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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325880/balancing-selection-maintains-polymorphisms-at-neurogenetic-loci-in-field-experiments
#1
Eija Lonn, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes, Mikael Mokkonen, Angela M Sims, Phillip C Watts
Most variation in behavior has a genetic basis, but the processes determining the level of diversity at behavioral loci are largely unknown for natural populations. Expression of arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (Avpr1a) and oxytocin receptor (Oxtr) in specific regions of the brain regulates diverse social and reproductive behaviors in mammals, including humans. That these genes have important fitness consequences and that natural populations contain extensive diversity at these loci implies the action of balancing selection...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315977/seasonal-expression-of-arginine-vasotocin-mrna-and-its-correlations-to-gonadal-steroidogenic-enzymes-and-sexually-dimorphic-coloration-during-sex-reversal-in-the-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata
#2
José J Reyes-Tomassini, Ten-Tsao Wong, Yonathan Zohar
Arginine vasotocin is a hormone produced in the hypothalamus of teleost fish that has been shown to regulate gonad development and sexual behavior. To study the role of arginine vasotocin in the gonadal cycle of the hermaphrodite gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata, we cloned the seabream arginine vasotocin (avt) complementary DNA (cDNA). We investigated the expression of brain avt throughout the gonad cycle using real-time quantitative PCR and compared its expression levels to the expression levels of two key gonadal steroidogenic enzymes, cyp19a1a and cyp11b2...
March 18, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302371/urinary-metabolites-along-with-common-and-rare-genetic-variations-are-associated-with-incident-chronic-kidney-disease
#3
Gearoid M McMahon, Shih-Jen Hwang, Clary B Clish, Adrienne Tin, Qiong Yang, Martin G Larson, Eugene P Rhee, Man Li, Daniel Levy, Christopher J O'Donnell, Josef Coresh, J Hunter Young, Robert E Gerszten, Caroline S Fox
We assessed the association between urinary metabolites, genetic variants, and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the Framingham Offspring cohort. Among the participants, 193 individuals developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate under 60 ml/min/1.73m(2)) between cohort examinations 6 (1995-1998) and 8 (2005-2008, mean follow-up 9.7 years). They were age- and sex-matched to 193 control individuals free of CKD. A total of 154 urinary metabolites were measured using mass spectrometry, and the association between metabolites and CKD was examined using logistic regression...
March 14, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294385/potential-excitatory-role-of-nitric-oxide-on-2-deoxy-d-glucose-induced-gastric-motility-in-rats
#4
A M Sevgili, Z D Balkanci, A Erdem
Previous studies have shown that 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG) increases gastric motility via the vagus nerve, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Since nitric oxide (NO) is involved in gastric motility, a possible interplay between 2-DG and NO can be suggested. In the present study, Wistar rats (250-350 g) of both sexes were intravenously injected with 2-DG (200 mg·kg(-1) ), and the effects of the intravenous injection of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors; nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) and N(ω) -nitro-l-arginine (l-NNA, 10 mg·kg(-1) ) were investigated...
March 13, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293949/coomassie-brilliant-blue-g-250-dye-new-application-for-forensic-fingerprint-analysis
#5
Erica Brunelle, Anh Minh Le, Crystal Huynh, Kelly Wingfield, Lenka Halámková, Juliana Agudelo, Jan Halámek
The Bradford reagent, comprised of the Coomassie Brilliant Blue G-250 dye, methanol and phosphoric acid, has been traditionally used for quantifying proteins. Use of this reagent in the Bradford assay relies on the binding of the Coomassie Blue G-250 dye to proteins. However, the ability of the dye to react with a small group of amino acids - arginine, histidine, lysine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan - makes it a viable chemical assay for fingerprint analysis in order to identify the biological sex of the fingerprint originator...
March 15, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283755/vasotocin-induces-sexually-dimorphic-effects-on-acoustically-guided-behavior-in-a-tropical-frog
#6
Alexander T Baugh, Michael J Ryan
The neuropeptide arginine vasotocin (AVT) promotes sexual advertisement and influences vocalization structure in male anuran amphibians. In the present study, we used wild túngara frogs (Physalaemus pustulosus) to investigate the effects of AVT on phonotaxis in males and females-thereby controlling for potential task differences between the sexes. Using a combined within- and between-subjects design, we showed that acoustic choice behavior in female frogs is not influenced by injection per se (vehicle) or by AVT...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#7
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243524/intersexual-differences-of-heat-shock-response-between-two-amphipods-eulimnogammarus-verrucosus-and-eulimnogammarus-cyaneus-in-lake-baikal
#8
Daria Bedulina, Michael F Meyer, Anton Gurkov, Ekaterina Kondratjeva, Boris Baduev, Roman Gusdorf, Maxim A Timofeyev
Acute temperature fluctuations are common in surface waters, and aquatic organisms may manifest physiological responses to punctuated temperature spikes long before behavioral responses. Ectotherms, especially cryophilic stenotherms such as those endemic to Lake Baikal (Siberia), may demonstrate specialized physiological responses to acute temperature increases because their proteomes have evolved to function most efficiently at lower temperatures (e.g., <10 °C). Therefore, our study questioned the nature and degree of variation in physiological response to acute thermal stress in two congenerous, endemic Baikal amphipod species, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus and Eulimnogammarus cyaneus...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167369/post-dexamethasone-serum-copeptin-corresponds-to-hpa-axis-responsiveness-in-human-obesity
#9
Christian Schinke, Swen Hesse, Muriel Stoppe, Klara Meyer, Elisa Schmidt, Johannes Orthgiess, Lukas Bechmann, Anke Bresch, Michael Rullmann, Julia Luthardt, Osama Sabri, Matthias Blüher, Jürgen Kratzsch, Florian Then Bergh
CONTEXT: Increased activities of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were shown to be associated with human obesity, but relationships between these systems in obesity remain unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess HPA axis responsiveness and its relation to serum concentrations of the AVP-surrogate copeptin in subjects with obesity (OB) in comparison to non-obesity controls (NOC). METHODS: In a cross-sectional monocentric study, thirty-nine OB (f/m 25/14; age 36...
