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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042027/too-much-of-a-good-thing-how-modulating-ltb4-actions-restore-host-defense-in-homeostasis-or-disease
#1
REVIEW
Stephanie L Brandt, C Henrique Serezani
The ability to regulate inflammatory pathways and host defense mechanisms is critical for maintaining homeostasis and responding to infections and tissue injury. While unbalanced inflammation is detrimental to the host; inadequate inflammation might not provide effective signals required to eliminate pathogens. On the other hand, aberrant inflammation could result in organ damage and impair host defense. The lipid mediator leukotriene B4 (LTB4) is a potent neutrophil chemoattractant and recently, its role as a dominant molecule that amplifies many arms of phagocyte antimicrobial effector function has been unveiled...
October 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038008/fibrinogen-cleavage-products-and-tlr4-promote-the-generation-of-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-2-pd-l2-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#2
Minkyoung Cho, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hoyong Lim, Hyun-Woo Shin, Roza Khalmuratova, Garam Choi, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Young-Jun Park, Inbo Shim, Byung-Seok Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Jae-Ouk Kim, Shinya Tanaka, Masato Kubo, Yeonseok Chung
BACKGROUND: Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger Th2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on the induction of Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce Th2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032903/single-shot-femoral-nerve-block-does-not-cause-long-term-strength-and-functional-deficits-following-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#4
Kelechi R Okoroha, Lafi Khalil, Edward K Jung, Robert A Keller, Nathan E Marshall, Moneer Abouljoud, Derek Chan, Vasilios Moutzouros
PURPOSE: To determine if patients treated with a single-shot femoral nerve block have strength and functional deficits at 9-month follow-up. METHODS: Forty-three patients who underwent primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions were randomized to receive either a preoperative single-shot femoral nerve block or local infiltration anesthesia for primary pain control. All patients underwent a standardized comprehensive rehabilitation program postoperatively...
October 9, 2017: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029297/cytomegalovirus-specific-t-cell-transfer-for-refractory-cytomegalovirus-infection-after-haploidentical-stem-cell-transplantation-the-quantitative-and-qualitative-immune-recovery-for-cytomegalovirus
#5
Xu-Ying Pei, Xiang-Yu Zhao, Ying-Jun Chang, Jing Liu, Lan-Ping Xu, Yu Wang, Xiao-Hui Zhang, Wei Han, Yu-Hong Chen, Xiao-Jun Huang
Background: The efficiency and mechanisms of adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus (CMV)specific T cells for refractory CMV infection after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) remain largely unknown. Methods: Thirty-two patients with refractory CMV infection who accepted treatment with adoptive CMV-specific T-cell infusion following haplo-SCT were prospectively enrolled. Another 32 patients with nonrefractory CMV infection after haplo-SCT were selected as control subjects...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020962/manipulation-under-anesthesia-versus-physiotherapy-treatment-in-stage-two-of-a-frozen-shoulder-a-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Tim Kraal, Bertram The, Ronald Boer, M P van den Borne, Koen Koenraadt, Pjotr Goossens, Denise Eygendaal
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus about the optimal treatment strategy for frozen shoulders (FS). Conservative treatment consisting of intra-articular corticosteroid infiltrations and physiotherapy are considered appropriate for most patients. However, with a conservative strategy, patients experience a prolonged rehabilitation period with a considerable amount of pain and disabilities in daily life. Also, at long term, a residual amount of pain and restriction of range of motion is frequently reported...
October 11, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991229/hypoxia-activates-cadherin-22-synthesis-via-eif4e2-to-drive-cancer-cell-migration-invasion-and-adhesion
#7
N J Kelly, J F A Varga, E J Specker, C M Romeo, B L Coomber, J Uniacke
Hypoxia is a driver of cell movement in processes such as development and tumor progression. The cellular response to hypoxia involves a transcriptional program mediated by hypoxia-inducible factors, but translational control has emerged as a significant contributor. In this study, we demonstrate that a cell-cell adhesion molecule, cadherin-22, is upregulated in hypoxia via mTORC1-independent translational control by the initiation factor eIF4E2. We identify new functions of cadherin-22 as a hypoxia-specific cell-surface molecule involved in cancer cell migration, invasion and adhesion...
October 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990585/the-diverse-functions-of-the-pd1-inhibitory-pathway
#8
REVIEW
Arlene H Sharpe, Kristen E Pauken
T cell activation is a highly regulated process involving peptide-MHC engagement of the T cell receptor and positive costimulatory signals. Upon activation, coinhibitory 'checkpoints', including programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1), become induced to regulate T cells. PD1 has an essential role in balancing protective immunity and immunopathology, homeostasis and tolerance. However, during responses to chronic pathogens and tumours, PD1 expression can limit protective immunity. Recently developed PD1 pathway inhibitors have revolutionized cancer treatment for some patients, but the majority of patients do not show complete responses, and adverse events have been noted...
