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C Eno, F Pelegri
During the early embryonic cell cycles, zebrafish germ plasm ribonucleoparticles (RNPs) gradually multimerize and become recruited to the forming furrows. RNPs multimerization occurs prior to and during furrow initiation, as forming aggregates move outward through their association with the tips of growing interphase astral microtubules. Germ plasm RNPs are also associated with short cortical F-actin. We show that, in embryos mutant for the cytoskeletal regulator mid1ip1L , germ plasm RNPs fail to become recruited to the furrow, accumulating instead at the periphery of the blastodisc...
May 3, 2018: Development
Kaori Miyaoku, Ayaki Nakamoto, Hiroki Nishida, Gaku Kumano
Localized maternal mRNAs play important roles in embryogenesis, e.g. the establishment of embryonic axes and the developmental cell fate specification, in various animal species. In ascidians, a group of maternal mRNAs, called postplasmic/PEM RNAs, is localized to a subcellular structure, called the Centrosome-Attracting Body (CAB), which contains the ascidian germ plasm, and is inherited by the germline cells during embryogenesis. Posterior end mark (Pem), a postplasmic/PEM RNAs member, represses somatic gene expression in the germline during cleavage stages by inhibition of RNA polymerase II activity...
2018: PloS One
Peterson W Wambugu, Marie-Noelle Ndjiondjop, Robert J Henry
Global efforts have seen the world's plant genetic resources (PGRs) conserved in about 1625 germ plasm repositories. Utility of these resources is important in increasing the resilience and productivity of agricultural production systems. However, despite their importance, utility of these resources has been poor. This article reviews the real and potential application of the current advances in genomic technologies in improving the utilization of these resources. The actual and potential application of these genomic approaches in plant identification, phylogenetic analysis, analysing the genetic value of germ plasm, facilitating germ plasm selection in genebanks as well as instilling confidence in international germ plasm exchange system is discussed...
April 23, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Huan Ye, Huamei Yue, Xiaoge Yang, Chuangju Li, Qiwei Wei
In many organisms, germ cells are specified during embryogenesis by the inheritance of maternally deposited RNAs and proteins termed germ plasm. In vertebrates, the bucky ball (buc) gene plays an essential role in the germ plasm aggregation. In this study, the full-length cDNA of buc homologue in Dabry's sturgeon, Adbuc, was isolated and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments showed that the BUVE domain of Buc was highly conserved in vertebrates, despite exhibiting low identities with each other across the whole protein...
June 2018: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
Guohong Albert Wu, Javier Terol, Victoria Ibanez, Antonio López-García, Estela Pérez-Román, Carles Borredá, Concha Domingo, Francisco R Tadeo, Jose Carbonell-Caballero, Roberto Alonso, Franck Curk, Dongliang Du, Patrick Ollitrault, Mikeal L Roose, Joaquin Dopazo, Frederick G Gmitter, Daniel S Rokhsar, Manuel Talon
The genus Citrus, comprising some of the most widely cultivated fruit crops worldwide, includes an uncertain number of species. Here we describe ten natural citrus species, using genomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of 60 accessions representing diverse citrus germ plasms, and propose that citrus diversified during the late Miocene epoch through a rapid southeast Asian radiation that correlates with a marked weakening of the monsoons. A second radiation enabled by migration across the Wallace line gave rise to the Australian limes in the early Pliocene epoch...
February 15, 2018: Nature
M Slupecka-Ziemilska, J Wolinski, A P Herman, K Romanowicz, Z Dziegielewska, M K Borszewska-Kornacka
Ghrelin and obestatin are gastrointestinal peptides with a potential role in the programming of metabolism in newborns. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of preterm delivery on ghrelin and obestatin concentrations in the maternal blood plasma and breast milk as well as their gene expressions in the mammary epithelial cells (MECs). On the 3rd day after delivery, milk and plasma samples were collected from mothers that carried to term or gave birth prematurely (< 36 weeks of gestation) and analyzed for ghrelin and obestatin concentrations...
October 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Kunhuang Han, Shihai Chen, Mingyi Cai, Yonghua Jiang, Ziping Zhang, Yilei Wang
In this study, three nanos gene subtypes (Lcnanos1, Lcnanos2 and Lcnanos3) from Larimichthys crocea, were cloned and characterized. We determined the spatio-temporal expression patterns of each subtype in tissues as well as the cellular localization of mRNA in embryos. Results showed that deduced Nanos proteins have two main homology domains: N-terminal CCR4/NOT1 deadenylase interaction domain and highly conserved carboxy-terminal region bearing two conserved CCHC zinc-finger motifs. The expression levels of Lcnanos1 in testis were significantly higher than other tissues, followed by heart, brain, eye, and ovary...
April 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
L M Chiesa, F Ceriani, M Caligara, D Di Candia, R Malandra, S Panseri, F Arioli
Seafood is associated with many beneficial effects on human health. However, the overall level of contaminants in biota has increased over the last two centuries and seafood is one of the source of oral exposition to contaminants. Therefore, this work aimed to evaluate cadmium, lead, mercury, arsenic, chromium and nickel presence in mussels and clams, from the Italian market, and the associated risk. The samples were from five different FAO areas. Analyses were carried out using inductively-coupled plasms-mass spectrometry...
