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Motorneuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571492/eccentric-exercise-to-enhance-neuromuscular-control
#1
Lindsey K Lepley, Adam S Lepley, James A Onate, Dustin R Grooms
CONTEXT: Neuromuscular alterations are a major causal factor of primary and secondary injuries. Though injury prevention programs have experienced some success, rates of injuries have not declined, and after injury, individuals often return to activity with functionality below clinical recommendations. Considering alternative therapies to the conventional concentric exercise approach, such as one that can target neuromuscular injury risk and postinjury alterations, may provide for more effective injury prevention and rehabilitation protocols...
July 2017: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510605/the-role-of-attention-in-human-motor-resonance
#2
Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Ayelet Landau, Luca Fornia, Gabriella Cerri, Paola Borroni
Observation of others' actions evokes in primary motor cortex and spinal circuits of observers a subliminal motor resonance response, which reflects the motor program encoding observed actions. We investigated the role of attention in human motor resonance with four experimental conditions, explored in different subject groups: in the first explicit condition, subjects were asked to observe a rhythmic hand flexion-extension movement performed live in front of them. In two other conditions subjects had to monitor the activity of a LED light mounted on the oscillating hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442746/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-lower-motor-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-krabbe-disease
#3
Valentina Cappello, Laura Marchetti, Paola Parlanti, Silvia Landi, Ilaria Tonazzini, Marco Cecchini, Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428563/a-sublethal-dose-of-a-neonicotinoid-insecticide-disrupts-visual-processing-and-collision-avoidance-behaviour-in-locusta-migratoria
#4
Rachel H Parkinson, Jacelyn M Little, John R Gray
Neonicotinoids are known to affect insect navigation and vision, however the mechanisms of these effects are not fully understood. A visual motion sensitive neuron in the locust, the Descending Contralateral Movement Detector (DCMD), integrates visual information and is involved in eliciting escape behaviours. The DCMD receives coded input from the compound eyes and monosynaptically excites motorneurons involved in flight and jumping. We show that imidacloprid (IMD) impairs neural responses to visual stimuli at sublethal concentrations, and these effects are sustained two and twenty-four hours after treatment...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346344/increased-force-variability-is-associated-with-altered-modulation-of-the-motorneuron-pool-activity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd
#5
Zheng Wang, Minhyuk Kwon, Suman Mohanty, Lauren M Schmitt, Stormi P White, Evangelos A Christou, Matthew W Mosconi
Force control deficits have been repeatedly documented in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). They are associated with worse social and daily living skill impairments in patients suggesting that developing a more mechanistic understanding of the central and peripheral processes that cause them may help guide the development of treatments that improve multiple outcomes in ASD. The neuromuscular mechanisms underlying force control deficits are not yet understood. Seventeen individuals with ASD and 14 matched healthy controls completed an isometric index finger abduction test at 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) during recording of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to determine the neuromuscular processes associated with sustained force variability...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344074/aberrant-distributions-of-nuclear-pore-complex-proteins-in-als-mice-and-als-patients
#6
Jingwei Shang, Toru Yamashita, Yumiko Nakano, Ryuta Morihara, Xianghong Li, Tian Feng, Xia Liu, Yong Huang, Yusuke Fukui, Nozomi Hishikawa, Yasuyuki Ohta, Koji Abe
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) play important roles in traffic of molecules between the nucleus and cytoplasm, aberrant distributions of components of NPCs were demonstrated in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS) patients, but it is elusive whether such abnormities are also the case with other cause of ALS disease. In the present study, we investigated the spatiotemporal distributions of RanGAP1 and 4 representative nucleoporins (GP210, NUP205, NUP107 and NUP50) of NPCs in human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 mutation transgenic (SOD1-Tg) mice and sporadic ALS patients...
May 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281681/chemogenetic-stimulation-of-the-hypoglossal-neurons-improves-upper-airway-patency
#7
Thomaz Fleury Curado, Kenneth Fishbein, Huy Pho, Michael Brennick, Olga Dergacheva, Luiz U Sennes, Luu V Pham, Ellen E Ladenheim, Richard Spencer, David Mendelowitz, Alan R Schwartz, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is characterized by recurrent upper airway obstruction during sleep. OSA leads to high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The pathogenesis of OSA has been linked to a defect in neuromuscular control of the pharynx. There is no effective pharmacotherapy for OSA. The objective of this study was to determine whether upper airway patency can be improved using chemogenetic approach by deploying designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) in the hypoglossal motorneurons...
