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Cristina Guillín-Amarelle, Antía Fernández-Pombo, Sofía Sánchez-Iglesias, David Araújo-Vilar
The nuclear lamina is a complex reticular structure that covers the inner face of the nucleus membrane in metazoan cells. It is mainly formed by intermediate filaments called lamins, and exerts essential functions to maintain the cellular viability. Lamin A/C provides mechanical steadiness to the nucleus and regulates genetic machinery. Laminopathies are tissue-specific or systemic disorders caused by variants in LMNA gene (primary laminopathies) or in other genes encoding proteins which are playing some role in prelamin A maturation or in lamin A/C function (secondary laminopathies)...
March 20, 2018: Nucleus
Su-Meng Liu, Ning-Li Wang, Zhen-Tao Zuo, Wei-Wei Chen, Di-Ya Yang, Zhen Li, Yi-Wen Cao
In accordance with the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference theory, decreasing the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference can relieve glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Increased intracranial pressure can also reduce optic nerve damage in glaucoma patients, and a safe, effective and noninvasive way to achieve this is by increasing the intra-abdominal pressure. The purpose of this study was to observe the changes in orbital subarachnoid space width and intraocular pressure at elevated intra-abdominal pressure...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Choung-Soo Kim, Hyunsu Choi, Ki Cheol Park, Sung Won Kim, Dong-Il Sun
Objective This study investigated the ability of implanted human nasal inferior turbinate-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hTMSCs) to repair injured vocal folds. To this end, we used quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to analyze the early phase of wound healing and histopathological analysis to explore the late phase of wound healing in xenograft animal models. Study Design Prospective animal study. Setting Research laboratory. Subjects and Methods The right-side lamina propria of the vocal fold was injured in 20 rabbits and 30 rats...
March 1, 2018: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jun-Bin Yin, Ya-Cheng Lu, Ban Feng, Zhen-Yu Wu, Ying-Biao Chen, Ting Zhang, Zhen-Zhen Kou, Ming-Ming Zhang, Han Zhang, Jin-Lian Li, Hui Li, Tao Chen, Yu-Lin Dong, Yun-Qing Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Spinal dorsal horn (SDH) is one of the most important regions for analgesia produced by endomorphin-2 (EM2), which has a higher affinity and specificity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR) than morphine. Many studies have focused on substantia gelatinosa (SG, lamina II) neurons to elucidate the cellular basis for its antinociceptive effects. However, the complicated types and local circuits of interneurons in the SG make it difficult to understand the real effects of EM2...
March 15, 2018: Neuro-Signals
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Andrew Harding, Paola Menghini, Catherine Himmelman, Mauricio Retuerto, Kourtney P Nickerson, Minh Lam, Colleen M Croniger, Mairi H McLean, Scott K Durum, Theresa T Pizarro, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Sanja Ilic, Christine McDonald, Fabio Cominelli
Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn's disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice. Methods: Metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing was first used to characterize the microbiome of ileitis-prone SAMP mice...
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Daniel J Pak, Amitabh Gulati
The placement of thoracic epidural catheters is complicated by the layering of the vertebral lamina. Therefore, traditional blind palpation techniques require insertion of an epidural needle with likely contact of lamina with redirections into the epidural space. We discuss a safe and consistent technique using true real-time ultrasound visualization of the needle with a paramedian sagittal oblique view to improve the consistency of placing an epidural in the thoracic spine for postoperative analgesia. Successful epidural placement was achieved in every patient...