October 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982760/znf281-enhances-cardiac-reprogramming-by-modulating-cardiac-and-inflammatory-gene-expression
#9
Huanyu Zhou, Maria Gabriela Morales, Hisayuki Hashimoto, Matthew E Dickson, Kunhua Song, Wenduo Ye, Min S Kim, Hanspeter Niederstrasser, Zhaoning Wang, Beibei Chen, Bruce A Posner, Rhonda Bassel-Duby, Eric N Olson
Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts to cardiomyocytes represents a potential means of restoring cardiac function following myocardial injury. AKT1 in the presence of four cardiogenic transcription factors, GATA4, HAND2, MEF2C, and TBX5 (AGHMT), efficiently induces the cardiac gene program in mouse embryonic fibroblasts but not adult fibroblasts. To identify additional regulators of adult cardiac reprogramming, we performed an unbiased screen of transcription factors and cytokines for those that might enhance or suppress the cardiogenic activity of AGHMT in adult mouse fibroblasts...
September 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981412/a-direct-algorithm-for-optimization-problems-with-the-huber-penalty
#10
Jingyan Xu, Frederic Noo, Benjamin M W Tsui
We present a direct (noniterative) algorithm for one dimensional (1-D) quadratic data fitting with neighboring intensity differences penalized by the Huber function. Applications of such an algorithm include 1-D processing of medical signals, such as smoothing of tissue time concentration curves in kinetic data analysis or sinogram preprocessing, and using it as a subproblem solver for 2-D or 3-D image restoration and reconstruction. Dynamic programming (DP) was used to develop the direct algorithm. The problem was reformulated as a sequence of univariate optimization problems, for k = 1,…,N, where N is the number of data points...
October 5, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981115/mir-23a-b-promote-tumor-growth-and-suppress-apoptosis-by-targeting-pdcd4-in-gastric-cancer
#11
Xiuting Hu, Yanbo Wang, Hongwei Liang, Qian Fan, Ruichi Zhu, Jiayi Cui, Weijie Zhang, Ke Zen, Chen-Yu Zhang, Dongxia Hou, Zhen Zhou, Xi Chen
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs of 21-23 nucleotides that play important roles in virtually all biological pathways in mammals and in other multicellular organisms. miR-23a and miR-23b (miR-23a/b) are critical oncomiRs (miRNAs that are associated with human cancers) of gastric cancer, but their detailed roles in the initiation and progression of gastric cancer remain to be elucidated. In this study, we found that miR-23a/b were consistently upregulated in gastric cancer tissues. We then investigated the molecular mechanisms through which miR-23a/b contribute to gastric cancer and identified programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) as a direct target gene of miR-23a/b...
October 5, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975726/muscle-fiber-diameter-assessment-in-cleft-lip-using-image-processing
#12
Mohammad Faisal Jamal Khan, Julian Little, Luigi Abelli, Peter Anthony Mossey, Luca Autelitano, Tapas Chandra Nag, Michele Rubini
OBJECTIVE: To pilot investigation of muscle fiber diameter (MFD) on medial and lateral sides of the cleft in 18 infants with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) using image processing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue samples from the medial and lateral sides of the cleft were analyzed for MFD using an image processing program (ImageJ). For within-case comparison a paired student's test was performed. For comparisons between classes an unpaired t-test was used...
October 4, 2017: Oral Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974543/spleen-derived-ifn-%C3%AE-induces-generation-of-pd-l1-suppressive-neutrophils-during-endotoxemia
#13
Jeroen D Langereis, Peter Pickkers, Stan de Kleijn, Jelle Gerretsen, Marien I de Jonge, Matthijs Kox
The immune inhibitory checkpoint molecule programmed death ligand (PD-L)-1 is increasingly recognized as an important player in the immune suppression observed in patients with sepsis, but its role has mainly been studied in monocytes. In an earlier study, we demonstrated that experimental human endotoxemia results in mobilization of a subset of PD-L1-expressing neutrophils displaying an IFN-γ-induced transcriptome profile. Herein, we identify the source of IFN-γ production during murine endotoxemia and its role in the generation of PD-L1(+)-suppressive neutrophils...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967639/tissue-engineered-bone-for-treatment-of-combat-related-limb-injuries
#14
R G Vasyliev, V M Oksymets, A E Rodnichenko, A V Zlatska, O S Gubar, I M Gordiienko, D O Zubov
AIM: Based on our preliminary positive clinical results with use of cultured bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in traumatology, our aim was to develop living three-dimensional tissue-engineered bone equivalent transplantation technology for restoration of critical sized bone defects caused by combat related high energy trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To fabricate bone equivalent we used devitalized allogeneic bone scaffolds (blocks and chips) seeded with cultured autologous cells: bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in mix with periosteal progenitor cells and endothelial progenitor cells...
