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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149212/mycolactone-displays-anti-inflammatory-effects-on-the-nervous-system
#1
Caroline Isaac, Annie Mauborgne, Alfonso Grimaldi, Kemy Ade, Michel Pohl, Cristina Limatola, Yves Boucher, Caroline Demangel, Laure Guenin-Macé
BACKGROUND: Mycolactone is a macrolide produced by the skin pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans, with cytotoxic, analgesic and immunomodulatory properties. The latter were recently shown to result from mycolactone blocking the Sec61-dependent production of pro-inflammatory mediators by immune cells. Here we investigated whether mycolactone similarly affects the inflammatory responses of the nervous cell subsets involved in pain perception, transmission and maintenance. We also investigated the effects of mycolactone on the neuroinflammation that is associated with chronic pain in vivo...
November 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#2
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148104/neuregulin-1-promotes-remyelination-and-fosters-a-pro-regenerative-inflammatory-response-in-focal-demyelinating-lesions-of-the-spinal-cord
#3
Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Ghazaleh M Shahriary, Shekoofeh Saboktakin Rizi, Ryan Henrie, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, James A Thliveris, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
Oligodendroglial cell death and demyelination are hallmarks of neurotrauma and multiple sclerosis that cause axonal damage and functional impairments. Remyelination remains a challenge as the ability of endogenous precursor cells for oligodendrocyte replacement is hindered in the unfavorable milieu of demyelinating conditions. Here, in a rat model of lysolecithin lysophosphatidyl-choline (LPC)-induced focal demyelination, we report that Neuregulin-1 (Nrg-1), an important factor for oligodendrocytes and myelination, is dysregulated in demyelinating lesions and its bio-availability can promote oligodendrogenesis and remyelination...
November 17, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147595/synchronous-ganglioneuroma-and-schwannoma-mistaken-for-carotid-body-tumor
#4
Konstantinos Paraskevopoulos, Angeliki Cheva, Styliani Papaemmanuil, Konstantinos Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos Antoniades
Ganglioneuromas are a very rare benign neural tumor, commonly derived from the ganglia of the sympathetic system, and are composed of mature Schwann cells, ganglion cells, and nerve fibres. They may arise anywhere from the base of the skull to the pelvis along the paravertebral sympathetic plexus. We report a rare case of synchronous ganglioneuroma and schwannoma, mistaken for carotid body tumor. The coexistence of these two entities in head and neck region is very rare.
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131833/mek-inhibitors-enhance-therapeutic-response-towards-atra-in-nf1-associated-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumors-mpnst-in-vitro
#5
Susan Fischer-Huchzermeyer, Anna Dombrowski, Gordon Wilke, Verena Stahn, Anna Streubel, Victor Felix Mautner, Anja Harder
OBJECTIVE: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a hereditary tumor syndrome characterized by an increased risk of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Chemotherapy of MPNST is still insufficient. In this study, we investigated whether human tumor Schwann cells derived from NF1 associated MPNST respond to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We analyzed effects of ATRA and MEK inhibitor (MEKi) combination therapy. METHODS: MPNST cell lines S462, T265, NSF1 were treated with ATRA and MEKi U0126 and PD0325901...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130769/neuroprotective-effects-and-uplc-q-tof-ms-based-active-components-identification-of-external-applied-a-novel-wen-luo-tong-microemulsion
#6
Hong-Mei Lin, Long-Fei Lin, Zhen-Zhen Xia, Yong Mao, Jia Liu, Ling-Yan Xu, Qing Wu
Chemotherapy induced neuropathy causes excruciating pain to cancer patients. Wen-Luo-Tong (WLT), a traditional Chinese medicinal compound, has been used to alleviate anti-cancer drug such as oxaliplatin-induced neuropathic pain for many years. However, the current route of administration of WLT is inconvenient and the active ingredients and mechanism of action of WLT are still unclear. To address these issues, we developed a novel formulation of WLT (W/O microemulsion) for the ease of application. New ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF/MS) methods were employed for analysis of the ingredients...
November 13, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130237/in-situ-forming-oxidised-hyaluronic-acid-adipic-acid-dihydrazide-hydrogel-for-prevention-of-epidural-fibrosis-after-laminectomy
#7
M H Hu, K C Yang, Y H Sun, Y C Chen, S H Yang, F H Lin
Post-operative epidural fibrosis is a biological response after laminectomy that may lead to clinical symptoms, such as radicular pain. An ideal material for prevention of epidural fibrosis should be able to inhibit fibroblast adhesions and reduce formation of scar tissue. An injectable hydrogel would be the material of choice for this purpose, since it could fill an irregular surgical defect completely, gelate in situ and be delivered in a minimally-invasive manner. The objective of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, the cytocompatibility and anti-adhesive effect of an oxidised hyaluronic acid/adipic acid dihydrazide (oxi-HA/ADH) hydrogel...
