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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911893/the-mitochondrial-m-aaa-protease-prevents-demyelination-and-hair-greying
#1
Shuaiyu Wang, Julie Jacquemyn, Sara Murru, Paola Martinelli, Esther Barth, Thomas Langer, Carien M Niessen, Elena I Rugarli
The m-AAA protease preserves proteostasis of the inner mitochondrial membrane. It ensures a functional respiratory chain, by controlling the turnover of respiratory complex subunits and allowing mitochondrial translation, but other functions in mitochondria are conceivable. Mutations in genes encoding subunits of the m-AAA protease have been linked to various neurodegenerative diseases in humans, such as hereditary spastic paraplegia and spinocerebellar ataxia. While essential functions of the m-AAA protease for neuronal survival have been established, its role in adult glial cells remains enigmatic...
December 2016: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907118/end-to-side-neurorrhaphy-as-schwann-cells-provider-to-acellular-nerve-allograft-and-its-suitable-application
#2
Hidekazu Yoshizawa, Daiki Senda, Yuhei Natori, Rica Tanaka, Hiroshi Mizuno, Ayato Hayashi
Axonal regeneration relies on support from proliferating host Schwann cells (SCs), and previous studies on acellular nerve allografts (ANGs) suggest that axons can regenerate into ANGs within a limited distance. Numerous studies have demonstrated that the supplementation of ANGs with exogenous factors, such as cultured SCs, stem cells, and growth factors, promote nerve regeneration in ANGs. However, there are several problems associated with their utilization. In this study, we investigated whether end-to-side (ETS) neurorrhaphy, which is an axonal provider, could be useful as an SC provider to support axonal elongation in ANGs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904498/pre-degenerated-peripheral-nerves-co-cultured-with-bone-marrow-derived-cells-a-new-technique-for-harvesting-high-purity-schwann-cells
#3
Xiao-Pan Wang, Min Wu, Jian-Zhong Guan, Zhao-Dong Wang, Xu-Bin Gao, Yang-Yang Liu
Schwann cells play an important role in the peripheral nervous system, especially in nerve repair following injury, so artificial nerve regeneration requires an effective technique for obtaining purified Schwann cells. In vivo and in vitro pre-degeneration of peripheral nerves have been shown to obtain high-purity Schwann cells. We believed that in vitro pre-degeneration was simple and controllable, and available for the clinic. Thus, we co-cultured the crushed sciatic nerves with bone marrow-derived cells in vitro...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904497/preparation-of-polypyrrole-embedded-electrospun-poly-lactic-acid-nanofibrous-scaffolds-for-nerve-tissue-engineering
#4
Jun-Feng Zhou, Yi-Guo Wang, Liang Cheng, Zhao Wu, Xiao-Dan Sun, Jiang Peng
Polypyrrole (PPy) is a biocompatible polymer with good conductivity. Studies combining PPy with electrospinning have been reported; however, the associated decrease in PPy conductivity has not yet been resolved. We embedded PPy into poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers via electrospinning and fabricated a PLA/PPy nanofibrous scaffold containing 15% PPy with sustained conductivity and aligned topography. There was good biocompatibility between the scaffold and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells as well as Schwann cells...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904475/transforming-growth-factor-beta-1-a-cytokine-with-regenerative-functions
#5
REVIEW
Wale Sulaiman, Doan H Nguyen
We review the biology and role of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) in peripheral nerve injury and regeneration, as it relates to injuries to large nerve trunks (i.e., sciatic nerve, brachial plexus), which often leads to suboptimal functional recovery. Experimental studies have suggested that the reason for the lack of functional recovery resides in the lack of sufficient mature axons reaching their targets, which is a result of the loss of the growth-supportive environment provided by the Schwann cells in the distal stump of injured nerves...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896434/towards-a-functional-pathology-of-hereditary-neuropathies
#6
REVIEW
Joachim Weis, Kristl G Claeys, Andreas Roos, Hamid Azzedine, Istvan Katona, J Michael Schröder, Jan Senderek
A growing number of hereditary neuropathies have been assigned to causative gene defects in recent years. The study of human nerve biopsy samples has contributed substantially to the discovery of many of these neuropathy genes. Genotype-phenotype correlations based on peripheral nerve pathology have provided a comprehensive picture of the consequences of these mutations. Intriguingly, several gene defects lead to distinguishable lesion patterns that can be studied in nerve biopsies. These characteristic features include the loss of certain nerve fiber populations and a large spectrum of distinct structural changes of axons, Schwann cells and other components of peripheral nerves...
