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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158442/the-xenopus-primordial-germ-cell-transcriptome-identifies-sox7-a-novel-role-in-early-pgc-development
#1
Amanda M Butler, Dawn A Owens, Lingyu Wang, Mary Lou King
Xenopus primordial germ cells (PGCs) are determined by the presence of maternally derived germ plasm. Germ plasm components both protect PGCs from somatic differentiation and begin a unique gene expression program. Segregation of the germline from the endodermal lineage occurs during gastrulation, and PGCs subsequently initiate zygotic transcription. However, the gene-network(s) that operate to both preserve and promote germline differentiation are poorly understood. Here, we utilized RNA-sequencing analysis to comprehensively interrogate PGC and neighboring endoderm cell mRNAs after lineage segregation...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137226/the-neglected-avian-hepatotropic-virus-induces-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-in-ducks-an-alternative-model-for-hepatology
#2
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus, which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101389/pirnas-and-aubergine-cooperate-with-wispy-poly-a-polymerase-to-stabilize-mrnas-in-the-germ-plasm
#3
Jérémy Dufourt, Gwénaëlle Bontonou, Aymeric Chartier, Camille Jahan, Anne-Cécile Meunier, Stéphanie Pierson, Paul F Harrison, Catherine Papin, Traude H Beilharz, Martine Simonelig
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) and PIWI proteins play a crucial role in germ cells by repressing transposable elements and regulating gene expression. In Drosophila, maternal piRNAs are loaded into the embryo mostly bound to the PIWI protein Aubergine (Aub). Aub targets maternal mRNAs through incomplete base-pairing with piRNAs and can induce their destabilization in the somatic part of the embryo. Paradoxically, these Aub-dependent unstable mRNAs encode germ cell determinants that are selectively stabilized in the germ plasm...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037933/role-of-maternal-xenopus-syntabulin-in-germ-plasm-aggregation-and-primordial-germ-cell-specification
#4
Denise Oh, Douglas W Houston
The localization and organization of mitochondria- and ribonucleoprotein granule-rich germ plasm is essential for many aspects of germ cell development. In Xenopus, germ plasm is maternally inherited and is required for the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs). Germ plasm is aggregated into larger patches during egg activation and cleavage and is ultimately translocated perinuclearly during gastrulation. Although microtubule dynamics and a kinesin (Kif4a) have been implicated in Xenopus germ plasm localization, little is known about how germ plasm distribution is regulated...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966088/retrotransposons-mimic-germ-plasm-determinants-to-promote-transgenerational-inheritance
#5
Bhavana Tiwari, Paula Kurtz, Amanda E Jones, Annika Wylie, James F Amatruda, Devi Prasad Boggupalli, Graydon B Gonsalvez, John M Abrams
Retrotransposons are a pervasive class of mobile elements present in the genomes of virtually all forms of life [1, 2]. In metazoans, these are preferentially active in the germline, which, in turn, mounts defenses that restrain their activity [3, 4]. Here we report that certain classes of retrotransposons ensure transgenerational inheritance by invading presumptive germ cells before they are formed. Using sensitized Drosophila and zebrafish models, we found that diverse classes of retrotransposons migrate to the germ plasm, a specialized region of the oocyte that prefigures germ cells and specifies the germline of descendants in the fertilized egg...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801028/convergent-evolution-of-germ-granule-nucleators-a-hypothesis
#6
Arpita Kulkarni, Cassandra G Extavour
Germ cells have been considered "the ultimate stem cell" because they alone, during normal development of sexually reproducing organisms, are able to give rise to all organismal cell types. Morphological descriptions of a specialized cytoplasm termed 'germ plasm' and associated electron dense ribonucleoprotein (RNP) structures called 'germ granules' within germ cells date back as early as the 1800s. Both germ plasm and germ granules are implicated in germ line specification across metazoans. However, at a molecular level, little is currently understood about the molecular mechanisms that assemble these entities in germ cells...
July 19, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765643/mir-202-5p-is-a-novel-germ-plasm-specific-microrna-in-zebrafish
#7
Jing Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Jin, Peng Jia, Kuntong Jia, Meisheng Yi
Gametogenesis is a complicated biological process by which sperm and egg are produced for genetic transmission between generations. In many animals, the germline is segregated from the somatic lineage in early embryonic development through the specification of primordial germ cells (PGCs), the precursors of gametes for reproduction and fertility. In some species, such as fruit fly and zebrafish, PGCs are determined by the maternally provided germ plasm which contains various RNAs and proteins. Here, we identified a germ plasm/PGC-specific microRNA miR-202-5p for the first time in zebrafish...
