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A T M Cunha, J O Carvalho, N R Kussano, C F Martins, G B Mourão, M A N Dode
In this study we examined quality, longevity and ability of epididymal sperm (EP) to bind to oviduct explants (OE) after cooling and cryopreservation. Ejaculated (EJ) and EP sperm from seven bulls were evaluated before, during and after cryopreservation for total (TM), progressive motility (PM), sperm morphology, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (ACI). For longevity, cryopreserved EP, EJ and a third group of cells in which EP spermatozoa were incubated with seminal plasm (SP) for 10 min after thawing (EPP group), were compared, and the groups were analyzed at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h for all parameters...
September 28, 2016: Cryobiology
Haru Tada, Yuya Taira, Keisuke Morichika, Tsutomu Kinoshita
In many animals, the germ plasm is sufficient and necessary for primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. It contains germinal granules and abundant mitochondria (germline-Mt). However, the role of germline-Mt in germ cell formation remains poorly understood. In Xenopus, the germ plasm is distributed as many small islands at the vegetal pole, which gradually aggregates to form a single large mass in each of the four vegetal pole cells at the early blastula stage. Polymerized microtubules and the adapter protein kinesin are required for the aggregation of germ plasm...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ line in animals. PGCs are specified during embryogenesis either by an ancestral mechanism of cell-cell signalling (induction) or by a derived mechanism of maternally provided germ plasm (preformation). Recently, a hypothesis was set forth purporting that germ plasm liberates selective constraint and accelerates an organism's protein sequence evolution, especially for genes from early developmental stages, thereby leading to animal species radiations; empirical validation has been claimed in vertebrates...
2016: Nature Communications
Elvan Boke, Martine Ruer, Martin Wühr, Margaret Coughlin, Regis Lemaitre, Steven P Gygi, Simon Alberti, David Drechsel, Anthony A Hyman, Timothy J Mitchison
Most vertebrate oocytes contain a Balbiani body, a large, non-membrane-bound compartment packed with RNA, mitochondria, and other organelles. Little is known about this compartment, though it specifies germline identity in many non-mammalian vertebrates. We show Xvelo, a disordered protein with an N-terminal prion-like domain, is an abundant constituent of Xenopus Balbiani bodies. Disruption of the prion-like domain of Xvelo, or substitution with a prion-like domain from an unrelated protein, interferes with its incorporation into Balbiani bodies in vivo...
July 28, 2016: Cell
Yingbiao Ji, Alexei V Tulin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) regulates the posttranscriptional fate of RNA during development. Drosophila hnRNP A1, Hrp38, is required for germ line stem cell maintenance and oocyte localization. The mRNA targets regulated by Hrp38 are mostly unknown. We identified 428 Hrp38-associated gene transcripts in the fly ovary, including mRNA of the translational repressor Nanos. We found that Hrp38 binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Nanos mRNA, which contains a translation control element...
October 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Aeri Cho, Masato Kato, Tess Whitwam, Ji Hoon Kim, Denise J Montell
A longstanding mystery has been the absence of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) from Drosophila despite their importance in other organisms. In the course of characterizing the in vivo expression and functions of Drosophila Tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms, we discovered an essential but unusual product of the Tm1 locus, Tm1-I/C, which resembles an IF protein in some respects. Like IFs, Tm1-I/C spontaneously forms filaments in vitro that are intermediate in diameter between F-actin and microtubules. Like IFs but unlike canonical Tms, Tm1-I/C contains N- and C-terminal low-complexity domains flanking a central coiled coil...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Mingyou Li, Feng Zhu, Zhendong Li, Ni Hong, Yunhan Hong
The DAZ family genes boule, daz and dazl have conserved functions in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration, germ stem cell proliferation, differentiation and meiosis progression. It has remained unknown whether this family is required for PGC formation in developing embryos. Our recent study in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) has defined dnd as the critical PGC specifier and predicted the presence of additional factors essential for PGC formation. Here we report that dazl is a second key player for medaka PGC formation...
