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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934355/study-of-myelin-structure-changes-during-the-nerve-fibers-demyelination
#1
Natalia N Rodionova, Elvin S Allakhverdiev, Georgy V Maksimov
Raman, NMR and EPR spectroscopy and electrophysiology methods were used to investigate the excitability and the packaging of myelin lipid layers and its viscosity during nerve exposure to pronase E. It was established that during exposure of nerve to pronase E the action potential (AP) conduction velocity and the Schwann cell (SC) (or myelin) water ordering increases, but the nerve myelin refractive index and internode incisions numbers decrease. This effect included two periods-short- and long-time period, probably, because the first one depends on SC protein changes and the second one-on the nerve fiber internode demyelination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928988/the-effect-of-glucocorticoid-and-glucocorticoid-receptor-interactions-on-brain-spinal-cord-and-glial-cell-plasticity
#2
REVIEW
Kathryn M Madalena, Jessica K Lerch
Stress, injury, and disease trigger glucocorticoid (GC) elevation. Elevated GCs bind to the ubiquitously expressed glucocorticoid receptor (GR). While GRs are in every cell in the nervous system, the expression level varies, suggesting that diverse cell types react differently to GR activation. Stress/GCs induce structural plasticity in neurons, Schwann cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes as well as affect neurotransmission by changing the release and reuptake of glutamate. While general nervous system plasticity is essential for adaptation and learning and memory, stress-induced plasticity is often maladaptive and contributes to neuropsychiatric disorders and neuropathic pain...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927918/the-safety-of-irreversible-electroporation-on-nerves-adjacent-to-treated-tumors
#3
Xiaomei Luo, Zilin Qin, Huimin Tao, Jian Shi, Gang Fang, Zhonghai Li, Xulong Zhou, Jibing Chen, Kecheng Xu, Jianying Zeng, Lizhi Niu
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety of irreversible electroporation (IRE) on the sciatic nerve after IRE ablation of adjacent tumor. METHODS: and analysis In this study, VX2 tumors were implanted adjacent to the sciatic nerves in 26 New Zealand white rabbits. The rabbits were divided into three groups 10 days after implantation, with two treatment groups of ten rabbits each and a control group of six rabbits. In one of the treatment groups (IRE-S group), the rabbits underwent ablation with a single IRE application, and in the other group (IRE-D group) the rabbits underwent two IRE applications...
September 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924675/malignant-triton-tumor-grand-round-presentation-of-a-rare-aggressive-case-thoracolumbar-spine-tumor
#4
Soufiane Ghailane, Sandra Fauquier, Sébastien Lepreux, Jean-Charles Le Huec
INTRODUCTION: We report a rare and aggressive case of malignant triton tumor (MTT) at the thoracolumbar junction with foraminal extension mistreated as schwannoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 70-year-old man with a 2-year history of lower back pain and left L4 radiculopathy with no history of neurofibromatosis. RESULTS: Pre-operative MRI suggested a typical schwannoma. Upon complete marginal resection, histological findings revealed a MTT. The patient presented with a local and regional recurrence and died 10 months after surgery...
September 18, 2017: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917708/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-balb-c-mice-are-more-susceptible-to-granulomatous-amoebic-encephalitis-immunohistochemical-study
#5
Maritza Omaña-Molina, Raquel Sanchez-Rocha, Dolores Hernandez-Martinez, Miriam Romero Grijalva, Citlaltepetl Salinas-Lara, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa, Imelda Juarez-Avelar, Lizbeth Salazar-Villatoro, Arturo Gonzalez-Robles, Adolfo Rene Mendez-Cruz, Patricia Aley-Medina, Jesus Espinosa-Villanueva, Ismael Castelan-Ramirez, Jacob Lorenzo-Morales
Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) is a chronic, difficult to resolve infection caused by amphizoic amoebae of the genus Acanthamoeba, which in most cases occurs in immunosuppressed persons or with chronic diseases such as diabetes. In this study, we describe the early events of A. culbertsoni infection of GAE in diabetic mice model. Diabetes was induced in male BALB/c mice, with a dose of streptozotocin (130 mg/kg). Healthy and diabetic mice were inoculated via intranasal with 1 × 10(6) trophozoites of A...