August 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755153/selection-of-mitochondria-in-female-germline-cells-is-balbiani-body-implicated-in-this-process
#8
REVIEW
Szczepan M Bilinski, Malgorzata Kloc, Waclaw Tworzydlo
Early oocytes of nearly all animal species contain a transient organelle assemblage termed the Balbiani body. Structure and composition of this assemblage may vary even between closely related species. Despite this variability, the Balbiani body always comprises of numerous tightly clustered mitochondria and accumulations of nuage material. It has been suggested that the Balbiani body is an evolutionarily ancestral structure, which plays a role in various processes such as the localization of organelles and macromolecules to the germ plasm, lipidogenesis, as well as the selection/elimination of dysfunctional mitochondria from female germline cells...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708585/the-neglected-avian-hepatotropic-virus-induces-acute-and-chronic-hepatitis-in-ducks-an-alternative-model-for-hepatology
#9
Xumin Ou, Sai Mao, Jingyu Cao, Yunchao Ma, Guangpeng Ma, Anchun Cheng, Mingshu Wang, Dekang Zhu, Shun Chen, Renyong Jia, Mafeng Liu, Kunfeng Sun, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Xiaoyue Chen
Duck Hepatitis A Virus (DHAV) belongs to the Avihepatovirus, which is also classified into Picornaviridae with Hepatovirus, Hepatitis A Virus (HAV). In humans, the pathogenesis of HAV is not well understood because of limited work with animal models. Here, we investigated the progress of duck viral hepatitis caused by DHAV and their potential for dissecting the pathogenesis of HAV. During the course of infection, the duck model had undergone hepatocellular lesions (vacuolation, acidophilic degeneration and steatosis), lymphocytes recruitment (neutrophil granulocytes, heterophilic granulocytes and T cells or plasm cells) and repair (activation of hepatic stellate cells, fibrosis and regeneration)...
July 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660427/cholesterol-bilayer-domains-in-the-eye-lens-health-a-review
#10
Justyna Widomska, Witold K Subczynski, Laxman Mainali, Marija Raguz
The most unique biochemical characteristic of the eye lens fiber cell plasma membrane is its extremely high cholesterol content, the need for which is still unclear. It is evident, however, that the disturbance of Chol homeostasis may result in damages associated with cataracts. Electron paramagnetic resonance methods allow discrimination of two types of lipid domains in model membranes overloaded with Chol, namely, phospholipid-cholesterol domains and pure Chol bilayer domains. These domains are also detected in human lens lipid membranes prepared from the total lipids extracted from lens cortices and nuclei of donors from different age groups...
June 29, 2017: Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655540/cloning-expression-pattern-and-promoter-functional-analysis-of-cyp19a1a-gene-in-miiuy-croaker
#11
Wei Huang, Pan Yang, Zhenming Lv, Changwen Wu, Jianfang Gui, Bao Lou
Gonadal-specific aromatase encoded by cyp19a1a is the important enzyme controlling estrogen biosynthesis in teleosts. In the present study, the cDNA sequence of cyp19a1a was cloned and characterized from miiuy croaker Miichthys miiuy. The cDNA encoded a protein of 519 amino acids with five structural regions. Higher identities of amino acid sequences and conserved structural regions were found between Mmcyp19a1a and other cyp19a1a genes. In addition, Mmcyp19a1a was clustered together with other seawater fishes...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632173/gene-expression-profiling-reveals-potential-players-of-left-right-asymmetry-in-female-chicken-gonads
#12
Zhiyi Wan, Yanan Lu, Lei Rui, Xiaoxue Yu, Fang Yang, Chengfang Tu, Zandong Li
Most female birds develop only a left ovary, whereas males develop bilateral testes. The mechanism underlying this process is still not completely understood. Here, we provide a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of female chicken gonads and identify novel candidate side-biased genes. RNA-Seq analysis was carried out on total RNA harvested from the left and right gonads on embryonic day 6 (E6), E12, and post-hatching day 1 (D1). By comparing the gene expression profiles between the left and right gonads, 347 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were obtained on E6, 3730 were obtained on E12, and 2787 were obtained on D1...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584112/causes-and-evolutionary-consequences-of-primordial-germ-cell-specification-mode-in-metazoans
#13
Carrie A Whittle, Cassandra G Extavour
In animals, primordial germ cells (PGCs) give rise to the germ lines, the cell lineages that produce sperm and eggs. PGCs form in embryogenesis, typically by one of two modes: a likely ancestral mode wherein germ cells are induced during embryogenesis by cell-cell signaling (induction) or a derived mechanism whereby germ cells are specified by using germ plasm-that is, maternally specified germ-line determinants (inheritance). The causes of the shift to germ plasm for PGC specification in some animal clades remain largely unknown, but its repeated convergent evolution raises the question of whether it may result from or confer an innate selective advantage...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536148/the-lotus-domain-is-a-conserved-dead-box-rna-helicase-regulator-essential-for-the-recruitment-of-vasa-to-the-germ-plasm-and-nuage
#14
Mandy Jeske, Christoph W Müller, Anne Ephrussi
DEAD-box RNA helicases play important roles in a wide range of metabolic processes. Regulatory proteins can stimulate or block the activity of DEAD-box helicases. Here, we show that LOTUS (Limkain, Oskar, and Tudor containing proteins 5 and 7) domains present in the germline proteins Oskar, TDRD5 (Tudor domain-containing 5), and TDRD7 bind and stimulate the germline-specific DEAD-box RNA helicase Vasa. Our crystal structure of the LOTUS domain of Oskar in complex with the C-terminal RecA-like domain of Vasa reveals that the LOTUS domain occupies a surface on a DEAD-box helicase not implicated previously in the regulation of the enzyme's activity...