2016: Scientific Reports
Federica Bertocchini, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes
In the field of germline development in amniote vertebrates, primordial germ cell (PGC) specification in birds and reptiles remains controversial. Avians are believed to adopt a predetermination or maternal specification mode of PGC formation, contrary to an inductive mode employed by mammals and, supposedly, reptiles. Here, we revisit and review some key aspects of PGC development that channelled the current subdivision, and challenge the position of birds and reptiles as well as the 'binary' evolutionary model of PGC development in vertebrates...
August 2016: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
D V Dmytriyev
There were examined 47 children, operated on for tumors of abdominal cavity and retroperitoneal space. The opioid-induced hyperalgesia may occur in early postoperative period. The anesthesia conduction of m. transverses abdominis (TAP-block), using 0.375% bupivacaine solution and combined spinal epidural analgesia (CSEA) for postoperative anesthesia have promoted the hyperalgesia severity reduction. Hyperalgesia in early postoperative period was demonstrated by upgrading of the toll-like receptors (TLR-4) level in the blood...
January 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
O V Rotar
In 70 patients, suffering an acute necrotic pancreatitis (ANP), and 10 practically healthy persons a content of presepsin in a blood plasm, using immunochemiluminescent method and conducted bacteriological investigations, were analyzed. The infection occurrence is accompanied by plausible upgrading of a presepsin level in a blood plasm, depending on activity and severity of a septic process: in local infection--up to (677 ± 30) pg/ml, sepsis--up to (988 ± 47) pg/ml, severe sepsis--up to 2668 pg/ml; in an ANP without infection it have constituted (332 ± 38) pg/mI at average, in practically healthy persons--(184 ± 16) pg/mI...
January 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
V G Mishalov, L Yu Markulan, R M Matveyev
Abstract Efficacy and security of a plasmapheresis procedure in complex of treatment of nonbiliary acute pancreatitis in early phase of the disease were established, basing on the treatment results analysis in 48 patients. The plasmapheresis results were estimated in accordance to changes revealed in the intoxication leukocytic index (ILI), a general protein (GP) content, general calcium (GC) in the blood plasm and of the activated partial thrombin time (APTHT). Application of plasmapheresis in patients, suffering purulent pancreatitis in the enzymal phase, have guaranteed a staged reduction of ILI by (34...
February 2016: Klinichna Khirurhiia
Qing-Qing Chen, Wen-Bin Liu, Man Zhou, Yong-Jun Dai, Chao Xu, Hong-Yan Tian, Wei-Na Xu
This study aimed to figure out the effects of berberine on growth performance, immunity, oxidative stress and hepatocyte apoptosis of blunt snout bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fed with high-fat diet. 320 fish (80.00 ± 0.90 g) were divided randomly into four trial groups (each with four replicates) and fed with 4 diets (normal diet, normal diet with 50 mg/kg berberine, high-fat diet, high-fat diet with 50 mg/kg berberine), respectively. At the end of the feeding trial, ammonia stress test was carried out for 5 days...
August 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Waclaw Tworzydlo, Elzbieta Kisiel, Wladyslawa Jankowska, Alicja Witwicka, Szczepan M Bilinski
Oocytes of many invertebrate and vertebrate species contain a characteristic organelle complex known as the Balbiani body (Bb). Until now, three principal functions have been ascribed to this complex: delivery of germ cell determinants and localized RNAs to the vegetal cortex/posterior pole of the oocyte, transport of the mitochondria towards the germ plasm, and participation in the formation of lipid droplets. Here, we present the results of a computer-aided 3D reconstruction of the Bb in the growing oocytes of an insect, Thermobia domestica...
October 2016: Cell and Tissue Research
Reyhane Hoshyar, Gholam Reza Khayati, Maliheh Poorgholami, Massoud Kaykhaii
Functionalized nanoparticles are specifically designed to deliver drugs at tumor cells and can potentially enhance anticancer activity of drugs such as crocin. In the present study, we have applied antioxidant crocin as a reducing agent for one pot green synthesis of controlled size gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Spherical, stable and uniform AuNPs were synthesized using crocin. These AuNPs are characterized by UV-Vis, TEM and XRD techniques. The prepared AuNPs showed surface plasm on resonance centered at 520nm with the average particle size of about 4-10nm...