November 28, 2016: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894923/therapeutic-implications-of-toll-like-receptors-in-peripheral-neuropathic-pain
#7
REVIEW
Krishan K Thakur, Jyoti Saini, Kanika Mahajan, Dhyanendra Singh, Dinkar P Jaiswal, Srishti Mishra, Anupam Bishyaee, Gautam Sethi, Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara
Neuropathic pain is a state of chronic pain arising after peripheral or central nerve injury. These injuries can be mediated through the activation of various cells (astrocytes, microglia and Schwann cells), as well as the dissolution of distal axons. Recent studies have suggested that after nerve injury, Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in Wallerian degeneration and generation of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, these TLRs are responsible for the stimulation of astrocytes and microglia that can cause induction of the proinflammatory mediators and cytokines in the spinal cord, thereby leading to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain...
November 25, 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891578/dual-specificity-phosphatase-15-regulates-erk-activation-in-schwann-cells
#8
José F Rodríguez-Molina, Camila Lopez-Anido, Ki H Ma, Chongyu Zhang, Tyler Olson, Katharina N Muth, Matthias Weider, John Svaren
Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the peripheral and central nervous system, respectively. Despite having different myelin components and different transcription factors driving their terminal differentiation there are shared molecular mechanisms between the two. Sox10 is one common transcription factor required for several steps in development of myelinating glia. However, other factors are divergent as Schwann cells need the transcription factor Egr2/Krox20 and oligodendrocytes require Myrf...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889927/sp2-is-the-only-glutamine-rich-specificity-protein-with-minor-impact-on-development-and-differentiation-in-myelinating-glia
#9
Amélie Wegener, Melanie Küspert, Elisabeth Sock, Sjaak Philipsen, Guntram Suske, Michael Wegner
Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are the myelinating glia of the vertebrate nervous system and by generation of myelin sheaths allow rapid saltatory conduction. Previous in vitro work had pointed to a role of the C2H2 zinc finger Specificity proteins Sp1 and Sp3 as major regulators of glial differentiation and myelination. Here, we asked whether such a role is also evident in vivo using mice with specific deletions of Sp1 or Sp3 in myelinating glia. We also studied glia-specific conditional Sp2- and constitutive Sp4-deficient mice to include all related glutamine-rich Sp factors into our analysis...
November 27, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889898/the-transcription-factors-ebf1-and-ebf2-are-positive-regulators-of-myelination-in-schwann-cells
#10
Diego Moruzzo, Lucilla Nobbio, Bruno Sterlini, G Giacomo Consalez, Fabio Benfenati, Angelo Schenone, Anna Corradi
Myelin formation by Schwann cells is tightly controlled by multiple pathways and regulatory molecules. The Ebf2 gene, belonging to the Ebf family of transcription factors regulating cell development and differentiation, is expressed in Schwann cells, and Ebf2 knockout mice show peripheral nerve defects. We also found that Ebf1 is expressed in Schwann cells. To investigate Ebf function in myelination, we silenced Ebf genes in myelinating dorsal root ganglia cultures. Combined downregulation of Ebf genes leads to a severe impairment of myelin formation that is completely rescued by their specific overexpression, suggesting that the expression level of Ebf genes strongly influences axon myelination...
November 26, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885383/schwann-cells-a-new-player-in-the-tumor-microenvironment
#11
REVIEW
Yuri L Bunimovich, Anton A Keskinov, Galina V Shurin, Michael R Shurin
Cancerous cells must cooperate with the surrounding stroma and non-malignant cells within the microenvironment to support the growth and invasion of the tumor. The nervous system is a component of every organ system of the body, and therefore, is invariably at the front line of the tumor invasion. Due to the complexity of the nervous system physiology, this review separately discusses the contributions of the central and peripheral nervous systems to the tumorigenesis and tumor progression. We further focus the discussion on the evidence that Schwann cells aid in tumor growth and invasion...
November 24, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880068/human-hair-follicle-associated-pluripotent-hhap-stem-cells-differentiate-to-cardiac-muscle-cells
#12
Natsuko Tohgi, Koya Obara, Masateru Yashiro, Yuko Hamada, Nobuko Arakawa, Sumiyuki Mii, Ryoichi Aki, Robert M Hoffman, Yasuyuki Amoh
We have previously demonstrated that the nestin-expressing hair follicle-associated-pluripotent (HAP) stem cells are located in the bulge area. HAP stem cells have been previously shown to differentiate to neurons, glial cells, keratinocytes, smooth-muscle cells, melanocytes and cardiac-muscle cells in vitro. Subsequently, we demonstrated that HAP stem cells could effect nerve and spinal cord regeneration in mouse models, differentiating to Schwann cells and neurons. In previous studies, we established an efficient protocol for the differentiation of cardiac-muscle cells from mouse HAP stem cells...
