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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352230/histology-immunohistochemistry-and-in-situ-hybridization-reveal-overlooked-ebola-virus-target-tissues-in-the-ebola-virus-disease-guinea-pig-model
#1
Timothy K Cooper, Louis Huzella, Joshua C Johnson, Oscar Rojas, Sri Yellayi, Mei G Sun, Sina Bavari, Amanda Bonilla, Randy Hart, Peter B Jahrling, Jens H Kuhn, Xiankun Zeng
Survivors of Ebola virus infection may become subclinically infected, but whether animal models recapitulate this complication is unclear. Using histology in combination with immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in a retrospective review of a guinea pig confirmation-of-virulence study, we demonstrate for the first time Ebola virus infection in hepatic oval cells, the endocardium and stroma of the atrioventricular valves and chordae tendinae, satellite cells of peripheral ganglia, neurofibroblasts and Schwann cells of peripheral nerves and ganglia, smooth muscle cells of the uterine myometrium and vaginal wall, acini of the parotid salivary glands, thyroid follicular cells, adrenal medullary cells, pancreatic islet cells, endometrial glandular and surface epithelium, and the epithelium of the vagina, penis and, prepuce...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351992/involvement-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-myelination-and-in-human-nerve-sheath-tumorigenesis
#2
Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu Shackleford, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Mehdi Hichor, Laure Weill, Delphine Meffre, Ludmila Juricek, Ingrid Laurendeau, Aline Chevallier, Nicolas Ortonne, Frédérique Larousserie, Marc Herbin, Ivan Bièche, Xavier Coumoul, Mathieu Beraneck, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Frédéric Charbonnier, Eric Pasmant, Charbel Massaad
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) can transform into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) that are resistant to existing therapies. These tumors are primarily composed of Schwann cells. In addition to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene inactivation, further genetic lesions are required for malignant transformation. We have quantified the mRNA expression levels of AHR and its associated genes in 38 human samples...
January 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351404/type-2-diabetes-impairs-the-ability-of-skeletal-muscle-pericytes-to-augment-postischemic-neovascularization-in-db-db-mice
#3
Katherine L Hayes, Louis M Messina, Lawrence M Schwartz, Jinglian Yan, Amy S Burnside, Sarah Witkowski
Peripheral artery disease is an atherosclerotic occlusive disease that causes limb ischemia and has few effective non-interventional treatments. Stem cell therapy is promising, but concomitant diabetes may limit its effectiveness. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of skeletal muscle pericytes to augment postischemic neovascularization in wild type and type 2 diabetic (T2DM) mice. Wild type C57BL/6J and leptin receptor spontaneous mutation db/db T2DM mice underwent unilateral femoral artery excision to induce limb ischemia...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350602/a-novel-approach-to-32-channel-peripheral-nervous-system-myelin-imaging-in-vivo-with-single-axon-resolution
#4
Joey Grochmal, Wulin Teo, Hardeep Gambhir, Ranjan Kumar, Jo Anne Stratton, Raveena Dhaliwal, Craig Brideau, Jeff Biernaskie, Peter K Stys, Rajiv Midha
OBJECTIVE Intravital spectral imaging of the large, deeply situated nerves in the rat peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been well described. Here, the authors have developed a highly stable platform for performing imaging of the tibial nerve in live rodents, thus allowing the capture of high-resolution, high-magnification spectral images requiring long acquisition times. By further exploiting the qualities of the topically applied myelin dye Nile red, this technique is capable of visualizing the detailed microenvironment of peripheral nerve demyelination injury and recovery, while allowing us to obtain images of exogenous Schwann cell myelination in a living animal...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350067/soluble-neuregulin1-is-strongly-up-regulated-in-the-rat-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-disease