March 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025800/intrathecal-delivery-of-ssaav9-dao-extends-survival-in-sod1-g93a-als-mice
#8
Wan Wang, Weisong Duan, Ying Wang, Di Wen, Yakun Liu, Zhongyao Li, Haojie Hu, Hongying Cui, Can Cui, Huiqian Lin, Chunyan Li
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, irreversible neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive paralysis and inevitable death 3-5 years after diagnosis. The mechanisms underlying this process remain unknown, but new evidence indicates that accumulating levels of D-serine result from the downregulation of D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and that this is a novel mechanism that leads to motoneuronal death in ALS via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated cell toxicity. Here, we explored a new therapeutic approach to ALS by overexpressing DAO in the lumbar region of the mouse spinal cord using a single stranded adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (ssAAV9) vector...
December 26, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920424/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-lower-motor-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-krabbe-disease
#9
Valentina Cappello, Laura Marchetti, Paola Parlanti, Silvia Landi, Ilaria Tonazzini, Marco Cecchini, Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809680/in-vivo-functional-consequences-of-human-thra-variants-expressed-in-the-zebrafish
#10
Federica Marelli, Silvia Carra, Giuditta Rurale, Franco Cotelli, Luca Persani
BACKGROUND: Heterozygous mutations in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRA) gene cause resistance to thyroid hormone alpha (RTHα), a disease characterized by variable manifestations reminiscent of untreated congenital hypothyroidism but a raised triiodothyronine/thyroxine ratio and normal thyrotropin levels. It was recently described that zebrafish embryos expressing a dominant negative (DN) form of thraa recapitulate the key features of RTHα, and that zebrafish and human receptors are functionally interchangeable...
February 2017: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641622/na-h-exchange-via-the-drosophila-vesicular-glutamate-transporter-mediates-activity-induced-acid-efflux-from-presynaptic-terminals
#11
Adam J Rossano, Akira Kato, Karyl I Minard, Michael F Romero, Gregory T Macleod
KEY POINTS: Intracellular pH regulation is vital to neurons as nerve activity produces large and rapid acid loads in presynaptic terminals. Rapid clearance of acid loads is necessary to maintain control of neurotransmission, but neuronal acid clearance mechanisms remain poorly understood. Glutamate is loaded into synaptic vesicles via the vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT), a mechanism conserved across phyla, and this study reports a previously unknown role for VGLUT as an acid-extruding protein when deposited in the plasmamembrane during exocytosis...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586650/upregulation-of-l-type-calcium-channels-in-colonic-inhibitory-motoneurons-of-p-q-type-calcium-channel-deficient-mice
#12
Eileen Rodriguez-Tapia, Alberto Perez-Medina, Xiaochun Bian, James J Galligan
Enteric inhibitory motoneurons use nitric oxide and a purine neurotransmitter to relax gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Enteric P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to excitatory neuromuscular transmission; their contribution to inhibitory transmission is less clear. We used the colon from tottering mice (tg/tg, loss of function mutation in the α1A pore-forming subunit of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels) to test the hypothesis that P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels contribute to inhibitory neuromuscular transmission and colonic propulsive motility...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27423319/different-discharge-properties-of-facial-nucleus-motoneurons-following-neurotmesis-in-a-rat-model
#13
Suming Shi, Lei Xu, Jianfeng Li, Yuechen Han, Haibo Wang
Facial nucleus motoneurons innervating the facial expressive muscles are involved in a wide range of motor activities, however, the types of movement related neurons and their electrophysiological transformation after peripheral facial nerve injury haven't been revealed. This study was designed to elucidate the types of facial nucleus motoneurons and their alterations of discharge parameters following peripheral facial nerve injury in vivo. Here we set up a rat model by implanting electrode arrays into the brainstem and recorded the electrophysiological signals of facial nucleus neurons in the intact rats for 5 days, then transected the trunk of facial nerve (TF), and continued the record for 4 weeks...
August 26, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27422902/endogenous-rhythm-and-pattern-generating-circuit-interactions-in-cockroach-motor-centres
#14
Izhak David, Philip Holmes, Amir Ayali
Cockroaches are rapid and stable runners whose gaits emerge from the intricate, and not fully resolved, interplay between endogenous oscillatory pattern-generating networks and sensory feedback that shapes their rhythmic output. Here we studied the endogenous motor output of a brainless, deafferented preparation. We monitored the pilocarpine-induced rhythmic activity of levator and depressor motor neurons in the mesothoracic and metathoracic segments in order to reveal the oscillatory networks' architecture and interactions...