September 13, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912843/microrna-210-contributes-to-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-through-promoting-the-proliferation-and-migration-of-schwann-cells
#6
Xiaona Zhang, Xu Gong, Jinpeng Qiu, Yang Zhang, Fengyan Gong
Peripheral nerve injury impacts the daily life of affected individuals. MicroRNA (miR)-210 is a multifunctional miR and has effects on the proliferation, migration and differentiation of cells. However, whether miR-210 has effects on peripheral nerve regeneration has remained elusive. In the present study, the miR-210 levels in a rat model of sciatic nerve injury were evaluated by reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and the effects of miR-210 on the proliferation and migration of Schwann cells were explored...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904214/after-nerve-injury-lineage-tracing-shows-that-myelin-and-remak-schwann-cells-elongate-extensively-and-branch-to-form-repair-schwann-cells-which-shorten-radically-on-remyelination
#7
Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Kjara S Pilch, Milou van der Lans, Shaline V Fazal, Cristina Benito, Laura J Wagstaff, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen
There is consensus that, distal to peripheral nerve injury, myelin and Remak cells reorganize to form cellular columns, Bungner's bands, which are indispensable for regeneration. However, knowledge of the structure of these regeneration tracks has not advanced for decades and the structure of the cells that form them, denervated or repair Schwann cells, remains obscure. Furthermore, the origin of these cells from myelin and Remak cells and their ability to give rise to myelin cells after regeneration has not been demonstrated directly, although these conversions are believed to be central to nerve repair...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903050/changes-in-the-coding-and-non-coding-transcriptome-and-dna-methylome-that-define-the-schwann-cell-repair-phenotype-after-nerve-injury
#8
Peter J Arthur-Farraj, Claire C Morgan, Martyna Adamowicz, Jose A Gomez-Sanchez, Shaline V Fazal, Anthony Beucher, Bonnie Razzaghi, Rhona Mirsky, Kristjan R Jessen, Timothy J Aitman
Repair Schwann cells play a critical role in orchestrating nerve repair after injury, but the cellular and molecular processes that generate them are poorly understood. Here, we perform a combined whole-genome, coding and non-coding RNA and CpG methylation study following nerve injury. We show that genes involved in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition are enriched in repair cells, and we identify several long non-coding RNAs in Schwann cells. We demonstrate that the AP-1 transcription factor C-JUN regulates the expression of certain micro RNAs in repair Schwann cells, in particular miR-21 and miR-34...
September 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901508/a-novel-method-for-obtaining-highly-enriched-schwann-cell-populations-from-mature-monkey-nerves-based-on-in-vitro-pre%C3%A2-degeneration
#9
Gangyang Wang, Zhengwen Ma, Lingling Cao, Guofeng Yan, Yang Wang, Yuqing Jin, Hua Shen, Yiping Zhang, Xiaoming Xu, Xuejin Chen, Zunli Shen
Schwann cells (SCs) are indispensable for cell therapy and tissue engineering of the peripheral nervous system. Easy access to activated, highly proliferative SCs is necessary for clinical applications. The present study developed a fast, efficient method for obtaining highly purified SCs from the peripheral nerve of a mature Rhesus monkey. The common peroneal nerves of 4‑year‑old Rhesus monkeys were harvested and subjected to in vitro pre‑degeneration in a modified SC culture medium (SCCM). The nerve pieces were subsequently treated enzymatically to dissociate the cells and then cultured for 2 days in SCCM...
September 5, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894779/emergency-department-readmission-rate-within-72-hours-after-discharge-a-letter-to-editor
#10
Hassan Barzegari, Mohammad Ali Fahimi, Schwann Dehghanian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894753/evaluation-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-modified-collagen-membrane-and-concerns-on-schwann-cells
#11
Chenyu Chu, Jia Deng, Cong Cao, Yi Man, Yili Qu
Collagen is an essential component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and is a suitable material for nerve repair during tissue remodeling for fracture repair. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an extract of green tea, shows various biological activities that are beneficial to nerve repair. Here, we developed modified collagen containing different concentrations of EGCG (0.0064%, 0.064%, and 0.64%, resp.) to induce Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation. Cell Counting Kit-8 test, live/dead assay, and SEM showed that collagen cross-linked by EGCG induced Schwann cell proliferation...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891122/nerve-speci%C3%AF-c-xenogeneic-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-promotes-recovery-following-peripheral-nerve-injury
#12
Travis A Prest, Eric Yeager, Samuel T LoPresti, Emilija Zygelyte, Matthew J Martin, Longying Dong, Alexis Gibson, Oluyinka O Olutoye, Bryan N Brown, Jonathan Cheetham
Peripheral nerve possesses the inherent ability to regrow and recover following injury. However, nerve regeneration is often slow and incomplete due to limitations associated with the local microenvironment during the repair process. Manipulation of the local microenvironment at the site of nerve repair, therefore, represents a significant opportunity for improvement in downstream outcomes. Macrophages and Schwann cells play a key role in the orchestration of early events after peripheral nerve injury. We describe the production, characterization, and use of an injectable, peripheral nerve-specific extracellular matrix-based hydrogel (PNSECM) for promoting modulation of the local macrophage and Schwann cell responses at the site of nerve repair in a rodent model of sciatic nerve injury...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890164/directed-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-to-fate-committed-schwann-cells
#13
Sa Cai, Yat-Ping Tsui, Kin-Wai Tam, Graham Ka-Hon Shea, Richard Shek-Kwan Chang, Qiang Ao, Daisy Kwok-Yan Shum, Ying-Shing Chan
Our ultimate goal of in vitro derivation of Schwann cells (SCs) from adult bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) is such that they may be used autologously to assist post-traumatic nerve regeneration. Existing protocols for derivation of SC-like cells from BMSCs fall short in the stability of the acquired phenotype and the functional capacity to myelinate axons. Our experiments indicated that neuro-ectodermal progenitor cells among the human hBMSCs could be selectively expanded and then induced to differentiate into SC-like cells...