March 2018: Chemosphere
Boram Chung, Chulmin Park, Sung-Yeon Cho, Juyoun Shin, Sun Shin, Seon-Hee Yim, Dong-Gun Lee, Yeun-Jung Chung
Early and accurate detection of bacterial pathogens in the blood is the most crucial step for sepsis management. Gram-negative bacteria are the most common organisms causing severe sepsis and responsible for high morbidity and mortality. We aimed to develop a method for rapid multiplex identification of clinically important Gram-negative pathogens and also validated whether our system can identify Gram-negative pathogens with the cell-free plasm DNA from infected blood. We designed five MLPA probe sets targeting the genes specific to major Gram-negative pathogens (uidA and lacY for E...
February 2018: Electrophoresis
David G Roberts, Cairo N Forrest, Andrew J Denham, David J Ayre
Long-lived, widespread plant species are expected to be genetically diverse, reflecting the interaction between large population sizes, overlapping generations, and gene flow. Such species are thought to be resilient to disturbance, but may carry an extinction debt due to reproductive failure. Genetic studies of Australian arid zone plant species suggest an unusually high frequency of asexuality, polyploidy, or both. A preliminary AFLP genetic study implied that the naturally fragmented arid zone tree, Acacia carneorum , is almost entirely dependent on asexual reproduction through suckering, and stands may have lacked genetic diversity and interconnection even prior to the onset of European pastoralism...
November 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Amanda M Butler, Dawn A Owens, Lingyu Wang, Mary Lou King
Xenopus primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined by the presence of maternally derived germ plasm. Germ plasm components both protect PGCs from somatic differentiation and begin a unique gene expression program. Segregation of the germline from the endodermal lineage occurs during gastrulation, and PGCs subsequently initiate zygotic transcription. However, the gene network(s) that operate to both preserve and promote germline differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate PGC and neighboring endoderm cell mRNAs after lineage segregation...
January 8, 2018: Development
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus , which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus , Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
Jérémy Dufourt, Gwénaëlle Bontonou, Aymeric Chartier, Camille Jahan, Anne-Cécile Meunier, Stéphanie Pierson, Paul F Harrison, Catherine Papin, Traude H Beilharz, Martine Simonelig
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and PIWI proteins play a crucial role in germ cells by repressing transposable elements and regulating gene expression. In Drosophila, maternal piRNAs are loaded into the embryo mostly bound to the PIWI protein Aubergine (Aub). Aub targets maternal mRNAs through incomplete base-pairing with piRNAs and can induce their destabilization in the somatic part of the embryo. Paradoxically, these Aub-dependent unstable mRNAs encode germ cell determinants that are selectively stabilized in the germ plasm...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
Denise Oh, Douglas W Houston
The localization and organization of mitochondria- and ribonucleoprotein granule-rich germ plasm is essential for many aspects of germ cell development. In Xenopus, germ plasm is maternally inherited and is required for the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Germ plasm is aggregated into larger patches during egg activation and cleavage and is ultimately translocated perinuclearly during gastrulation. Although microtubule dynamics and a kinesin (Kif4a) have been implicated in Xenopus germ plasm localization, little is known about how germ plasm distribution is regulated...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Biology
Bhavana Tiwari, Paula Kurtz, Amanda E Jones, Annika Wylie, James F Amatruda, Devi Prasad Boggupalli, Graydon B Gonsalvez, John M Abrams
Retrotransposons are a pervasive class of mobile elements present in the genomes of virtually all forms of life [1, 2]. In metazoans, these are preferentially active in the germline, which, in turn, mounts defenses that restrain their activity [3, 4]. Here we report that certain classes of retrotransposons ensure transgenerational inheritance by invading presumptive germ cells before they are formed. Using sensitized Drosophila and zebrafish models, we found that diverse classes of retrotransposons migrate to the germ plasm, a specialized region of the oocyte that prefigures germ cells and specifies the germline of descendants in the fertilized egg...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
Arpita Kulkarni, Cassandra G Extavour
Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells...
July 19, 2017: Stem Cell Research
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Szczepan M Bilinski, Malgorzata Kloc, Waclaw Tworzydlo
Early oocytes of nearly all animal species contain a transient organelle assemblage termed the Balbiani body. Structure and composition of this assemblage may vary even between closely related species. Despite this variability, the Balbiani body always comprises of numerous tightly clustered mitochondria and accumulations of nuage material. It has been suggested that the Balbiani body is an evolutionarily ancestral structure, which plays a role in various processes such as the localization of organelles and macromolecules to the germ plasm, lipidogenesis, as well as the selection/elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria from female germline cells...
November 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus, which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
Justyna Widomska, Witold K Subczynski, Laxman Mainali, Marija Raguz
The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups...
December 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
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