September 15, 2016: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168980/pkc-in-motorneurons-underlies-self-learning-a-form-of-motor-learning-in-drosophila
#15
Julien Colomb, Björn Brembs
Tethering a fly for stationary flight allows for exquisite control of its sensory input, such as visual or olfactory stimuli or a punishing infrared laser beam. A torque meter measures the turning attempts of the tethered fly around its vertical body axis. By punishing, say, left turning attempts (in a homogeneous environment), one can train a fly to restrict its behaviour to right turning attempts. It was recently discovered that this form of operant conditioning (called operant self-learning), may constitute a form of motor learning in Drosophila...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168790/selected-gene-profiles-of-stressed-nsc-34-cells-and-rat-spinal-cord-following-peripheral-nerve-reconstruction-and-minocycline-treatment
#16
Gerburg Keilhoff, Benjamin Lucas, Katja Uhde, Hisham Fansa
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of minocycline on the expression of selected transcriptional and translational profiles in the rat spinal cord following sciatic nerve (SNR) transection and microsurgical coaptation. The mRNA and protein expression levels of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), caspase-3, major histocompatibility complex I (MHC I), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) were monitored in the rat lumbar spinal cord following microsurgical reconstruction of the sciatic nerves and minocycline treatment...
May 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100776/gfap-positive-radial-glial-cells-are-an-essential-progenitor-population-for-later-born-neurons-and-glia-in-the-zebrafish-spinal-cord
#17
Kimberly Johnson, Jessica Barragan, Sarah Bashiruddin, Cody J Smith, Chelsea Tyrrell, Michael J Parsons, Rosemarie Doris, Sarah Kucenas, Gerald B Downes, Carla M Velez, Caitlin Schneider, Catalina Sakai, Narendra Pathak, Katrina Anderson, Rachael Stein, Stephen H Devoto, Jeff S Mumm, Michael J F Barresi
Radial glial cells are presumptive neural stem cells (NSCs) in the developing nervous system. The direct requirement of radial glia for the generation of a diverse array of neuronal and glial subtypes, however, has not been tested. We employed two novel transgenic zebrafish lines and endogenous markers of NSCs and radial glia to show for the first time that radial glia are essential for neurogenesis during development. By using the gfap promoter to drive expression of nuclear localized mCherry we discerned two distinct radial glial-derived cell types: a major nestin+/Sox2+ subtype with strong gfap promoter activity and a minor Sox2+ subtype lacking this activity...
July 2016: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079797/inap-selective-inhibition-reverts-precocious-inter-and-motorneurons-hyperexcitability-in-the-sod1-g93r-zebrafish-als-model
#18
Lorena Benedetti, Anna Ghilardi, Elsa Rottoli, Marcella De Maglie, Laura Prosperi, Carla Perego, Mirko Baruscotti, Annalisa Bucchi, Luca Del Giacco, Maura Francolini
The pathogenic role of SOD1 mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) was investigated using a zebrafish disease model stably expressing the ALS-linked G93R mutation. In addition to the main pathological features of ALS shown by adult fish, we found remarkably precocious alterations in the development of motor nerve circuitry and embryo behavior, and suggest that these alterations are prompted by interneuron and motor neuron hyperexcitability triggered by anomalies in the persistent pacemaker sodium current INaP...
April 15, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26971745/effects-of-one-session-radial-extracorporeal-shockwave-therapy-on-post-stroke-plantarflexor-spasticity-a-single-blind-clinical-trial
#19
Hojjat Radinmehr, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi, Gholamreza Olyaei, Azadeh Tabatabaei
Purpose To examine the effects of radial extracorporeal shockwave therapy (rESWT) on plantarflexor spasticity after stroke. Method Twelve patients with stroke were randomly included for this prospective, single-blind clinical trial. Patients received one rESWT session (0.340 mJ/mm(2), 2000 shots) on plantarflexor muscle. The Modified Modified Ashworth Scale (MMAS), H-reflex tests, ankle range of motion (ROM), passive plantarflexor torque (PPFT) and timed up and go test (TUG) were measured at baseline (T0), immediately after treatment (T1) and one hour after the end of the treatment (T2)...
March 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26876607/regulation-of-neuronal-chloride-homeostasis-by-neuromodulators
#20
Vivek Mahadevan, Melanie A Woodin
KCC2 is the central regulator of neuronal Cl(-) homeostasis, and is critical for enabling strong hyperpolarizing synaptic inhibition in the mature brain. KCC2 hypofunction results in decreased inhibition and increased network hyperexcitability that underlies numerous disease states including epilepsy, neuropathic pain and neuropsychiatric disorders. The current holy grail of KCC2 biology is to identify how we can rescue KCC2 hypofunction in order to restore physiological levels of synaptic inhibition and neuronal network activity...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
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