November 13, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125428/schwann-cells-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-laminin-or-fibronectin-aligned-matrices-and-regeneration-across-a-critical-size-defect-of-15-mm-in-the-rat-sciatic-nerve
#8
Francisco Gonzalez-Perez, Joaquim Hernández, Claudia Heimann, James B Phillips, Esther Udina, Xavier Navarro
OBJECTIVE Artificial nerve guides are being developed to substitute for autograft repair after peripheral nerve injuries. However, the use of conduits is limited by the length of the gap that needs to be bridged, with the success of regeneration highly compromised in long gaps. Addition of aligned proregenerative cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) components inside the conduit can be a good strategy to achieve artificial grafts that recreate the natural environment offered by a nerve graft. The purpose of this study was to functionalize chitosan devices with different cell types to support regeneration in limiting gaps in the rat peripheral nerve...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124786/schwann-cell-precursors-in-health-and-disease
#9
REVIEW
Jorge B Aquino, Romina Sierra
Schwann cell precursors (SCPs) are frequently regarded as neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) found in contact with axons during nerve formation. Nevertheless, cells with SCPs properties can be found up to the adulthood. They are well characterized with regard to both gene expression profile and cellular behavior -for instance, proliferation, migratory capabilities and survival requirements-. They differ in origin regarding their anatomic location: even though most of them are derived from migratory NCCs, there is also contribution of the boundary cap neural crest cells (bNCCs) to the skin and other tissues...
November 10, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123395/a-magnetically-responsive-nanocomposite-scaffold-combined-with-schwann-cells-promotes-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-upon-exposure-to-magnetic-field
#10
Zhongyang Liu, Shu Zhu, Liang Liu, Jun Ge, Liangliang Huang, Zhen Sun, Wen Zeng, Jinghui Huang, Zhuojing Luo
Peripheral nerve repair is still challenging for surgeons. Autologous nerve transplantation is the acknowledged therapy; however, its application is limited by the scarcity of available donor nerves, donor area morbidity, and neuroma formation. Biomaterials for engineering artificial nerves, particularly materials combined with supportive cells, display remarkable promising prospects. Schwann cells (SCs) are the absorbing seeding cells in peripheral nerve engineering repair; however, the attenuated biologic activity restricts their application...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121585/schwann-cells-participate-in-synapse-elimination-at-the-developing-neuromuscular-junction
#11
REVIEW
Young Il Lee, Wesley J Thompson, Mark L Harlow
During the initial stages of innervation of developing skeletal muscles, the terminal branches of axons from multiple motor neurons form neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) on a small region of each muscle fiber, the motor endplate. Subsequently, the number of axonal inputs at the endplate region is reduced so that, at maturity, each muscle fiber is innervated by the terminals of a single motor neuron. The Schwann cells associated with the axon terminals are involved in the removal of these synapses but do not select the axon that is ultimately retained on each fiber...
November 6, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120605/targeting-heat-shock-protein-70-to-ameliorate-c-jun-expression-and-improve-demyelinating-neuropathy
#12
Xinyue Zhang, Chengyuan Li, Stephen C Fowler, Zheng Zhang, Brian S J Blagg, Rick T Dobrowsky
Increased expression of the c-jun transcription factor occurs in a variety of human neuropathies and is critical in promoting Schwann cell (SC) dedifferentiation and loss of the myelinated phenotype. Using cell culture models, we previously identified KU-32 as a novobiocin-based C-terminal heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor that decreased c-jun expression and the extent of demyelination. Additional chemical optimization has yielded KU-596 as a neuroprotective novologue whose mechanistic efficacy to improve a metabolic neuropathy requires the expression of Hsp70...
November 9, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118694/implications-of-schwann-cells-biomechanics-and-mechanosensitivity-for-peripheral-nervous-system-physiology-and-pathophysiology
#13
REVIEW
Gonzalo Rosso, Peter Young, Victor Shahin
The presence of bones around the central nervous system (CNS) provides it with highly effective physiologically crucial mechanical protection. The peripheral nervous system (PNS), in contrast, lacks this barrier. Consequently, the long held belief is that the PNS is mechanically vulnerable. On the other hand, the PNS is exposed to a variety of physiological mechanical stresses during regular daily activities. This fact prompts us to question the dogma of PNS mechanical vulnerability. As a matter of fact, impaired mechanics of PNS nerves is associated with neuropathies with the liability to mechanical stresses paralleled by significant impairment of PNS physiological functions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117831/age-dependent-schwann-cell-phenotype-regulation-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#14
Wayne A Chen, T David Luo, Jonathan C Barnwell, Thomas L Smith, Zhongyu Li
BACKGROUND: Schwann cells are integral to the regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, which declines after adolescence. The mechanisms underlying this decline are poorly understood. This study sought to compare the protein expression of Notch, c-Jun, and Krox-20 after nerve crush injury in adolescent and young adult rats. We hypothesized that these Schwann cell myelinating regulatory factors are down-regulated after nerve injury in an age-dependent fashion. METHODS: Adolescent (2 months old) and young adult (12 months old) rats (n = 48) underwent sciatic nerve crush injury...