#5
Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giulia Ronchi, Davide Pascal, Davide Visigalli, Giovanna Capodivento, Lucilla Nobbio, Isabelle Perroteau, Angelo Schenone, Stefano Geuna, Giovanna Gambarotta
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a growth factor playing a pivotal role in peripheral nerve development through the activation of the transmembrane co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3. Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. Here we show that in the rat experimental model of the peripheral demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) the expression of the different NRG1 isoforms (soluble, type α and β, type a and b) is strongly up-regulated, as well as the expression of NRG1 co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3, thus showing that CMT1A nerves have a gene expression pattern highly reminiscent of injured nerves...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346494/novel-myopia-genes-and-pathways-identified-from-syndromic-forms-of-myopia
#6
D Ian Flitcroft, James Loughman, Christine F Wildsoet, Cathy Williams, Jeremy A Guggenheim
Purpose: To test the hypothesis that genes known to cause clinical syndromes featuring myopia also harbor polymorphisms contributing to nonsyndromic refractive errors. Methods: Clinical phenotypes and syndromes that have refractive errors as a recognized feature were identified using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database. One hundred fifty-four unique causative genes were identified, of which 119 were specifically linked with myopia and 114 represented syndromic myopia (i...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337237/uridine-5-triphosphate-partially-blocks-differentiation-signals-and-favors-a-more-repair-state-in-cultured-rat-schwann-cells
#7
Marta Palomo-Guerrero, Jose Miguel Cosgaya, Alejandro Gella, Núria Casals, Carmen Grijota-Martinez
Schwann cells (SCs) play a key role in peripheral nerve regeneration. After damage, they respond acquiring a repair phenotype that allows them to proliferate, migrate and redirect axonal growth. Previous studies have shown that Uridine-5'-Triphosphate (UTP) and its purinergic receptors participate in several pathophysiological responses in the nervous system. Our group has previously described how UTP induces the migration of a Schwannoma cell line and promotes wound healing. These data suggest that UTP participates in the signaling involved in the regeneration process...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336992/schwann-cell-lamellipodia-regulate-cell-cell-interactions-and-phagocytosis
#8
Johana Tello Velasquez, James A St John, Lynn Nazareth, Jenny A K Ekberg
Lamellipodia in Schwann cells (SCs) are crucial for myelination, but their other biological functions remain largely uncharacterised. Two types of lamellipodia exist in SCs: axial lamellipodia at the outermost edge of the cell processes, and radial lamellipodia appearing peripherally along the entire cell. We have previously shown that radial lamellipodia on olfactory glia (olfactory ensheathing cells; OECs) promote cell-cell adhesion, contact-mediated migration and phagocytosis. Here we have investigated whether lamellipodia in SCs have similar roles...
January 11, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336177/in-vivo-assessment-of-a-nanofibrous-silk-tube-as-nerve-guide-for-sciatic-nerve-regeneration
#9
Maryam Ebrahimi, Jafar Ai, Esmaeil Biazar, Somayeh Ebrahimi-Barough, Arash Khojasteh, Meysam Yazdankhah, Siavash Sharifi, Arman Ai, Saeed Heidari-Keshel
A nanofibrous silk nerve conduit has been evaluated for its efficiency based on the promotion of peripheral nerve regeneration in rats. The designed tubes with or without Schwann cells were implanted into a 10 mm gap in the sciatic nerves of the rats. Four months after the surgery, the regenerated nerves were monitored and evaluated by macroscopic assessments and histology. The results demonstrated that the nanofibrous grafts, especially in the presence of Schwann cells, enabled reconstruction of the rat sciatic nerve trunk with a restoration of nerve continuity and formation of nerve fibres with myelination...