November 23, 2016: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879444/histologic-and-immunohistochemical-analyses-of-soft-tissue-sarcomas-from-brca2-mutant-tp53-mutant-zebrafish-are-consistent-with-neural-crest-schwann-cell-origin
#13
L A White, J M Sexton, H R Shive
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides a powerful model for analyzing genetic contributors to cancer. Multiple zebrafish lines with cancer-associated genetic mutations develop soft tissue sarcomas that are histologically consistent with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST). The goal of this study was to determine the phenotype of soft tissue sarcomas in a brca2-mutant/tp53-mutant zebrafish line using immunohistochemical markers that are commonly expressed in mammalian MPNST. We classified 70 soft tissue sarcomas from a brca2-mutant/tp53-mutant zebrafish cohort as MPNST, undifferentiated sarcoma, or other tumor based on histologic features...
November 22, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878997/corneal-epithelial-cells-function-as-surrogate-schwann-cells-for-their-sensory-nerves
#14
REVIEW
Mary Ann Stepp, Gauri Tadvalkar, Raymond Hakh, Sonali Pal-Ghosh
The eye is innervated by neurons derived from both the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system (PNS). While much is known about retinal neurobiology and phototransduction, less attention has been paid to the innervation of the eye by the PNS and the roles it plays in maintaining a functioning visual system. The ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal ganglion contains somas of neurons that innervate the cornea. These nerves provide sensory functions for the cornea and are referred to as intraepithelial corneal nerves (ICNs) consisting of subbasal nerves and their associated intraepithelial nerve terminals...
November 23, 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876711/calreticulin-promotes-proliferation-and-migration-but-inhibits-apoptosis-in-schwann-cells
#15
Gui Huang, Zhulei Sun, Jiang Wu, Shaofeng Shui, Xinwei Han, Dong Guo, Tengfei Li
BACKGROUND Previous studies indicated that calreticulin (CRT) regulated various biological processes. This study was aimed to investigate the function of CRT in Schwann cells (SCs). MATERIAL AND METHODS SCs were separated from sciatic nerves of mice and were transfected with pcDNA3.1-CRT (pc-CRT), small interfering RNA targets CRT (siCRT), or their corresponding negative controls. The expression of CRT was determined by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Then, cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis were measured by 3-(4, 5-dimethylhiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, modified 2-chamber migration assay, and flow cytometry, respectively...
November 23, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874834/recovery-of-erectile-function-comparing-autologous-nerve-grafts-unseeded-conduits-schwann-cell-seeded-guidance-tubes-and-gdnf-overexpressing-schwann-cell-grafts
#16
Florian May, Alexander Buchner, Kaspar Matiasek, Boris Schlenker, Christian Stief, Norbert Weidner
Dissection of the cavernous nerves during radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer eliminates spontaneous erections. Using the rat as an experimental model, we compared the regenerative capacity of autologous nerve grafts and Schwann cell seeded nerve guides.After bilateral excision of cavernous nerve segments, cavernous nerves were reconstructed using unseeded silicon tubes (UT), nerve autografts (NA) and silicon tubes seeded with either Glial cell line-derived (GDNF)-overexpressing or green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Schwann cells (SCs) (16 study nerves per group)...
November 17, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872858/17%C3%AE-estradiol-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-differentiation-accelerating-early-remyelination-in-a-mouse-peripheral-nerve-injury-model
#17
Yan Chen, Wenjie Guo, Liangzhi Xu, Wenjuan Li, Meng Cheng, Ying Hu, Wenming Xu
Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2) on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG) explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872209/depletion-of-neural-crest-derived-cells-leads-to-reduction-in-plasma-noradrenaline-and-alters-b-lymphopoiesis
#18
Naoki Tsunokuma, Toshiyuki Yamane, Chiaki Matsumoto, Motokazu Tsuneto, Kana Isono, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Hidetoshi Yamazaki
Hematopoietic stem cells and their lymphoid progenitors are supported by the bone marrow (BM) microenvironmental niches composed of various stromal cells and Schwann cells and sympathetic nerve fibers. Although neural crest (NC) cells contribute to the development of all the three, their function in BM is not well understood. In this study, NC-derived cells were ablated with diphtheria toxin in double-transgenic mice expressing NC-specific Cre and Cre-driven diphtheria toxin receptor with yellow fluorescent protein reporter...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868056/spotlight-on-the-schwann-cells-during-the-regeneration
#19
COMMENT
Marketa Kaucka, Igor Adameyko
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865767/neural-stem-cells-promote-nerve-regeneration-through-il12-induced-schwann-cell-differentiation
#20
Don-Ching Lee, Jong-Hang Chen, Tai-Yu Hsu, Li-Hsun Chang, Hsu Chang, Ya-Hui Chi, Ing-Ming Chiu
Regeneration of injured peripheral nerves is a slow, complicated process that could be improved by implantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) or nerve conduit. Implantation of NSCs along with conduits promotes the regeneration of damaged nerve, likely because (i) conduit supports and guides axonal growth from one nerve stump to the other, while preventing fibrous tissue ingrowth and retaining neurotrophic factors; and (ii) implanted NSCs differentiate into Schwann cells and maintain a growth factor enriched microenvironment, which promotes nerve regeneration...
November 16, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
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