March 16, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
Zhijuan Qiu, Brian S Sheridan
The intestinal immune system plays an essential role in maintaining the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract by generating tolerant responses to dietary antigens and commensal bacteria while mounting effective immune responses to enteropathogenic microbes. In addition, it has become clear that local intestinal immunity has a profound impact on distant and systemic immunity. Therefore, it is important to study how an intestinal immune response is induced and what the immunologic outcome of the response is...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Larisa G Poddubnaya, Willy Hemmingsen, Magdaléna Bruñanská, David I Gibson
This investigation of Calicotyle affinis is the first ultrastructural description of the male reproductive system of a monocotylid monogenean. It has revealed numerous characteristics which are either new or clarify those determined from previous light microscopical observations on the morphology of Calicotyle spp. These include numerous individual testes, each surrounded by its own basal lamina; an ejaculatory bulb delimited by a basal lamina surrounded by two independent internal and external bands of muscles; a bipartite, but not fully divided, muscular chamber (an internal seminal vesicle) in the proximal region of the ejaculatory bulb; well-developed unicellular prostatic glands localised outside the ejaculatory bulb, the cytoplasmic extensions of which pass into the ejaculatory bulb, to form the ducts which open into the lumen of ejaculatory duct; and a male copulatory organ in the form of a coiled penis tube containing throughout its lumen a long, hollow stylet...
March 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Lin Hai Kurahara, Keizo Hiraishi, Yaopeng Hu, Kaori Koga, Miki Onitsuka, Mayumi Doi, Kunihiko Aoyagi, Hidetoshi Takedatsu, Daibo Kojima, Yoshitaka Fujihara, Yuwen Jian, Ryuji Inoue
Background & Aims: The transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel is highly expressed in the intestinal lamina propria, but its contribution to gut physiology/pathophysiology is unclear. Here, we evaluated the function of myofibroblast TRPA1 channels in intestinal remodeling. Methods: An intestinal myofibroblast cell line (InMyoFibs) was stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 to induce in vitro fibrosis. Trpa1 knockout mice were generated using the Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated 9 (Cas9) system...
March 2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Tomoo Inoue, Yukoh Ohara, Tadaaki Niiro, Toshiki Endo, Teiji Tominaga, Jyun-Ichi Mizuno
BACKGROUND: Chondroma is a rare benign cartilaginous tumor that originates in chondrocytes and is commonly seen in the long bones; however, it infrequently occurs in the cervical spine. CASE DESCRIPTIONS: We report two patients with cervical periosteal chondroma that originated from the C2 vertebral body and C1 lamina as extramedullary tumors. The first patient was a 28-year-old man who presented with right upper extremity weakness and numbness. Cervical radiography revealed a bony tumor with evidence of severe spinal cord compression...
March 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Graham F Brady, Raymond Kwan, Juliana Bragazzi Cunha, Jared S Elenbaas, M Bishr Omary
The nuclear lamina is a multi-protein lattice composed of A- and B-type lamins and their associated proteins. This protein lattice associates with heterochromatin and integral inner nuclear membrane proteins, providing a link between the genome, nucleoskeleton, and cytoskeleton. In the 1990s, mutations in EMD and LMNA were linked to Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy. Since then, the number of diseases attributed to nuclear lamina defects, including laminopathies and other disorders, has increased to include more than 20 distinct genetic syndromes...
March 13, 2018: Gastroenterology
Hirofumi Chiba, Yoichi Kakuta, Yoshitaka Kinouchi, Yosuke Kawai, Kazuhiro Watanabe, Munenori Nagao, Takeo Naito, Motoyuki Onodera, Rintaro Moroi, Masatake Kuroha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Tomoya Kimura, Hisashi Shiga, Katsuya Endo, Kenichi Negoro, Masao Nagasaki, Michiaki Unno, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has an unknown etiology; however, accumulating evidence suggests that IBD is a multifactorial disease influenced by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. The influence of genetic variants on DNA methylation in cis and cis effects on expression have been demonstrated. We hypothesized that IBD susceptibility single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) regulate susceptibility gene expressions in cis by regulating DNA methylation around SNPs...