January 16, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331319/a-histopathological-and-biochemical-evaluation-of-oxidative-injury-in-the-sciatic-nerves-of-male-rats-exposed-to-a-continuous-900-megahertz-electromagnetic-field-throughout-all-periods-of-adolescence
#10
Gökçen Kerimoğlu, Canan Güney, Şafak Ersöz, Ersan Odacı
The effects on human health of the electromagnetic field (EMF) emitted by mobile phones, used by approximately 7 billion people worldwide, have become an important subject for scientific research. Studies have suggested that the EMF emitted by mobile phones can cause oxidative stress in different tissues and age groups. Young people in adolescence, a time period when risky behaviors and dependences increase, use mobile phones more than adults. The EMF emitted by mobile phones, which are generally carried in the pocket or in bags when not in use, will very probably affect the sciatic nerve...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330870/cell-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury-with-olfactory-ensheathing-glia-cells-oecs
#11
REVIEW
Rosa M Gómez, Magdy Y Sánchez, Maria Portela-Lomba, Kemel Ghotme, George E Barreto, Javier Sierra, M Teresa Moreno-Flores
The prospects of achieving regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) have changed, as most recent findings indicate that several species, including humans, can produce neurons in adulthood. Studies targeting this property may be considered as potential therapeutic strategies to respond to injury or the effects of demyelinating diseases in the CNS. While CNS trauma may interrupt the axonal tracts that connect neurons with their targets, some neurons remain alive, as seen in optic nerve and spinal cord (SC) injuries (SCIs)...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329562/granular-cell-tumors-of-the-tongue-fibroma-or-schwannoma
#12
Atsushi Musha, Masaru Ogawa, Satoshi Yokoo
BACKGROUND: Granular cell tumors are benign lesions that typically occur in the oral cavity, but can also be found in other sites. However, the characteristics of these tumors are unclear. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the immunohistological characteristics of these tumors of the tongue. METHODS: Seven patients were treated for granular cell tumors of the tongue at our institution during 2003-2017. Paraffin-embedded specimens were available for all cases; thus, retrospective immunohistochemical analyses were performed...
January 3, 2018: Head & Face Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327509/proteomic-expression-profile-of-injured-rat-peripheral-nerves-revealed-biological-networks-and-processes-associated-with-nerve-regeneration
#13
D Vergara, A Romano, E Stanca, V La Pesa, A L Aloisi, S De Domenico, J Franck, I Cicalini, A M Giudetti, E Storelli, D Pieragostino, I Fournier, A Sannino, M Salzet, F Cerri, A Quattrini, M Maffia
Peripheral nerve regeneration is regulated through the coordinated spatio-temporal activation of multiple cellular pathways. In this work, an integrated proteomics and bioinformatics approach was employed to identify differentially expressed proteins at the injury-site of rat sciatic nerve at 20 days after damage. By a label-free liquid chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) approach, we identified 201 differentially proteins that were assigned to specific canonical and disease and function pathways. These include proteins involved in cytoskeleton signaling and remodeling, acute phase response, and cellular metabolism...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327207/phenotypic-and-functional-characteristics-of-human-schwann-cells-as-revealed-by-cell-based-assays-and-rna-seq
#14
Paula V Monje, David Sant, Gaofeng Wang
This study comprehensively addresses the phenotype, function, and whole transcriptome of primary human and rodent Schwann cells (SCs) and highlights key species-specific features beyond the expected donor variability that account for the differential ability of human SCs to proliferate, differentiate, and interact with axons in vitro. Contrary to rat SCs, human SCs were insensitive to mitogenic factors other than neuregulin and presented phenotypic variants at various stages of differentiation, along with a mixture of proliferating and senescent cells, under optimal growth-promoting conditions...