January 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125604/increased-symmetric-dimethylarginine-level-is-associated-with-worse-hospital-outcomes-through-altered-left-ventricular-ejection-fraction-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction
#10
Julie Lorin, Jean-Claude Guilland, Karim Stamboul, Charles Guenancia, Yves Cottin, Luc Rochette, Catherine Vergely, Marianne Zeller
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate whether SDMA- symmetric dimethylarginine -the symmetrical stereoisomer of ADMA- might be a marker of left ventricular function in AMI. BACKGROUND: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been implicated in the prognosis after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure (HF). METHODS: Cross sectional prospective study from 487 consecutive patients hospitalized <24 hours after AMI. Patients with HF on admission were excluded...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095492/growth-hormone-deficiency-is-associated-with-worse-cardiac-function-physical-performance-and-outcome-in-chronic-heart-failure-insights-from-the-t-o-s-ca-ghd-study
#11
Michele Arcopinto, Andrea Salzano, Francesco Giallauria, Eduardo Bossone, Jörgen Isgaard, Alberto M Marra, Emanuele Bobbio, Olga Vriz, David N Åberg, Daniele Masarone, Amato De Paulis, Lavinia Saldamarco, Carlo Vigorito, Pietro Formisano, Massimo Niola, Francesco Perticone, Domenico Bonaduce, Luigi Saccà, Annamaria Colao, Antonio Cittadini
BACKGROUND: Although mounting evidence supports the concept that growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) affects cardiovascular function, no study has systematically investigated its prevalence and role in a large cohort of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of GHD in mild-to-moderate CHF and to explore clinical and functional correlates of GHD. METHODS: One-hundred thirty CHF patients underwent GH provocative test with GHRH+arginine and accordingly categorized into GH-deficiency (GHD, n = 88, age = 61...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057871/copeptin-a-surrogate-marker-for-arginine-vasopressin-is-associated-with-disease-severity-and-progression-in-iga-nephropathy-patients
#12
Debbie Zittema, Jan A J G van den Brand, Stephan J L Bakker, Jack F Wetzels, Ron T Gansevoort
BACKGROUND: Besides its essential role for water homeostasis, arginine vasopressin (AVP) may have deleterious effects on the kidney. Copeptin, a surrogate marker for AVP, has been shown to be related to renal outcome in patients with diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. We investigated the association of copeptin with disease severity and progression in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). METHODS: We included a prospective cohort of 59 patients with biopsy proven IgAN...
January 5, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034972/the-association-between-musculoskeletal-pain-and-circulating-ornithine-a-population-based-study
#13
Pekka Mäntyselkä, Toni Ali-Sisto, Hannu Kautiainen, Leo Niskanen, Heimo Viinamäki, Vidya Velagapudi, Soili M Lehto
OBJECTIVE:  Based on several previous clinical studies, we hypothesized that ornithine levels are different among subjects with persistent musculoskeletal pain compared with other subjects in the population. DESIGN:  The study sample consisted of 221 adults with nonpersistent pain, 76 with persistent pain, and 61 with no pain. Concentrations of glutamic acid, ornithine, citrulline, arginine, proline, and spermidine were analyzed using a mass spectrometer. SETTING:  Lapinlahti municipality in Finland...
December 29, 2016: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974050/neonatal-milk-supplementation-in-lambs-has-persistent-effects-on-growth-and-metabolic-function-that-differ-by-sex-and-gestational-age
#14
Mary J Berry, Anne L Jaquiery, Mark H Oliver, Jane E Harding, Frank H Bloomfield
The perinatal environment has a major influence on long-term health and disease risk. Preterm birth alters early-life environment and is associated with altered metabolic function in adulthood. Whether preterm birth per se or the early nutritional interventions used to support growth in preterm infants underpins this association is unknown. Lambs born preterm, following dexamethasone induction of labour, or spontaneously at term were randomised to receive nutrient supplementation, analogous to the milk fortifier used clinically or water as a control for the first 2 weeks after birth...