August 29, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880149/dual-function-of-the-pi3k-akt-mtorc1-axis-in-myelination-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#14
Gianluca Figlia, Camilla Norrmén, Jorge A Pereira, Daniel Gerber, Ueli Suter
Myelination is a biosynthetically demanding process in which mTORC1, the gatekeeper of anabolism, occupies a privileged regulatory position. We have shown previously that loss of mTORC1 function in Schwann cells (SCs) hampers myelination. Here, we genetically disrupted key inhibitory components upstream of mTORC1, TSC1 or PTEN, in mouse SC development, adult homeostasis, and nerve injury. Surprisingly, the resulting mTORC1 hyperactivity led to markedly delayed onset of both developmental myelination and remyelination after injury...
September 7, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879494/regeneration-of-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury-by-a-hydroxyapatite-nanoparticle-containing-collagen-type-i-hydrogel
#15
Majid Salehi, Mahdi Naseri-Nosar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Mohammdreza Nourani, Ahmad Vaez, Saeed Farzamfar, Jafar Ai
The current study aimed to enhance the efficacy of peripheral nerve regeneration using a hydroxyapatite nanoparticle-containing collagen type I hydrogel. A solution of type I collagen, extracted from the rat tails, was incorporated with hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (with the average diameter of ~212 nm) and crosslinked with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-carbodiimide (EDC) to prepare the hydrogel. The Schwann cell cultivation on the prepared hydrogel demonstrated a significantly higher cell proliferation than the tissue culture plate, as positive control, after 48 h (n = 3, P < 0...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877649/the-effect-of-hypothermic-and-cryogenic-preservation-on-engineered-neural-tissue
#16
Adam George Edward Day, Kulraj Singh Bhangra, Celia Murray-Dunning, Lara Stevanato, James Phillips
This study explored different approaches to preserve Engineered Neural Tissue (EngNT), a stabilised cellular collagen hydrogel containing columns of aligned Schwann cells for nervous system repair. The ability to preserve EngNT without disrupting cellular and extracellular components and structures is important for clinical translation and commercialisation. Stabilised cellular gels and EngNT constructs were preserved under various conditions and cell survival assessed using live/dead microscopy and metabolic assay...
September 6, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874532/schwann-cells-use-tam-receptor-mediated-phagocytosis-in-addition-to-autophagy-to-clear-myelin-in-a-mouse-model-of-nerve-injury
#17
Amanda Brosius Lutz, Won-Suk Chung, Steven A Sloan, Glenn A Carson, Lu Zhou, Emilie Lovelett, Sean Posada, J Bradley Zuchero, Ben A Barres
Ineffective myelin debris clearance is a major factor contributing to the poor regenerative ability of the central nervous system. In stark contrast, rapid clearance of myelin debris from the injured peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the keys to this system's remarkable regenerative capacity, but the molecular mechanisms driving PNS myelin clearance are incompletely understood. We set out to discover new pathways of PNS myelin clearance to identify novel strategies for activating myelin clearance in the injured central nervous system, where myelin debris is not cleared efficiently...
September 5, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870762/peripheral-nerve-and-diclofenac-sodium-molecular-and-clinical-approaches
#18
REVIEW
Arife Ahsen Kaplan, Kıymet Kübra Yurt, Ömür Gülsüm Deniz, Gamze Altun
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most frequently prescribed medications worldwide. Diclofenac sodium (DS), one of these NSAIDs, has a high specificity for arachidonic acid-degrading cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzymes. This drug can be used to relieve neuropathic pain. In this review, we examine the relevant researches, including in vivo, animal, and clinical human studies, with the aim of understanding the effect of DS on the peripheral nerves. In injured nerves, COX-2 is potently upregulated around the injury site...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860425/marked-expression-of-tnf-receptors-in-human-peritendinous-tissues-including-in-nerve-fascicles-with-axonal-damage-studies-on-tendinopathy-and-tennis-elbow
#19
C Spang, L Renström, H Alfredson, S Forsgren
BACKGROUND: The peritendinous connective tissues can have importance in chronic tendon pain. Recently cytokine TNF-α has been suggested to be involved in tendinopathic processes. It is not known how TNF-α and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2 are expressed in peritendinous tissues. METHODS: The objective for this study was to immunohistochemically evaluate the expression patterns of these in the peritendinous tissue located between the plantaris and Achilles tendons and the one located superficially to the extensor origin at the elbow region for patients with tendinopathy/tennis elbow...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859702/promotion-of-olfactory-receptor-neuron-differentiation-of-olfactory-neuroepithelial-cells-by-using-chitosan-solution
#20
Sheng-Tien Li, Tai-Horng Young, Chih-Feng Lin, Tsung-Wei Huang
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction significantly influences patients' quality of life. Chitosan has been reported to support neuron and Schwann cell growth and even leads to orient axonal growth. However, researchers have yet to explore whether chitosan solution can promote differentiation of olfactory receptor neurons of the olfactory neuroepithelium and be used for treating olfactory dysfunction. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of chitosan solution on the differentiation of olfactory neuroepithelial cells...
September 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
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