January 11, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323053/roles-of-neural-stem-cells-in-the-repair-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#15
REVIEW
Chong Wang, Chang-Feng Lu, Jiang Peng, Cheng-Dong Hu, Yu Wang
Currently, researchers are using neural stem cell transplantation to promote regeneration after peripheral nerve injury, as neural stem cells play an important role in peripheral nerve injury repair. This article reviews recent research progress of the role of neural stem cells in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. Neural stem cells can not only differentiate into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, but can also differentiate into Schwann-like cells, which promote neurite outgrowth around the injury...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323050/long-non-coding-rna-nonmmug014387-promotes-schwann-cell-proliferation-after-peripheral-nerve-injury
#16
Bin Pan, Zhong-Ju Shi, Jia-Yin Yan, Jia-He Li, Shi-Qing Feng
Schwann cells play a critical role in peripheral nerve regeneration through dedifferentiation and proliferation. In a previous study, we performed microarray analysis of the sciatic nerve after injury. Accordingly, we predicted that long non-coding RNA NONMMUG014387 may promote Schwann cell proliferation after peripheral nerve injury, as bioinformatic analysis revealed that the target gene of NONMMUG014387 was collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (Cthrc1). Cthrc1 may promote cell proliferation in a variety of cells by activating Wnt/PCP signaling...
December 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322973/facial-nerve-schwannomas-a-case-series-with-an-analysis-of-imaging-findings
#17
Shambhu K Sah, You You Guo, Nirajan Mahaseth, Yanlin Chen, Silin Du, Yongmei Li
Facial nerve schwannomas (FNSs) are rare benign tumors arising from the Schwann cells of the sheath of the facial nerve. These tumors may arise anywhere along the course of the facial nerve. Owing to their rarity and nonspecific clinical and radiological presentations, the preoperative diagnosis of FNSs is exceedingly difficult. In this study, we present four cases of histopathologically proven extratemporal schwannomas and a solitary case of intratemporal schwannoma. The purpose of this study was mainly focused on analyzing the imaging findings of extratemporal and intratemporal schwannomas in an effort to better characterize these lesions preoperatively...
January 2018: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322178/early-genetic-diagnosis-of-neurofibromatosis-type-2-from-skin-plaque-plexiform-schwannomas-in-childhood
#18
Elisabeth Castellanos, Adrià Plana, Cristina Carrato, Meritxell Carrió, Inma Rosas, Emilio Amilibia, Francesc Roca-Ribas, Cristina Hostalot, Alicia Castillo, Andrea Ros, Ariadna Quer, Juan Luis Becerra, Hector Salvador, Conxi Lázaro, Ignacio Blanco, Eduard Serra, Isabel Bielsa
Importance: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a devastating genetic condition characterized by the development of multiple tumors of the nervous system. An early diagnosis of individuals with NF2 would facilitate treatment and reduction of disease impact because most severe effects of the disease do not usually develop before adolescence. Little attention has traditionally been paid to dermatological signs in NF2. However, skin plaques are commonly seen in patients with NF2, normally appearing either at birth or early childhood, providing an opportunity for early NF2 detection and testing...
January 10, 2018: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320487/multicolor-quantitative-confocal-imaging-cytometry
#19
Daniel L Coutu, Konstantinos D Kokkaliaris, Leo Kunz, Timm Schroeder
Multicolor 3D quantitative imaging of large tissue volumes is necessary to understand tissue development and organization as well as interactions between distinct cell types in situ. However, tissue imaging remains technically challenging, particularly imaging of bone and marrow. Here, we describe a pipeline to reproducibly generate high-dimensional quantitative data from bone and bone marrow that may be extended to any tissue. We generate thick bone sections from adult mouse femurs with preserved tissue microarchitecture and demonstrate eight-color imaging using confocal microscopy without linear unmixing...
January 2018: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317947/esophageal-granular-cell-tumor-a-case-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Emmanuel Ofori, Daryl Ramai, Ying X Lui, Madhavi Reddy
Granular cell tumors (GCTs) are rare and benign tumors that can occur at any anatomical site. GCTs are thought to originate from nerve cells, particularly Schwann cells. Their name derives from the fact that an accumulation of cytoplasmic lysosomes imparts the tumor with a granular appearance. They are most commonly observed in the oral cavity, skin and subcutaneous tissue, breast, and respiratory tract. GCTs rarely affect the gastrointestinal tract. We report a 56-year-old female with a medical history of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C, and cholelithiasis, who presented with abdominal pain...
December 2017: Gastroenterology Research
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