-artery-disease-clinical-outcomes-from-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
David G Rizik, James B Hermiller, Dean J Kereiakes
The permanent metal prosthesis common to bare metal stents (BMS) as well as both first- and second-generation drug-eluting stents (DES) following treatment of coronary artery disease represents a long-lasting substrate for late adverse coronary events including restenosis, thrombosis, and neoatherosclerosis. Following resorbtion, bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) may eliminate this nidus and improve late outcomes through restoration of the vessel to more normal vascular structure and function. BRS represents a single platform which incorporates the mechanical features of metallic stents to provide safe and effective revascularization, suppression of restenosis and prevention of constrictive remodeling with long-term restoration of the treated vessel to a more natural state...
November 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797462/paving-the-way-to-a-bioresorbable-technology-development-of-the-absorb-brs-program
#12
Laura E Leigh Perkins, Mary Beth Kossuth, Julia C Fox, Richard J Rapoza
Bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) combine attributes of the preceding generations of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) devices with new technologies to result in a novel therapy promoted as being the fourth generation of PCI. By providing mechanical support and drug elution to suppress restenosis, BRS initially function similarly to drug eluting stents. Thereafter, through their degradation, BRS undergo a decline in radial strength, allowing a gradual transition of mechanical function from the scaffold back to the artery in order to provide long term effectiveness similar to balloon angioplasty...
November 2016: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792406/developmental-programming-insulin-sensitizer-prevents-the-gnrh-stimulated-lh-hypersecretion-in-a-sheep-model-of-pcos
#13
Rodolfo C Cardoso, Ashleigh Burns, Jacob Moeller, Donal C Skinner, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Prenatal testosterone (T) treatment recapitulates the reproductive and metabolic phenotypes of polycystic ovary syndrome in female sheep. At the neuroendocrine level, prenatal T treatment results in disrupted steroid feedback on gonadotropin release, increased pituitary sensitivity to GnRH, and subsequent LH hypersecretion. Because prenatal T-treated sheep manifest functional hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia, gonadal steroids and/or insulin may play a role in programming and/or maintaining these neuroendocrine defects...
December 2016: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791111/foxo6-affects-plxna4-mediated-neuronal-migration-during-mouse-cortical-development
#14
Ricardo H Paap, Saskia Oosterbroek, Cindy M R J Wagemans, Lars von Oerthel, Raymond D Schellevis, Annemarie J A Vastenhouw-van der Linden, Marian J A Groot Koerkamp, Marco F M Hoekman, Marten P Smidt
The forkhead transcription factor FoxO6 is prominently expressed during development of the murine neocortex. However, its function in cortical development is as yet unknown. We now demonstrate that cortical development is altered in FoxO6(+/-) and FoxO6(-/-) mice, showing migrating neurons halted in the intermediate zone. Using a FoxO6-directed siRNA approach, we substantiate the requirement of FoxO6 for a correct radial migration in the developing neocortex. Subsequent genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals altered expression of genes involved in cell adhesion, axon guidance, and gliogenesis upon silencing of FoxO6 We then show that FoxO6 binds to DAF-16-binding elements in the Plexin A4 (Plxna4) promoter region and affects Plxna4 expression...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781176/ecological-solutions-to-reef-degradation-optimizing-coral-reef-restoration-in-the-caribbean-and-western-atlantic
#15
Diego Lirman, Stephanie Schopmeyer
Reef restoration activities have proliferated in response to the need to mitigate coral declines and recover lost reef structure, function, and ecosystem services. Here, we describe the recent shift from costly and complex engineering solutions to recover degraded reef structure to more economical and efficient ecological approaches that focus on recovering the living components of reef communities. We review the adoption and expansion of the coral gardening framework in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic where practitioners now grow and outplant 10,000's of corals onto degraded reefs each year...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765714/individualized-functional-restoration-as-an-adjunct-to-advice-for-lumbar-disc-herniation-with-associated-radiculopathy-a-pre-planned-subgroup-analysis-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Andrew J Hahne, Jon J Ford, Rana S Hinman, Matthew C Richards, Luke D Surkitt, Alexander Yp Chan, Sarah L Slater, Nicholas F Taylor
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Physical therapy is commonly sought by people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. It is unclear whether physical therapy is effective for this population. PURPOSE: To determine the effectiveness of physical therapist delivered individualized functional restoration as an adjunct to guideline-based advice in people with lumbar disc herniation and associated radiculopathy. DESIGN: Pre-planned subgroup analysis of a multicenter parallel group randomized controlled trial...