December 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932410/anthropometric-factors-have-significant-influence-on-the-outcome-of-the-ghrh-arginine-test-establishment-of-normative-data-for-an-automated-immunoassay-specifically-measuring-22%C3%A2-kda-human-growth-hormone
#15
Timo Deutschbein, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jochen Schopohl, Christian J Strasburger, Stephan Petersenn
CONTEXT: Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is diagnosed by provocative testing of GH secretion. OBJECTIVE: To improve the diagnostic accuracy of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) plus arginine (GARG) testing, we evaluated the influence of age, BMI and sex and established normative data for an automatic immunoassay specifically measuring 22 kDa human GH. DESIGN/SETTING: Prospective multicenter study. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty-seven patients with hypothalamic-pituitary disease and 200 healthy controls...
March 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880955/long-term-angiotensin-ii-receptor-blockade-limits-hypertension-aortic-dysfunction-and-structural-remodeling-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#16
Omar Z Ameer, Mark Butlin, Elena Kaschina, Manuela Sommerfeld, Alberto P Avolio, Jacqueline K Phillips
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with large artery remodeling, endothelial dysfunction and calcification, with angiotensin II (Ang II) a known driver of these pathologies. We investigated long-term Ang II type 1 receptor inhibition with valsartan on aortic function and structure in the Lewis polycystic kidney (LPK) rat model of CKD. METHODS: Mixed sex LPK and Lewis control (total n = 28) treated (valsartan 60 mg/kg/day p.o. from 4 to 18 weeks) and vehicle groups were studied...
2016: Journal of Vascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874273/association-testing-of-vasopressin-receptor-1a-microsatellite-polymorphisms-in-non-clinical-autism-spectrum-phenotypes
#17
Tanya L Procyshyn, Peter L Hurd, Bernard J Crespi
Variation in the arginine vasopressin receptor 1a (AVPR1a) gene is associated with autism risk in clinical populations and with variation in social behavior in non-clinical populations. However, whether a relationship exists between AVPR1a polymorphisms and non-clinical manifestations of autism spectrum phenotypes has not been established. In this study, 873 Caucasian university students were administered the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaire and genotyped for the RS1 and RS3 microsatellites. A significant association was found between RS3 microsatellite variation and AQ score, with the long/long RS3 genotype associated with higher AQ score...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870395/sex-differences-in-associations-of-arginine-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-with-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity
#18
Leah H Rubin, Li Yao, Sarah K Keedy, James L Reilly, Jeffrey R Bishop, C Sue Carter, Hossein Pournajafi-Nazarloo, Lauren L Drogos, Carol A Tamminga, Godfrey D Pearlson, Matcheri S Keshavan, Brett A Clementz, Scot K Hill, Wei Liao, Gong-Jun Ji, Su Lui, John A Sweeney
Oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) exert robust and sexually dimorphic influences on cognition and emotion. How these hormones regulate relevant functional brain systems is not well understood. OT and AVP serum concentrations were assayed in 60 healthy individuals (36 women). Brain functional networks assessed with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) were constructed with graph theory-based approaches that characterize brain networks as connected nodes. Sex differences were demonstrated in rs-fMRI...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855412/a-46-xx-ovotesticular-disorder-of-sex-development-likely-caused-by-a-steroidogenic-factor-1-nr5a1-variant
#19
Jonathan M Swartz, Ryan Ciarlo, Michael H Guo, Aser Abrha, Benjamin Weaver, David A Diamond, Yee-Ming Chan, Joel N Hirschhorn
BACKGROUND: A variant in steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1, encoded by the gene NR5A1), p.Arg92Trp, has recently been reported in multiple families with 46,XX ovotesticular or testicular disorders of sex development (DSD). This amino acid change impacts the DNA-binding domain and perturbs gonadal differentiation pathways. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was performed on a 46,XX subject with ovotesticular DSD. RESULTS: Exome results identified a heterozygous NR5A1 variant, p...
November 18, 2016: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833161/12-months-metabolic-changes-among-gender-dysphoric-individuals-under-cross-sex-hormone-treatment-a-targeted-metabolomics-study
#20
Matthias K Auer, Alexander Cecil, Yasmin Roepke, Charlotte Bultynck, Charlotte Pas, Johannes Fuss, Cornelia Prehn, Rui Wang-Sattler, Jerzy Adamski, Günter K Stalla, Guy T'Sjoen
Metabolomic analyses in epidemiological studies have demonstrated a strong sexual dimorphism for most metabolites. Cross-sex hormone treatment (CSH) in transgender individuals enables the study of metabolites in a cross-gender setting. Targeted metabolomic profiling of serum of fasting transmen and transwomen at baseline and following 12 months of CSH (N = 20/group) was performed. Changes in 186 serum metabolites and metabolite ratios were determined by targeted metabolomics analysis based on ESI-LC-MS/MS...
November 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
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