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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397605/xenopus-vasa-homolog-xvlg1-is-essential-for-migration-and-survival-of-primordial-germ-cells
#1
Kazumi Shimaoka, Yoshiko Mukumoto, Yoko Tanigawa, Tohru Komiya
Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 (XVLG1), a DEAD-Box Helicase 4 (DDX4) gene identified as a vertebrate vasa homologue, is required for the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, it remains to be clarified when and how XVLG1 functions in the formation of the germ cells. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying XVLG1 during PGC development, we injected XVLG1 morpholino oligos into germ-plasm containing blastomeres of 32-cell stage of Xenopus embryos, and traced cell fates of the injected blastomere-derived PGCs...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396313/acquired-met-y1248h-and-d1246n-mutations-mediate-resistance-to-met-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#2
An-Na Li, Jinji Yang, Xu-Chao Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Jian Su, Lan-Ying Gou, Yu Bai, Qing Zhou, Zhenfan Yang, Han Han-Zhang, Wenzhao Zhong, Shannon Chuai, Qi Zhang, Zhi Xie, Hong-Fei Gao, Hua-Jun Chen, Zheng Wang, Zhen Wang, Xue-Ning Yang, Bin-Chao Wang, Bin Gan, Zhihong Chen, Ben-Yuan Jiang, Si-Pei Wu, Si-Yang Liu, Chongrui Xu, Yi-Long Wu
Purpose: MET amplification, responsible for 20% of acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), presents an attractive target. Numerous studies have conferred susceptibility of MET mutations and focal amplification to targeted MET-TKIs. However, the mechanism underlying MET-TKIs-induced resistance remains elusive. <p>Experimental Design: We conducted a cohort of 12 patients with advanced NSCLC who developed resistance to a combinatorial therapy consisting of gefitinib and a Type I MET-TKI...
April 10, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122234/germ-cell-less-promotes-centrosome-segregation-to-induce-germ-cell-formation
#3
Dorothy A Lerit, Conrad W Shebelut, Kristen J Lawlor, Nasser M Rusan, Elizabeth R Gavis, Paul Schedl, Girish Deshpande
The primordial germ cells (PGCs) specified during embryogenesis serve as progenitors to the adult germline stem cells. In Drosophila, the proper specification and formation of PGCs require both centrosomes and germ plasm, which contains the germline determinants. Centrosomes are microtubule (MT)-organizing centers that ensure the faithful segregation of germ plasm into PGCs. To date, mechanisms that modulate centrosome behavior to engineer PGC development have remained elusive. Only one germ plasm component, Germ cell-less (Gcl), is known to play a role in PGC formation...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115159/dnd-protein-functions-as-a-translation-repressor-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#4
Manami Kobayashi, Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Yasuka Ohkawa, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Kunio Inoue
Germline and somatic cell distinction is regulated through a combination of microRNA and germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins in zebrafish. An RNA-binding protein, DND, has been reported to relieve the miR-430-mediated repression of some germ plasm mRNAs such as nanos3 and tdrd7 in primordial germ cells (PGCs). Here, we showed that miR-430-mediated repression is not counteracted by the overexpression of DND protein in somatic cells. Using a λN-box B tethering assay in the embryo, we found that tethering of DND to reporter mRNA results in translation repression without affecting mRNA stability...
January 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087205/elevated-fasting-glucose-and-albuminuria-may-be-a-marker-for-all-cause-mortality-in-indigenous-adults-in-north-queensland-a-follow-up-study-1998-2006
#5
Ming Li, Robyn McDermott
AIMS: To document risk factors of all-cause mortality in a cohort of indigenous Australians from 23 communities of North Queensland during 1998-2006. METHODS: Among 2787 indigenous adults, baseline weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyl transferase, urine albumin creatinine ratio, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were measured in 1998-2000. Deaths were ascertained from State Registry of Deaths, hospitalization and clinical records till 2006...
April 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065608/quantitative-differences-in-a-single-maternal-factor-determine-survival-probabilities-among-drosophila-germ-cells
#6
Maija Slaidina, Ruth Lehmann
Germ cell death occurs in many species [1-3] and has been proposed as a mechanism by which the fittest, strongest, or least damaged germ cells are selected for transmission to the next generation. However, little is known about how the choice is made between germ cell survival and death. Here, we focus on the mechanisms that regulate germ cell survival during embryonic development in Drosophila. We find that the decision to die is a germ cell-intrinsic process linked to quantitative differences in germ plasm inheritance, such that higher germ plasm inheritance correlates with higher primordial germ cell (PGC) survival probability...