September 2017: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951822/systematic-single-cell-analysis-provides-new-insights-into-heterogeneity-and-plasticity-of-the-pancreas
#15
REVIEW
Sophie Tritschler, Fabian J Theis, Heiko Lickert, Anika Böttcher
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss or dysfunction of insulin-producing β-cells in the pancreas, resulting in failure of blood glucose regulation and devastating secondary complications. Thus, β-cells are currently the prime target for cell-replacement and regenerative therapy. Triggering endogenous repair is a promising strategy to restore β-cell mass and normoglycemia in diabetic patients. Potential strategies include targeting specific β-cell subpopulations to increase proliferation or maturation...
September 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945745/p53-dependent-programmed-necrosis-controls-germ-cell-homeostasis-during-spermatogenesis
#16
Francesco Napoletano, Benjamin Gibert, Keren Yacobi-Sharon, Stéphane Vincent, Clémentine Favrot, Patrick Mehlen, Victor Girard, Margaux Teil, Gilles Chatelain, Ludivine Walter, Eli Arama, Bertrand Mollereau
The importance of regulated necrosis in pathologies such as cerebral stroke and myocardial infarction is now fully recognized. However, the physiological relevance of regulated necrosis remains unclear. Here, we report a conserved role for p53 in regulating necrosis in Drosophila and mammalian spermatogenesis. We found that Drosophila p53 is required for the programmed necrosis that occurs spontaneously in mitotic germ cells during spermatogenesis. This form of necrosis involved an atypical function of the initiator caspase Dronc/Caspase 9, independent of its catalytic activity...
September 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944176/results-of-surgical-septal-myectomy-for-obstructive-hypertrophic-cardiomyopathy-the-tufts-experience
#17
Hassan Rastegar, Griffin Boll, Ethan J Rowin, Noreen Dolan, Catherine Carroll, James E Udelson, Wendy Wang, Philip Carpino, Barry J Maron, Martin S Maron, Frederick Y Chen
BACKGROUND: For over 50 years, surgical septal myectomy has been the preferred treatment for drug-refractory heart failure symptoms in patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Over this time in the United States, the majority of myectomy operations have been performed in a small number of select referral centers. METHODS: We have taken the opportunity to report results from the relatively new Tufts HCM Center and surgical program, incorporated 13 years ago, during which 507 myectomies (52±14 years of age; 56% male) were performed by one cardiothoracic surgeon, Dr...
July 2017: Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938290/body-composition-changes-in-severely-burned-children-during-icu-hospitalization
#18
Janos Cambiaso-Daniel, Ioannis Malagaris, Eric Rivas, Gabriel Hundeshagen, Charles D Voigt, Elizabeth Blears, Ron P Mlcak, David N Herndon, Celeste C Finnerty, Oscar E Suman
OBJECTIVES: Prolonged hospitalization due to burn injury results in physical inactivity and muscle weakness. However, how these changes are distributed among body parts is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of body composition changes in different anatomical regions during ICU hospitalization. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Children's burn hospital. PATIENTS: Twenty-four severely burned children admitted to our institution between 2000 and 2015...
September 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931620/effects-of-physical-activity-on-poststroke-cognitive-function-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Lauren E Oberlin, Aashna M Waiwood, Toby B Cumming, Anna L Marsland, Julie Bernhardt, Kirk I Erickson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Despite the social, health, and economic burdens associated with cognitive impairment poststroke, there is considerable uncertainty about the types of interventions that might preserve or restore cognitive abilities. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of physical activity (PA) training on cognitive function poststroke and identify intervention and sample characteristics that may moderate treatment effects. METHODS: Randomized controlled trials examining the association between structured PA training and cognitive performance poststroke were identified using electronic databases EMBASE and MEDLINE...
September 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919191/benefits-of-the-restorative-exercise-and-strength-training-for-operational-resilience-and-excellence-yoga-program-for-chronic-lower-back-pain-in-service-members-a-pilot-randomized-control-trial
#20
Krista Beth Highland, Audrey Schoomaker, Winifred Rojas, Josh Suen, Ambareen Ahmed, Zhiwei Zhang, Sarah Fink Carlin, Christian Calilung, Michael Kent, Chester Buckenmaier
OBJECTIVE: To examine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individualized yoga program. DESIGN: Pilot randomized control trial. SETTING: Military medical center. PARTICIPANTS: Patients (N=68) with chronic LBP. INTERVENTIONS: Restorative Exercise and Strength Training for Operational Resilience and Excellence (RESTORE) program (9-12 individual yoga sessions) or treatment-as-usual (control) for 8-week period...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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