2018: PloS One
Christine D Plant, Giles W Plant
Schwann cells are the primary inducers of regeneration of the peripheral nervous system. Schwann cells can be isolated from adult peripheral nerves, expanded in large numbers, and genetically transduced by viral vectors in vitro prior to their use in vivo. Here we describe how to use lentiviral vectors to transduce primary Schwann cells in vitro. We also describe how cultured Schwann cells can be used in conjunction with decellularized peripheral nerve sheaths prepared by multiple freeze thawing of peripheral nerve tissue...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Vania W Almeida, Margaret L Bates, Mary Bartlett Bunge
The transmission electron microscope (TEM) enables a unique and valuable examination of cellular and extracellular elements in tissue in situ, in cultured cells, or in pellets derived from suspensions of cells or other materials such as nanoparticles. Here we focus on the preparation of cultured Schwann cells or Schwann cell-containing dorsal root ganglion cultures. To gain as life-like as possible views of the cellular details, it is imperative to achieve excellent preservation of the cellular structure. The steps in the preparation of cultures described in this chapter represent the results of many years of accumulated TEM images to find the best methods of preservation for Schwann cells, myelin, and basal lamina components...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Sylvain Bart, Sacha Roudine, Joël Amossé, Christian Mougin, Alexandre R R Péry, Céline Pelosi
The risk assessment of pesticides on soil fauna is an issue to protect agroecosystem sustainability. Enchytraeids are recognized as relevant soil bioindicators of chemical stress in agroecosystems. In laboratory, the reproduction test was found to be sensitive to reveal chemical impacts on enchytraeids. However, it does not allow to assess the impacts on ecological functions in which enchytraeids are involved. The objectives of this study were (i) to explore the feasibility of the bait-lamina test with enchytraeids under laboratory conditions and (ii) to compare its sensitivity with the Enchytraeid Reproduction Test...
March 15, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ana Cardoso, Antonio Gil Castro, Ana Catarina Martins, Guilhermina M Carriche, Valentine Murigneux, Isabel Castro, Ana Cumano, Paulo Vieira, Margarida Saraiva
Inflammatory bowel disease encompasses a group of chronic-inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. These conditions are characterized by exacerbated inflammation of the organ that greatly affects the quality of life of patients. Molecular mechanisms counteracting this hyperinflammatory status of the gut offer strategies for therapeutic intervention. Among these regulatory molecules is the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10, as shown in mice and humans. Indeed, IL-10 signaling, particularly in macrophages, is essential for intestinal homeostasis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Zhaodong Li, Ludovica F Buttó, Kristine-Anne Buela, Li-Guo Jia, Minh Lam, John D Ward, Theresa T Pizarro, Fabio Cominelli
Death receptor 3 (DR3), a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been implicated in regulating T-helper type-1 (TH 1), type-2 (TH 2), and type-17 (TH 17) responses as well as regulatory T cell (Treg ) and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) functions during immune-mediated diseases. However, the role of DR3 in controlling lymphocyte functions in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not fully understood. Recent studies have shown that activation of DR3 signaling modulates Treg expansion suggesting that stimulation of DR3 represents a potential therapeutic target in human inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Arantza Infante, Clara I Rodríguez
Aging is a complex biological process, which involves multiple mechanisms with different levels of regulation. Senescent cells are known to secrete senescence-associated proteins, which exert negative influences on surrounding cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the common progenitors for bone, cartilage and adipose tissue (which are especially affected tissues in aging), are known to secrete a broad spectrum of biologically active proteins with both paracrine and autocrine functions in many biological processes...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Kyoung Min Lee, Ho-Kyung Choung, Martha Kim, Sohee Oh, Seok Hwan Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the positional change of central retinal vasculature and vascular trunk to deduce the change in the lamina cribrosa (LC) during axial elongation. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-three healthy myopic children (46 eyes). METHODS: Participants had undergone a full ophthalmologic examination and axial length measurement every 6 months for 2 years. Using spectral-domain OCT, circle scans centered around the optic disc in the glaucoma progression analysis mode, which enabled capturing of the same positions throughout the entire study period, and enhanced depth imaging of the deep optic nerve head complex were performed...
March 12, 2018: Ophthalmology
Hemant K Mehta
The purpose is to present a new refined surgical technique for mild-to-severe acquired myogenic ptosis correction under local anaesthesia (LA) as day cases with resection of myotarsal (MT) flap and demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the technique. MT flap consists of 2 mm tarsal strip with attached levator complex - levator muscle, its aponeurosis, and Müller muscle. This is a retrospective personal series of 400+ patients, who underwent surgical correction with MT flap resection of 8-24 mm under LA mostly as day cases...
March 15, 2018: Orbit
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