January 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013179/simultaneous-quantification-and-semi-quantification-of-ginkgolic-acids-and-their-metabolites-in-rat-plasma-by-uhplc-ltq-orbitrap-ms-and-its-application-to-pharmacokinetics-study
#7
Yiyun Qian, Zhenhua Zhu, Jin-Ao Duan, Sheng Guo, Erxin Shang, Jinhua Tao, Shulan Su, Jianming Guo
A highly sensitive method using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous identification and quantification of ginkgolic acids and semi-quantification of their metabolites in rat plasma. For the five selected ginkgolic acids, the method was found to be with good linearities (r>0.9991), good intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD<15%), and good accuracies (RE, from -10...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009314/hurtle-cells-immunohistochemical-activities-in-hashimoto-thyroiditis-parenchyma
#8
Z Tsagareli, T Kvachadze, E Melikadze, L Metreveli, E Nikobadze, L Gogiashvili
The present study was designed to evaluate the participation and utility of Hǘrtle cells morphological requirment and transformation under Hashimoto autoimmune thyroiditis versus Riedel´s struma. Several markers have been evaluated to detect induced activities of Hǘrtle cells. Study subject - specimens (tissue fragments) collected from TG surgery (thyroidectomy) for mollecular (receptor) diagnosis of Hǘrtle cells activities using routine histological and immunohistochemical samples. 89 cases were selected in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosis with Hǘrtle cells history (adenoma and adenomatous grouth of oncocytes)...
November 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27975276/mechanisms-of-vertebrate-germ-cell-determination
#9
Tristan Aguero, Susannah Kassmer, Ramiro Alberio, Andrew Johnson, Mary Lou King
Two unique characteristics of the germ line are the ability to persist from generation to generation and to retain full developmental potential while differentiating into gametes. How the germ line is specified that allows it to retain these characteristics within the context of a developing embryo remains unknown and is one focus of current research. Germ cell specification proceeds through one of two basic mechanisms: cell autonomous or inductive. Here, we discuss how germ plasm driven germ cell specification (cell autonomous) occurs in both zebrafish and the frog Xenopus...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836552/rhoa-rock-pathway-activity-is-essential-for-the-correct-localization-of-the-germ-plasm-mrnas-in-zebrafish-embryos
#10
Jerónimo Roberto Miranda-Rodríguez, Enrique Salas-Vidal, Hilda Lomelí, Mario Zurita, Denhi Schnabel
Zebrafish germ plasm is composed of mRNAs such as vasa and nanos and of proteins such as Bucky ball, all of which localize symmetrically in four aggregates at the distal region of the first two cleavage furrows. The coordination of actin microfilaments, microtubules and kinesin is essential for the correct localization of the germ plasm. Rho-GTPases, through their effectors, coordinate cytoskeletal dynamics. We address the participation of RhoA and its effector ROCK in germ plasm localization during the transition from two- to eight-cell embryos...
January 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802898/oxymatrine-attenuated-isoproterenol-induced-heart-failure-in-rats-via-regulation-of-cox-2-pgi2-pathway
#11
Ru Zhou, Qingbin Xu, Yehua Xu, Aiqin Xiong, Yang Wang, Ping Ma
Oxymatrine (OMT) is an active constituent of traditional Chinese herb Sophora japonica Ait which has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidant and anti-fibrosis properties. Our previous studies have demonstrated that OMT has protective effects on isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats through regulation of DDAH/ADMA metabolism pathway.In this study,we further investigated whether OMT could attenuate isoproterenol-induced heart failure through the regulation of COX-2/PGI2 pathway. Heart failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 5mg/kg isoproterenol subcutaneous injection for 7days...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801632/the-mrna-transportome-of-the-bicd-egl-transport-machinery
#12
Paula Vazquez-Pianzola, Bogdan Schaller, Martino Colombo, Dirk Beuchle, Samuel Neuenschwander, Anne Marcil, Rémy Bruggmann, Beat Suter
mRNA (mRNA) transport focuses the expression of encoded proteins to specific regions within cells providing them with the means to assume specific functions and even identities. BicD and the mRNA binding protein Egl interact with the microtubule motor dynein to localize mRNAs in Drosophila. Because relatively few mRNA cargos were known, we isolated and identified Egl::GFP associated mRNAs. The top candidates were validated by qPCR, in situ hybridization and genetically by showing that their localization requires BicD...
January 2, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784263/multiplicity-of-buc-copies-in-atlantic-salmon-contrasts-with-loss-of-the-germ-cell-determinant-in-primates-rodents-and-axolotl
#13
Adrijana Škugor, Helge Tveiten, Hanne Johnsen, Øivind Andersen
BACKGROUND: The primordial germ cells (PGCs) giving rise to gametes are determined by two different mechanisms in vertebrates. While the germ cell fate in mammals and salamanders is induced by zygotic signals, maternally delivered germ cell determinants specify the PGCs in birds, frogs and teleost fish. Assembly of the germ plasm in the oocyte is organized by the single Buc in zebrafish, named Velo1 in Xenopus, and by Oskar in Drosophila. Secondary loss of oskar in several insect lineages coincides with changes in germline determination strategies, while the presence of buc in mammals suggests functions not associated with germline formation...