May 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479482/embryonic-expression-of-festina-lente-fel-a-novel-maternal-gene-in-the-oligochaete-annelid-tubifex-tubifex
#15
Takuma Nakamura, Inori Shiomi, Takashi Shimizu
We have cloned and characterized the expression of a novel maternal gene festina lente (designated Ttu-fel) from the clitellate annelid Tubifex tubifex. Northern blot analyses have shown that Ttu-fel mRNA is approximately 8 kbp in length and that its expression is restricted to oocytes undergoing maturation division and early embryos up to 22-cell stage. Maternal transcripts of Ttu-fel are first detected in oocytes in the ovary of young adults (ca. 40 days after hatching); its expression continues in growing oocytes in the ovisac...
November 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397605/xenopus-vasa-homolog-xvlg1-is-essential-for-migration-and-survival-of-primordial-germ-cells
#16
Kazumi Shimaoka, Yoshiko Mukumoto, Yoko Tanigawa, Tohru Komiya
Xenopus vasa-like gene 1 (XVLG1), a DEAD-Box Helicase 4 (DDX4) gene identified as a vertebrate vasa homologue, is required for the formation of primordial germ cells (PGCs). However, it remains to be clarified when and how XVLG1 functions in the formation of the germ cells. To gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying XVLG1 during PGC development, we injected XVLG1 morpholino oligos into germ-plasm containing blastomeres of 32-cell stage of Xenopus embryos, and traced cell fates of the injected blastomere-derived PGCs...
April 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396313/acquired-met-y1248h-and-d1246n-mutations-mediate-resistance-to-met-inhibitors-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#17
Anna Li, Jin-Ji Yang, Xu-Chao Zhang, Zhou Zhang, Jian Su, Lan-Ying Gou, Yu Bai, Qing Zhou, Zhenfan Yang, Han Han-Zhang, Wen-Zhao Zhong, Shannon Chuai, Qi Zhang, Zhi Xie, Hongfei Gao, Huajun Chen, Zhen Wang, Zheng Wang, Xue-Ning Yang, Bin-Chao Wang, Bin Gan, Zhi-Hong Chen, Ben-Yuan Jiang, Si-Pei Wu, Si-Yang Liu, Chong-Rui Xu, Yi-Long Wu
Purpose:MET amplification, responsible for 20% of acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), presents an attractive target. Numerous studies have conferred susceptibility of MET mutations and focal amplification to targeted MET-TKIs. However, the mechanism underlying MET-TKIs-induced resistance remains elusive.Experimental Design: We conducted a cohort of 12 patients with advanced NSCLC who developed resistance to a combinatorial therapy consisting of gefitinib and a type I MET-TKI...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122234/germ-cell-less-promotes-centrosome-segregation-to-induce-germ-cell-formation
#18
Dorothy A Lerit, Conrad W Shebelut, Kristen J Lawlor, Nasser M Rusan, Elizabeth R Gavis, Paul Schedl, Girish Deshpande
The primordial germ cells (PGCs) specified during embryogenesis serve as progenitors to the adult germline stem cells. In Drosophila, the proper specification and formation of PGCs require both centrosomes and germ plasm, which contains the germline determinants. Centrosomes are microtubule (MT)-organizing centers that ensure the faithful segregation of germ plasm into PGCs. To date, mechanisms that modulate centrosome behavior to engineer PGC development have remained elusive. Only one germ plasm component, Germ cell-less (Gcl), is known to play a role in PGC formation...
January 24, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115159/dnd-protein-functions-as-a-translation-repressor-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#19
Manami Kobayashi, Saori Tani-Matsuhana, Yasuka Ohkawa, Hiroshi Sakamoto, Kunio Inoue
Germline and somatic cell distinction is regulated through a combination of microRNA and germ cell-specific RNA-binding proteins in zebrafish. An RNA-binding protein, DND, has been reported to relieve the miR-430-mediated repression of some germ plasm mRNAs such as nanos3 and tdrd7 in primordial germ cells (PGCs). Here, we showed that miR-430-mediated repression is not counteracted by the overexpression of DND protein in somatic cells. Using a λN-box B tethering assay in the embryo, we found that tethering of DND to reporter mRNA results in translation repression without affecting mRNA stability...
March 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087205/elevated-fasting-glucose-and-albuminuria-may-be-a-marker-for-all-cause-mortality-in-indigenous-adults-in-north-queensland-a-follow-up-study-1998-2006
#20
Ming Li, Robyn McDermott
AIMS: To document risk factors of all-cause mortality in a cohort of indigenous Australians from 23 communities of North Queensland during 1998-2006. METHODS: Among 2787 indigenous adults, baseline weight, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, lipids, gamma-glutamyl transferase, urine albumin creatinine ratio, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were measured in 1998-2000. Deaths were ascertained from State Registry of Deaths, hospitalization and clinical records till 2006...
April 2017: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
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