June 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Marina Delic-Sarac, Selma Mutevelic, Jasenko Karamehic, Djemo Subasic, Tomislav Jukic, Jozo Coric, Ognjen Ridjic, Mirsad Panjeta, Lejla Zunic
INTRODUCTION: Anti GAD (antibodies on glutamic acid decarboxylase) and anti-IA2 antibodies (against tyrosine phosphatase), today, have their place and importance in diagnosis and prognosis of Type 1 diabetes. Huge number of patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 have these antibodies. Insulin antibodies are of critical importance in diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 1 for pediatric population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: During 2014, the samples of 80 patients from Clinical Center University Sarajevo (CCUS) Pediatrics clinic's, Endocrinology department were analyzed on anti-GAD and IA2 antibodies...
February 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
Hongbin Sun, Liping Zhang, Xiuli Han, Zhongyu Wang, Lei Xu
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of thoracotomy and total thoracoscopic surgery on coronary artery fistulae complicated with ectasia. METHODS: Forty-six patients with coronary artery fistulae complicated with ectasia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a control group (n=23) which were given totally thoracoscopic surgery and thoracotomy respectively. Both groups were followed up. RESULTS: All patients survived the surgeries and were discharged from the hospital...
January 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Tristan Aguero, Yi Zhou, Malgorzata Kloc, Patrick Chang, Evelyn Houliston, Mary Lou King
The germ cell lineage in Xenopus is specified by the inheritance of germ plasm that assembles within the mitochondrial cloud or Balbiani body in stage I oocytes. Specific RNAs, such as nanos1, localize to the germ plasm. nanos1 has the essential germline function of blocking somatic gene expression and thus preventing Primordial Germ Cell (PGC) loss and sterility. Hermes/Rbpms protein and nanos RNA co-localize within germinal granules, diagnostic electron dense particles found within the germ plasm. Previous work indicates that nanos accumulates within the germ plasm through a diffusion/entrapment mechanism...
March 2016: Journal of Developmental Biology
Ruth Lehmann
Germ granules are the hallmark of all germ cells. These membrane-less, electron-dense structures were first observed over 100 years ago. Today, their role in regulating and processing transcripts critical for the establishment, maintenance, and protection of germ cells is well established, and pathways outlining the biochemical mechanisms and physical properties associated with their biogenesis are emerging.
2016: Current Topics in Developmental Biology
Anastassios Vourekas, Panagiotis Alexiou, Nicholas Vrettos, Manolis Maragkakis, Zissimos Mourelatos
The conserved Piwi family of proteins and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have a central role in genomic stability, which is inextricably linked to germ-cell formation, by forming Piwi ribonucleoproteins (piRNPs) that silence transposable elements. In Drosophila melanogaster and other animals, primordial germ-cell specification in the developing embryo is driven by maternal messenger RNAs and proteins that assemble into specialized messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs) localized in the germ (pole) plasm at the posterior of the oocyte...
March 17, 2016: Nature
Deng Wang, Jun Zhou, Jin Zhang, Mao-xing Li, Jian-guo Qiu, Zheng-ping Jia, Ru-xue Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To study the effects and potential mechanism of Kaixin-San and Danggui-Shaoyao-San on glucose and lipid metabolism in chronic stress rats fed with high-fat diet. METHODS: 50 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control group (distilled water), high-fat diet with chronic stress group (distilled water), melatonin group(20 mg/kg), Kaixin-San group (445 mg/kg) and Danggui-Shaoyao-San group (3360 mg/kg). All drugs were orally administered. In addition to the normal control group, each group of rats were fed with high-fat, diet...
September 2015: Zhong Yao Cai, Zhongyaocai, Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials
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