October 26, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693236/bovine-epididymal-spermatozoa-resistance-to-cryopreservation-and-binding-ability-to-oviductal-cells
#14
A T M Cunha, J O Carvalho, N R Kussano, C F Martins, G B Mourão, M A N Dode
In this study we examined quality, longevity and ability of epididymal sperm (EP) to bind to oviduct explants (OE) after cooling and cryopreservation. Ejaculated (EJ) and EP sperm from seven bulls were evaluated before, during and after cryopreservation for total (TM), progressive motility (PM), sperm morphology, plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and acrosome integrity (ACI). For longevity, cryopreserved EP, EJ and a third group of cells in which EP spermatozoa were incubated with seminal plasm (SP) for 10 min after thawing (EPP group), were compared, and the groups were analyzed at 0, 3, 6, and 24 h for all parameters...
September 28, 2016: Cryobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585825/mitochondrial-trafficking-through-rhot1-is-involved-in-the-aggregation-of-germinal-granule-components-during-primordial-germ-cell-formation-in-xenopus-embryos
#15
Haru Tada, Yuya Taira, Keisuke Morichika, Tsutomu Kinoshita
In many animals, the germ plasm is sufficient and necessary for primordial germ cell (PGC) formation. It contains germinal granules and abundant mitochondria (germline-Mt). However, the role of germline-Mt in germ cell formation remains poorly understood. In Xenopus, the germ plasm is distributed as many small islands at the vegetal pole, which gradually aggregates to form a single large mass in each of the four vegetal pole cells at the early blastula stage. Polymerized microtubules and the adapter protein kinesin are required for the aggregation of germ plasm...
October 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27577604/refuting-the-hypothesis-that-the-acquisition-of-germ-plasm-accelerates-animal-evolution
#16
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
Primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ line in animals. PGCs are specified during embryogenesis either by an ancestral mechanism of cell-cell signalling (induction) or by a derived mechanism of maternally provided germ plasm (preformation). Recently, a hypothesis was set forth purporting that germ plasm liberates selective constraint and accelerates an organism's protein sequence evolution, especially for genes from early developmental stages, thereby leading to animal species radiations; empirical validation has been claimed in vertebrates...
August 31, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471966/amyloid-like-self-assembly-of-a-cellular-compartment
#17
Elvan Boke, Martine Ruer, Martin Wühr, Margaret Coughlin, Regis Lemaitre, Steven P Gygi, Simon Alberti, David Drechsel, Anthony A Hyman, Timothy J Mitchison
Most vertebrate oocytes contain a Balbiani body, a large, non-membrane-bound compartment packed with RNA, mitochondria, and other organelles. Little is known about this compartment, though it specifies germline identity in many non-mammalian vertebrates. We show Xvelo, a disordered protein with an N-terminal prion-like domain, is an abundant constituent of Xenopus Balbiani bodies. Disruption of the prion-like domain of Xvelo, or substitution with a prion-like domain from an unrelated protein, interferes with its incorporation into Balbiani bodies in vivo...
July 28, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27402862/poly-adp-ribosyl-ation-of-hnrnp-a1-protein-controls-translational-repression-in-drosophila
#18
Yingbiao Ji, Alexei V Tulin
Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) regulates the posttranscriptional fate of RNA during development. Drosophila hnRNP A1, Hrp38, is required for germ line stem cell maintenance and oocyte localization. The mRNA targets regulated by Hrp38 are mostly unknown. We identified 428 Hrp38-associated gene transcripts in the fly ovary, including mRNA of the translational repressor Nanos. We found that Hrp38 binds to the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of Nanos mRNA, which contains a translation control element...
October 1, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27396338/an-atypical-tropomyosin-in-drosophila-with-intermediate-filament-like-properties
#19
Aeri Cho, Masato Kato, Tess Whitwam, Ji Hoon Kim, Denise J Montell
A longstanding mystery has been the absence of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) from Drosophila despite their importance in other organisms. In the course of characterizing the in vivo expression and functions of Drosophila Tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms, we discovered an essential but unusual product of the Tm1 locus, Tm1-I/C, which resembles an IF protein in some respects. Like IFs, Tm1-I/C spontaneously forms filaments in vitro that are intermediate in diameter between F-actin and microtubules. Like IFs but unlike canonical Tms, Tm1-I/C contains N- and C-terminal low-complexity domains flanking a central coiled coil...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27328644/dazl-is-a-critical-player-for-primordial-germ-cell-formation-in-medaka
#20
Mingyou Li, Feng Zhu, Zhendong Li, Ni Hong, Yunhan Hong
The DAZ family genes boule, daz and dazl have conserved functions in primordial germ cell (PGC) migration, germ stem cell proliferation, differentiation and meiosis progression. It has remained unknown whether this family is required for PGC formation in developing embryos. Our recent study in the fish medaka (Oryzias latipes) has defined dnd as the critical PGC specifier and predicted the presence of additional factors essential for PGC formation. Here we report that dazl is a second key player for medaka PGC formation...
2016: Scientific Reports
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