December 2017: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114313/axillary-nerve-schwannoma-a-rare-case-report
#15
Prem A Kumar, Biju Islary, Ramya Ramachandra, Thippeswamy Naik
Primary tumors of the brachial plexus are a rare cause of an axillary swelling. Schwannomas are benign tumors arising from Schwann cells. Most of the schwannomas occur in the head and neck region and in the flexor aspect of the limbs. We present a case of a 60-year-old female who presented with pain in the left axilla radiating to the left upper limb since 2 years and a painful swelling in her left axilla for 3 months. The diagnosis is made by fine needle aspiration cytology and magnetic resonance imaging, and confirmed by histopathological examination as schwannoma...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113341/knockout-of-toll-like-receptor-impairs-nerve-regeneration-after-a-crush-injury
#16
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Chia-Jung Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Wei Lin
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods: A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111421/substitution-impact-of-highly-conserved-arginine-residue-at-position-75-in-gjb1-gene-in-association-with-x-linked-charcot-marie-tooth-disease-a-computational-study
#17
Ashish Kumar Agrahari, Amit Kumar, Siva R, Hatem Zayed, George Priya Doss C
X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 1 X (CMTX1) disease is a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT), which is mainly caused by mutations in the GJB1 gene. It is also known as connexin 32 (Cx32) that leads to Schwann cell abnormalities and peripheral neuropathy. CMTX1 is considered as the second most common form of CMT disease. The aim of this study is to computationally predict the potential impact of different single amino acid substitutions at position 75 of Cx32, from arginine (R) to proline (P), glutamine (Q) and tryptophan (W)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109888/melanotic-schwannomas-are-rarely-seen-pigmented-tumors-with-unpredictable-prognosis-and-challenging-diagnosis
#18
Elif Keskin, Sumeyye Ekmekci, Ozgur Oztekin, Gulden Diniz
Melanotic Schwannoma (MS) is rarely seen and potentially malignant neoplasm that is categorized as a variant of Schwannoma. MS most frequently involves intracranial structures followed by posterior nerve roots in the spinal canal. Approximately 50% of the cases with MS have psammomatous calcifications and this type of MS is related to Carney complex with autosomal dominant inheritance. Most cases of MS are benign, though 10% of them are malignant with metastatic potential. MS mimics melanoma and the differential diagnosis should be made excluding other melanin producing neoplasms especially melanoma...
2017: Case Reports in Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109239/graded-elevation-of-c-jun-in-schwann-cells-in-vivo-gene-dosage-determines-effects-on-development-re-myelination-tumorigenesis-and-hypomyelination
#19
Shaline V Fazal, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Laura J Wagstaff, Nicolo Musner, Georg Otto, Martin Janz, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
Schwann cell c-Jun is implicated in adaptive and maladaptive functions in peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, this transcription factor promotes the repair Schwann cell phenotype and regeneration, and it promotes Schwann cell mediated neurotrophic support in models of peripheral neuropathies. However, c-Jun is associated with tumour formation in some systems, it potentially supresses myelin genes, and has been implicated in demyelinating neuropathies. To clarify these issues, and determine how c-Jun levels determine its function, we have generated, c-Jun OE/+ and c-Jun OE/OE mice, with graded expression of c-Jun in Schwann cells, and examined these lines during development, in adulthood and after injury using RNA sequencing analysis, quantitative electron microscopic morphometry, Western blotting and functional tests...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105471/-comparative-observation-on-electroacupuncture-and-manual-acupuncture-in-rabbits-with-facial-nerve-injury-by-electron-microscope
#20
Li-An Liu, Zhao-Qin Wang, Jing-Jing Fu, Qian-Qian Du, Yi-Yuan Zhang, Cui-Cui Jiao, Jing-Jun Dong
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of manual acupuncture and electroacupuncture (EA) on ultrastructure of facial nerve Schwann cells, myelin sheath and mitochondria in facial nerve injury rabbits, so as to explore its mechanism underlying improving facial palsy. METHODS: A total of 50 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into normal, sham-operation, model, MA and EA groups (n=10 in each group). Facial nerve injury model was made by clamping the facial nerve for 5 min using a pair of forceps...
October 25, 2017: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
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