October 17, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752195/a-standardized-formula-for-aesthetic-mandibular-reconstruction-using-an-osteocutaneous-fibular-free-flap
#17
Soung Min Kim, Emmanuel K Amponsah, Hui Young Kim, Ik Jae Kwon, Hoon Myoung, Jong Ho Lee
: Ameloblastoma is the most common benign odontogenic tumor of the jaw, and expansional growth of a huge untreated ameloblastoma can result in disturbances in facial aesthetics and function, such as difficulty with mouth opening, swallowing, chewing, breathing, neurologic deficits, and pathologic fractures. Radical wide resection with safety margins and subsequent reconstruction is generally recommended. A fibular free flap (FFF) is commonly used to reconstruct the mandible in order to adequately restore both aesthetic appearance and function...
September 2016: Ghana Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749818/single-cell-rna-seq-identifies-a-pd-1-hi-ilc-progenitor-and-defines-its-developmental-pathway
#18
Yong Yu, Jason C H Tsang, Cui Wang, Simon Clare, Juexuan Wang, Xi Chen, Cordelia Brandt, Leanne Kane, Lia S Campos, Liming Lu, Gabrielle T Belz, Andrew N J McKenzie, Sarah A Teichmann, Gordon Dougan, Pentao Liu
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) functionally resemble T lymphocytes in cytotoxicity and cytokine production but lack antigen-specific receptors, and are important regulators in immune response and tissue homeostasis(1, 2). ILCs are generated from common lymphoid progenitors (CLPs), which are subsequently committed to innate lymphoid lineages in the α lymphoid progenitor (αLP), early innate lymphoid progenitor (EILP), common helper innate lymphoid progenitor (CHILP) and innate lymphoid cell progenitor (ILCP) compartments(3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8)...
September 29, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743606/hepatic-expansion-of-virus-specific-cd8-btla-t-cells-with-regulatory-properties-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#19
Huaizhou Wang, Beiying Wu, Lei Li, Liang Hu, Jiafei Lin, Cen Jiang, Gang Cai, Qian Shen
Similar to programmed death-1 (PD-1), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) is a co-inhibitory molecule of the CD28 family. PD-1 is involved in T cell exhaustion during chronic viral infection. However, the role of BTLA in virus-specific T cells is poorly defined. Here we investigated the expression and function of BTLA in T cells from patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The phenotype of peripheral and intrahepatic HBV-specific T cells from 43 patients with chronic HBV infection was assessed by flow cytometry...
October 6, 2016: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742544/foxo3-transcription-factor-drives-pathogenic-t%C3%A2-helper-1-differentiation-by-inducing-the-expression-of-eomes
#20
Caroline Stienne, Michaël F Michieletto, Mehdi Benamar, Nadège Carrié, Isabelle Bernard, Xuan-Hung Nguyen, Yannick Lippi, Fanny Duguet, Roland S Liblau, Stephen M Hedrick, Abdelhadi Saoudi, Anne S Dejean
The transcription factor Foxo3 plays a crucial role in myeloid cell function but its role in lymphoid cells remains poorly defined. Here, we have shown that Foxo3 expression was increased after T cell receptor engagement and played a specific role in the polarization of CD4(+) T cells toward pathogenic T helper 1 (Th1) cells producing interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte monocyte colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Consequently, Foxo3-deficient mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis...
October 1, 2016: Immunity
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